56 This is also called the ‘power maximization’ assumption: “International politics, like all poli- tics, is a struggle for power. Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics, power is al- ways the immediate aim.” 57
Conversely, Kenneth Waltz argues that states seek their own preservation at a minimum and at a maximum, drive for universal domination in a condition where two or more states co-exist. Bal- ance of power politics thus prevail whenever two requirements are met: “that the order is anar- chic and that it be populated by units wishing to survive.” 58 Waltz’s balance of power theory derives from the structure of anarchy, as the author assumes that states wish to survive as auton- omous entities, rather than maximize their power. Waltz does not appeal to internationally ac- cepted rules of the game, state rationality, or elite farsightedness. Kenneth Waltz argues fur- thermore that the attribution of behavioral patterns to motives and domestic or economic sys- tems is unnecessary and irrelevant. To justify this, he invokes the analogy of freely formed eco- nomic markets.
order of illumination and participation. 36 This ecumenical modulation is a fertile ground for cultural nationalism.
Taiwan is located at the periphery in this world-picture. However, its peripheral position raises the fundamental issue of China's boundaries, an issue that was less important in the traditional dynastic period but is vital for the modern nation-state. 37 In the Chinese historical self-understanding, Taiwan is the last remaining piece of unredeemed Chinese territory, and will one day be recovered, as Hong Kong and Macau have been. In Chi- nese eyes, Taiwan's current autonomous status is the result firstly of Japanese colonialism, and secondly of American imperialism, which has sought to invade or "check" China. Consequently, Beijing must effectively block any relationship that implies the recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign state, because this will be a reiteration of the imperialist intervention in the Chinese domestic affairs.
With the collapse of the KMT government on the Chinese mainland and the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the KMT government reorganized on the island of Taiwan. Martial law was imposed through the mid- 1980s and overrode the constitutionally mandated IR system that had been enacted earlier. The requirements of national security and political stability replaced the IR system with a program called National Mobilization for the Suppression of the Communist Rebellion. Protests by the labor force were considered a hindrance to economic development; an approach often adopted by newly industrialized countries (NICS) (Chen, 1994). Both union leaders and management deferred to the KMT government. Industrial disputes were typi- cally settled through compulsory, government managed, arbitration. 2 National labor unions, in which membership was compulsory, were a transmission belt used by the government and employers to mobilize worker commitment to boost industrial production and to ensure the dedication of the military, public servants, and teachers. 3 The labor unions provided workers in the large public sector with a high degree of job security, but no rights to independent organization for arbitration. The government adopted fringe benefit measures during the early years of martial law to ward off pressure from the labor force for subsistence support. Taiwan’s economic and industrial growth brought with it a higher industrial accident rate and necessitated increasing employment relations jurisprudence and the standardization of labor protection.
The Radical Change in the Political Environment of Taiwan
In addition to its changing role vis-`a-vis the semiconductor industry, the gov- ernment itself experienced a radical political change in 2000 and 2001. In the March 2000 elections, Taiwan’s DPP candidate Chen Shui-bian won the presidency. As Y. S. Wu has pointed out, although this was a milestone in Taiwan’s political development, ending more than 50 years of Kuomintang rule, Taiwan was suddenly caught up in unprecedented conflict between the new president and the KMT-dominated Legislative Yuan (Congress). 6 Local political uncertainty and the global economic repression, as well as the DPP’s pro-environment and pro-welfare policies, put Taiwan’s economy into a de- pression. In addition, President Chen and his KMT opponents collided over the issue of what is called the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant. 7 The decision to stop continual nuclear plant construction damaged Taiwan’s international credibility for long-term construction contracts. Domestic investors not only worried about the new government’s commitment to economic development, but also feared sharp rises in electricity prices and power shortages. Chen’s first premier, Tan Fei, resigned under great pressure, after a four-month term.
