The concentration of extractable cholesterol in Section 4 may result from a large input (Figure 4).
Table 3 presents the concentrations of bound sterols. In Figures 2 and 3, excluding the Section 8 data point, both bound Ócoprostanol/TOC and cholestanol/TOC exhibit a decrease with core depth and no pronounced concentration change between Sections 4 and 5. It appears that bound stanols are not influenced markedly by the enhanced sewage input change. The decreasing trend with depth might be ascribed to assimilation by bacteria and/or chemical decomposition. Lee et al. (1977) studying sterol diagenesis in recent sediments from Buzzards Bay found that extractable sterols decreased in concentration while bound sterols increased in concentration with depth. From this result, they inferred that a transformation between extractable and bound sterols
One might argue that the diﬀerences of contamination level and congener proﬁle in these locations are not attrib- uted to the diﬀerences in locations but rather as the physi- ological behaviors of ﬁsh. Some reasons can explain this question. First, the studied ﬁsh are belonged to the same species and lived in nearby regions that minor diﬀerences of physiological behavior are anticipated. Secondly, the studied regions are either the completely closed ﬁsh farms or the semi-closed harbourandestuary. Thus the mullets were proposed to live in conﬁned regions that their feeding habitat varied insigniﬁcantly as comparing to an open sys- tem. Finally, the other possible diﬀerences due to diﬀerent season are also evaluated in this study. Therefore, the dif- ference of location seems to be the main factor that governs the deviation of contamination level and proﬁle of PCBs inthe ﬁsh.
Because of the relatively large tidal range compared to the depth of the system, the residence time of the main stem estuary was found to be 2.2 days or less. 
The estuarine portion of the river system runs through the capital City of Taipei, with a population of 6 million in its metropolitan area. Huge amounts of domestic wastewater, mostly untreated raw sewage, are discharged into the estu- ary daily. The water quality has been severely degraded for decades. Hypoxic/anoxic conditions commonly occur inthe upper and middle reaches of theestuary during summer months.  Viable biological activities are observed only inthe lowest reach of theestuary where the pollutant concen- trations are reduced as a result of dilution by seawater.  A three-year observational study of the system from 1998 to 2001 conducted by Taiwan’s Academia Sinica reported that the chlorophyll a concentration hardly exceeded 5 mg/m 3 . The primary production rate was on the order of 0.2 g C/m 3 /day. Zooplankton biomass was observed to range from 1 to 14 mg C/m 3 . If the amount of carbon ﬁxed by the phytoplankton species is not transferred to the higher trophic level it is termed as nuisance species. Zooplankton play a pivotal role inthe transfer of carbon from primary producer, such as phytoplankton, to higher consumers, such as ﬁshes. However few studies have been conducted
and around 12 km in width. Emplacement of orogenic sediment of Taiwan occurred as theTaiwan orogen migrated westward towards the stable Chinese margin and transported syn- tectonic sediment to the deep marine under-filled foreland basin offshore SW Taiwan during Late Pliocene and Quaternary. Subsequently, sediments both from the uprising Taiwan orogen and erosion of locally flanking structural highs were progressively in-filled and spilled over these intraslope basins in a generally southward direction. The convergent-baselapping faices usually occurs inthe basal parts of intraslope basins. It is, in turn, succeeded by chaotic facies and then overlain by parallel and draping facies, forming a distinct upward change in seismic facies. The basal convergent-baselapping facies is the most common andthe parallel and drap- ing facies are restricted to slope areas shallower than 1000 m in water depth. The vertical and lateral distributions of seismic facies are interpreted in terms of sedimentary processes of fill- ing the intraslope basins inthe Kaoping Slope. The early confined basal basin-fill stage char- acterized by basal convergent and overlying chaotic facies andthe late unconfined slope progradation and spill over deposition represented by parallel and draping facies. The conclu- sions are preliminary mainly due to concept-oriented nature.