The automobile industry is a comprehensive industry that combines both high technique intensive and additional value. In addition, the production scale of the automobile manufacturing industry must produce quite amount quantity so that can reach the economic scale for even. In fact, demands in Taiwan are limited due to the domestic market, plus there are relatively amount of small to median-sized enterprise of automobile manufactory; therefore, it would be tough to compete with other foreign outsized enterprises.
The Republic of China (Taiwan) government announced the “open sky” policy in 1987; since then, the figure of the airline company has increased dramatically. Because of the serious market competition, some local airlines cannot operate well and choose to merge or acquisition in order to maintain current operation in succession. After Mainland China's economic development, market demand enhance hugely. In order for Chinese to promote the competitiveness of their airlines, Chinese airline transport business relies mainly on three major groups and merges other relevant small companies simultaneously. How to improve the business efficiency and cooperate with economic development has become the primary subject needs to be faced among all airlines acrosstheTaiwanStrait. This research aims at analyzing the business efficiency between acrossstrait two nations by using the Data
limited measures such as domestic public opinion (especially elections) and diplomatic relations (especially the U.S. involvement) to leverage China. 15 Most notably, reaching a minimum political solution may
“spill back” to the economic realm and cause the relations there to deteriorate. The sovereignty dispute and military buildup in the cross- Strait dynamics will remain unresolved uncertainties. Taiwan’s former President Lee Teng-hui’s “Southward Policy” and the Green camp’s opposition to President Ma Ying-jeou’s ECFA are both based on the acceptance of the integrationist theme, but look differently at the negative effects. Since China holds more dreams of political unification with an ongoing military buildup, the Ma administration desires more economic benefits to consolidate his approach toward China. By the same token, Beijing is so far tolerating the pace of cross-Strait en- gagement and seems confident that over time the unification position will strengthen. China’s preferred solution is to persuade the Taiwanese government (especially the Kuomintang administration) to rejoin China in some form by giving carrots but carrying an enormous stick. More observation may be required as to the extent to which Chinese leaders may determine that even the Kuomintang leader is unable to deliver any of what Beijing is seeking and may therefore lose patience. 16
In 2000, the ZJHP’s industrial earnings were over 53.38 billion RMB. This clustering effect has been especially successful for biotech/pharmaceutical and IC industries.
3.2. Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park: an overview Established in December 1980 to engage high-tech enterprises, develop brand new technological industries, and improve current industrial technologies, the HSIP is located in Hsinchu, Taiwan, stretching over both Hsinchu City and Hsinchu County. Several competent actors support the HSIP: The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), National Chaio Tung University (NCTU), National Tsing Hua University (NTHU), and three national labora- tories. The HSIP was the first high-tech industry develop- ment center in Taiwan. This park has achieved a remarkable worldwide reputation. Entirely government oriented, this park was developed using public land, publicly funded infrastructure facilities, efficiently supported one-stop service, automated customs services, on-the-job training, a domestic and international network, investment incentives and benefits. 1 The following industries have been developed and are flourishing: IC, computers and peripherals, telecommunications, opto-electronics, precision machinery, and biotech. With more than US $ 912 million invested by
promulgated the so-called anti-session law on March 14. The law provoked strong negative reaction of the Taiwanese people and thus the Taiwanese government did not respond to Chinese proposals.
Three months later after the promulgation of the anti-session law, on June 13, the Taiwanese government appointed the TAA to contact its Chinese counterpart and arrange talks over cargo charter flights between Taiwan and China, and named theTaiwan External Trade Development Council to arrange talks over Taiwan’s exports of fruit to China. On August 2, the Taiwanese government further authorized Taiwan’s Travel Agent Association to negotiate with its Chinese counterpart over China’s tourists to Taiwan. Parenthetically, Taiwan referred to the Macau model for the negotiation of all the three issues and China showed no opposition. Despite Taiwan put priority on the negotiation of cargo charter flights acrosstheTaiwanStrait, on August 4, Taiwan agreed to open talks with China simultaneously on cargo and passenger charter flights due to China’s insistence.
1. To Taiwan (in opposition of independence): The U.S. does not support Taiwan’s entry to the UN; the U.S. opposes the “UN Entry Referendum”. The U.S. believes the referendum to be Taiwan’s first step in declaring independence and will lead to change of status quo acrosstheTaiwanStrait; the referendum goes against President Chen’s promise not to change Taiwan’s national name.
factors in the two-factor model were highly correlated for each group, suggesting that the ‘‘pres- ent’’ and ‘‘past’’ factors could not be diﬀerentiated among these groups and one factor is en- ough to explain the SWLS structure among undergraduate students in Taiwan. However, this ﬁnding was not consistent with Lu’s (2001) study, in which undergraduate students mentioned a time-oriented perspective of SWB. We think this inconsistent ﬁnding may result from the dif- ferent task in the current study and Lu’s (2001) study. In her study, students were asked to pro- vide a personal deﬁnition of SWB. But in this study, students were asked to rate their SWB on the SWLS. We think that although students have a time-oriented perspective of SWB, it may not have a great impact for them in SWB evaluation, because students’ life experiences are rel- atively stable. Thus, the past and present SWB did not represent dramatically diﬀerent meanings of SWB. However, we did not exclude the possibility that the two-factor model with ‘‘present’’
The participants in this study were youths surveyed through a street outreach program that was conducted in collaboration with the Taipei Eastern Youth Service Center. Each outreach team consisted of 2 or 3 interviewers who were either experienced social workers or trained research assistants. Over the period from March to October 2002, the outreach teams worked from 4:00 pm to 10:00 pm each day at city sites where youths were known to congregate, such as after-hour school campus, parks, internet cafe´s, and downtown areas (e.g., fast food restaurants, Mass Rapid Transportation stations), across over all four major areas of Taipei. Interviewers would look for youths at the sites and contact those who appeared to be 12 to 18 years old, with an eye to those appeared to be wandering on the street. The interviewers would assure the youths that the survey was anonymous and confidential, and then accompanied the person to a more private place to sign an informed consent with first name or nickname only and undertake a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics, the history of psychoactive substances involvement, as well as the experiences of truancy and sexual behavior. Of the 2412 adolescents surveyed on the street, 285 (12%) were excluded from subsequent analyses because their ages did not meet the criterion or their essential data were not available. The final sample size was 2126. The study was conducted under institutional review board approval at College of Public Health, National Taiwan University.
and the Americans believe that Taipei is too indecisive and unrealistic.
Taipei's underestimate of the dangerous Strait is associated with its confidence in possessing a U.S. deterrent in a possible crisis. This brings us to a debatable issue as to whether Washington must clarify its position in order to avoid a military conflict. Nancy Tucker, however, argues in the last chapter that Washington should maintain its traditional policy of strategic ambiguity. Her major reason is that no one can predict all possible contingencies, and that by attempting to define what the United States will do under specific circumstances, policymakers will encourage probing and limit their options in a complex crisis. Since American domestic politics, as much as circumstances in theStrait, will determine Washington's reac- tion to the crisis, no president will want to be constrained by decisions made in the past. Similarly, the U.S. military establishment will want to be free to utilize force in the national interest during a possible war.
(S-YY) Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, P.O. Box 23-13, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (email@example.com)
A B S T R A C T
Sequence analyses on the intron from the elongation factor-1a gene were conducted to examine the population structure of sword prawn (Parapenaeopsis hardwickii) in the East China Sea and TaiwanStrait. Five samples including 207 individuals were separately collected from the north of East China Sea (NECS) and waters off Tamsui, Taichung, Putai, and Cheding, and 102 alleles were identified. Despite no phylogeographic structure in alleles, pairwise F ST values and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed significant genetic difference between the NECS and the other four samples. The UPGMA tree of five samples showed two distinct clusters; one included the NECS sample; the other included the rest of samples. The results suggest that two populations exist in the East China Sea and TaiwanStrait. To ensure resource sustainability and maintenance, the sword prawn in theTaiwanStrait and the north of the East China Sea should be treated as two separate populations and then be separately managed in future. Both Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s D statistics and analysis of mismatch distribution for overall alleles suggested that sword prawn in studied area had experienced population expansion.