One of the major industries in southern Taiwan is pigfarming along the Kaoping River; some two million animals are being raised along the river banks. Excretions from pigs, treated and untreated, are discharged directly into the river and eventually carried to the sea. Twenty-four surface sediments and one sediment core off southwestern Taiwan were analyzed to determine quantitatively the extent of coprostanol addition and its distribution and to obtain the input of coprostanol over the past. Geographically, the percent coprostanol is highest around the river mouth, and decreases to about 1% at the shelf break and about 0% at a distance of approximately 40 nautical miles (74 km) from the river mouth. The progressive seaward decline of percent coprostanol from the river mouth can be attributed to 
In conclusion, we may say that during Lee’s tenure, Taiwan was heading to the right direction toward the establishment of civilian control over the military.
However, Lee’s tenure also witnessed sharper conflict of identity among Taiwanese political groups. The mounting political rivalry between the KMT andthe DPP reached its peak with the victory of Chen Shui-bian as the president of Taiwan. The military faced a new challenge of placing its loyalty to the new administration. The new ruling party also faced similar challenge in their effort to further strengthen civilian control. The efforts to establish civilian control, an objective one, was further complicated by the quarrel between the KMT and DPP. The rivalry grew stronger with DPP’s failure to gain majority inthe Legislative Yuan. This failure prevented Chen’s government from fully implementing their desired policies in military and defense affairs and any security related issue such as Mainland policy. The KMT and its coalition partner –pan-blue camp– consistently blocked policies taken by the DPP administration to prevent the pan-green from gaining political victory. During the next eight years of Chen Shui-bian presidency Taiwan suffered from persistent political quarrels.
For 3-D barotropic ﬂow, the salt transport equation is uncoupled from the momentum equa- tions. A non-negative bottom friction coefﬁcient is speciﬁed by the Manning–Chezy formula. If the advection terms are treated by an Eulerian–Lagrangian scheme with positive bottom friction, then the numerical scheme is unconditionally stable. For baroclinic ﬂows, the density gradient terms are expressed explicitly inthe momentum equations, andthe solutions for the transport variables lagged by one time step are solved. In this case, the numerical scheme is subject to a weak stability condition due to the explicit treatment of the density gradient terms inthe momentum equations. For stability, the integration time step must be chosen so that the propagation of internal wave must satisfy the Courant–Friedrich–Lewy (CFL) condition. In addition, the numerical scheme is also subject to a weak stability condition due to the explicit treat- ment of the horizontal diffusion inthe momentum equations.
"Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
The metal string complexes with di!erent metal ions and various lengths have been successfully synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal and molecular structure of nonanickel complex [Ni9(l9-(peptea)4Cl2] which is the longest metal string at this moment will be reported. Crystal data for [Ni9(l9-(peptea)4Cl2](C2H4Cl2)10: Space group, monoclinic C 2/c, a"27.0453(6), b"42.6678(5), c"37.4268(6) A s , b"109.539(1)3, <"40702(1) As3, Z"12, RF"12% for the observed re#ections (I'2p(I)). The band structure calculation of in"nite one-dimensional metal chains of Ni II and CrII based on the structure of nonanickel complex will be presented. Finally, the metal string complexes [M IInL4X2] will be chemisorbed on the Ag or Au surface andthe potential application of these complexes as a molecular metal wire will be demonstrated. ( 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
The residence time of an estuary is deﬁned in this study as the average time the initially existing water parcels reside inthe system before they are ﬂushed out. The residence time of the Danshuei River is calculated through a series of numerical experiments using a laterally integrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic eutrophication model (HEM-2D). The results show that the residence time is on the order of 1e2 days under the mean river ﬂow to zero river ﬂow condition, which is very short compared with most time scales of biogeochemical processes. A procedure is developed to quantify individual contribution to ﬂushing by each of the three major physical transport mechanisms: tide, river discharge, andthe density induced circulation. The results indicated that, in general conditions, tidal ﬂushing exerts the greatest inﬂuence to the ﬂushing of the Danshuei River estuary, while the density induced circulation hardly contributes any. Tidal transport contributes more than 50% of the ﬂushing when river discharge is below its long- term mean. The suitability of applying the tidal prism method, the modiﬁed tidal prism methods, andthe fraction of freshwater method in this estuary is also investigated. The relatively short residence time is likely to be one of the limiting factors that result in low phytoplankton biomass in spite of extremely high nutrient concentrations, and causes a signiﬁcant fraction of pollutants to exert their eﬀects inthe coastal waters outside theestuary.