(Accepted April 30, 2008)
Yu-San Han, Ya-Ting Chang, Horst Taraschewski, Su-Ling Chang, Che-Chun Chen, and Wann-Nian Tzeng (2008) The swimbladder parasite Anguillicola crassus in native Japanese eels and exotic American eels in Taiwan. Zoological Studies 47(6): 667-675. To understand differences in infection patterns of the swimbladder parasite Anguillicola crassus between habitats and eel species in Taiwan, the prevalence and intensity of the parasite were examined based on specimens collected from wild and cultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and from exotic cultured American eel A. rostrata in the Kaoping River and culture ponds in southwestern Taiwan in 2006-2007. The prevalence of Aco. crassus in wild Japanese eels was lower in winter compared with summer/autumn, varying 33%-58%, with a mean intensity of 1.5-4.4. The prevalence and intensity were size- dependent and increased with eel size. In cultured Japanese eels, the prevalence and mean intensity varied greatly at 3%-68% and 1.0-29.0, respectively. In cultured American eels, the prevalence and intensity were very high in ponds without drug treatment. In contrast to wild eels, the mean intensity of larval and adult worms showed a size-dependent decreasing trend in cultured eels. The mean body mass of Aco. crassus in American eels was significantly larger than that in Japanese eels. The external morphology, condition factor, and hepatosomatic index showed no significant differences between infected and uninfected groups, indicating a low pathogenic effect of Aco. crassus on these 2 eel hosts. Our results showed that both native Japanese eels and naive American eels are highly susceptible to Aco. crassus, but it causes little pathogenicity under good pond management. http://zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw/Journals/47.6/667.pdf
285 North Pacific are structured into only two independent
genetic units of the SCS and pan-ECS.
Marine fishes are expected generally to exhibit little intra-specific genetic structuring among geographic regions, because oceans often lack effective physical barriers. However, for hairtails in the western North Pacific, a growing number of studies indicated that marine fishes also have a substantial amount of population structuring in marginal seas. Molecular genetic surveys have found evidence of cryptic population structuring in many coastal and neritic species caused by the limited dispersal capacity of fish larvae (Swearer et al. 2002). Knutsen et al. (2003) found that the genetic structure of Atlantic cod was due to limited passive transport of eggs and early larvae across marine boundaries. Even the highly migratory mackerel (Scomber scombrus) was found to exhibit genetic structuring due to its homing behavior (Zardoya et al. 2004). Both reasons could explain sub-structuring of the hairtails in the western North Pacific.
instrument Fujian can unilaterally implement is to facilitate bilateral trade and investment.
Other trade and investment preferential treatments are restricted under World Trade Organization rules.
In the foreseeable future, Fujian can hardly compete with the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta in the manufacturing industry due to its limitations on market size and transportation convenience. Particularly, Taiwan’s investment of electronics and electrical appliances in China makes up over 40% of Taiwan’s total investment in China and these industries display strong cluster tendencies. It is unlikely Fujian’s unilateral preferential treatment will reverse the long-term trend of Taiwan businesspeople expanding investment in the Yangtze River Delta and around the Bohai Area. At most Fujian’s preferential measures could slow the speed at which Taiwanese companies move north.
Six American eels Anguilla rostrata were identified in the Kaoping River of south-western Taiwan by sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mtCyt-b). This was the first record of an exotic eel species in the natural waters of Taiwan. The exotic eels may have been imported from North America at the elver stage for aquaculture and escaped from culture ponds. 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.