at the upstream boundaries, respectively. These con- ditions would also serve to investigate the model re- sponse to the interaction of tidal forcing and varying river discharge. Figure 4 shows some segments of the model results, together with measured data. It shows that the upriver station (Fig. 4(b)) has much more conspicuous response to pulse of high freshwater dis- charge than the downstream station (Fig. 4(a)). An intensive survey was conducted by theTaiwan Provin- cial Government Water Resources Department on 24 June 1994. Half-hourly measurements of velocity and hourly salinity were made continuously for 13 daylight hours. Figure 5 shows the computed surface elevation and flow discharge in one tidal cycle, together with time series measured data. The comparison shows that the model can faithfully reproduce tidal propagation, tidal flow and river flow. All available velocity data for the Tanshui River system were obtained during only 13 hours in this survey. No time varying residual velocity could be deduced through standard low-pass filtering to discern if two-layer estuarine circulation
Received 20 June 2003; revised 21 February 2004; accepted 2 March 2004; published 29 April 2004.
[ 1 ] A viscoelastic model is developed to simulate the groundwater level changes inthe Cho-Shui River alluvial fan inTaiwan after the Chi-Chi earthquake. An analytical solution is derived with the assumption that no leakage occurred in confined aquifers during the coseismic period. The solution is used to analyze the data collected from a high-density network of hydrologic monitoring wells inthe Cho-Shui River alluvial fan. The simulated groundwater level changes agree with the observations. The viscosity coefficient of the model was found to correlate with the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. The field observations andthe simulations reveal the influence of geological structures and heterogeneity on the groundwater changes and locations of sediment liquefactions inthe alluvial fan during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Possible applications to imaging subsurface hydraulic heterogeneity are discussed using information about groundwater level changes induced by earthquakes. I NDEX T ERMS : 1829 Hydrology: Groundwater hydrology; 1878 Hydrology:
Ages, growth, and hatching dates of grey mullet Mugil cephalus L. juveniles inthe Tanshui estuary of northwest- ern Taiwan were examined, using growth increments in otoliths of fish collected in November 1995 to March 1996 and November 1996 to March 1997. Growth increments are deposited daily, and were used to determine the ages. Juveniles were composed of multiple cohorts, and their sizes ranged between 17 and 39 mm in total length, corresponding to ages of 29 to 67 d after hatching. The growth rate during the estuarine residency was 0.45 mm d -1 . Hatching dates back-calculated from daily ages were from October to February, which range earlier and later than the spawning period from November to January of a previously known migratory population.
Inthe first two decades of the 21 st century, he said, the two sides of theTaiwan Strait should begin crafting a common niche for economic development, thereby fostering an environment conducive to long-term cross-Strait engagement. He added,
“Consultation and promotion of direct transportation links, as well as exchanges on other relevant economic issues, could constitute a first step forward and set the stage for future economic and cultural interaction. This will enable both sides to work together, abiding by the principle of ‘democracy, parity, and peace,’ in an effort to resolve long-term issues through existing foundations and with increasing confidence.” 11 As a matter of fact, President Chen’s suggestion was a positive response to China’s aspiration of the 20-year strategic opportunity period in its 16 th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party held in November 2002.
Five species of larval engraulids, Engraulis japonica Schlegel, Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler, E. heteroloba (Ruppell), Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg, and Thryssa dussumieri (Valenciennes), were found in coastal waters off the Tanshui River Estuary, northern Taiwan during the period from May 1992 through November 1993. Their sizes ranged between 8 and 46 mm SL. Comparing the meristics, morphometrics, and pigmentations of the 5 species, we found pigment patterns on the ventral side of the larvae that can be used as a key character to discriminate these species.