One particularity is the influx of thousands ofinternational students who come to Taiwan every year to fulfill their desires and needs for better education, language acquisition or exchange programs. This study aims to investigate the effects that the universities’
culture, knowledgesharing and knowledgecreationinthe learning institutions have onthecommitmentofinternational students in Taiwanese universities. The results ofthe study indicate that universities’ cultures have a positive significant effectontheknowledgesharinginthe learning institutions, the most influential factor ofculture is a cultural strength, showing that students care mostly about how well defined and strong are the shared values and beliefs intheuniversity. Knowledgesharing also has a positive effectonknowledgecreationin Taiwanese universities. Knowledgecreation has a positive direct effectonthecommitmentofinternational students in Taiwanese universities. The study also found that normative commitment is the less relevant factor ofcommitment for international students inTaiwan.
We live inthe era of globalization, an era where a call can be made from Asia and received in Africa at virtually no cost thanks to the internet and advances in telecommunications. An era where markets have merged and have become more aggressive, and where companies, in order to stay competitive, try to hire the most qualified employees from all across the globe. Due to this new trend, companies must provide their employees with conditions that allow them to achieve their full capabilities in order to be more profitable. Nevertheless, this creates issues, since there are so many different options when picking a strategy to obtain innovation and optimal business performance, with so many factors that may influence the results. Thus, this study examined and analyzed the effects of organizational trust, knowledgesharing, and knowledgecreationon innovation and business performance of Taiwanese high technology company employees. A quantitative study was implemented and statistical analysis tested the relationship of said variables. The study used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Partial Least Squares (PLS), as tools to analyze the collected data, this study includes the descriptive statistics, path coefficients, coefficient of determination (R 2 ), bootstrapping, t-value, Composite Reliability results, Cronbach’s Alpha, correlation, average variance extracted (AVE), Standardized Root Mean Square Residual, Fornell-Larcker Criterion and Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio. The data for this study was collected from employees of high technology companies inTaiwan. The results of this study showed that there is a strong and positive significant relationship between organizational trust and knowledgesharing, organizational trust and knowledgecreation, , knowledgecreation and knowledgesharing, knowledgecreation and innovation, innovation and business performance, a weak correlation between organizational trust and business performance and finally with regards to knowledgesharing and innovation, the results showed that there was not a significant correlation between the two variables, this was explained because in order to protect their confidentiality, departments don’t usually share their information with others unless strictly required and get their innovation process trough knowledgecreation.
experimentation; and (4) transfer & integrate. According to Jerez-Gomez et al., (2005),
“Managerial commitment” refers that managers recognize the relevance of learning for organizational success and they create a culture that reinforces the acquisition, creation, and transfer ofknowledge as fundamental values. “System perspective” involves bringing the organization’s members together around a common identity and firm should have a clear view ofthe organization’s goals. “Openness and Experimentation refers as the extent of relationships with the external environment and a climate of openness that encourages the new ideas and points of views. “Knowledge transfer and integration” refers to the efficacy of absorptive capacity implying the lack of internal barriers that inhibit the transfer of best practices within the firm. Those factors are illustrated inthe figure 2.3 of this section. In Figure 2.3, here shows the organizational learning capability model, scaling 15 items based on a one to five (from strongly disagree to strongly agree).
Taiwan as well as many other countries are moving towards globalization it is important for universities to consider the satisfaction motivation and adaptation of their students.
In a collectivist society as Taiwan, collaboration should be promoted not only among locals, but also among all cultures and it should be rewarded over competitiveness and individualism. The learning experience should be transformed from a passive knowledge growth to one that highlights more active, reflective and collaborative knowledge exploration among all students. More university and faculty orientations should be designed specifically for international students especially for newcomers and should include information about services available on campus and explanation of benefits of using them. More student services should be administered in English as the population ofthe study the majority has poor Chinese level, library services, dormitory, and other school facilities could improve this aspect. Tangibles had the lowest score for academic satisfaction hence some ofthe educational facilities could be improved as well.
In today’s global business, competition is fierce and is gaining momentum across frontiers, and organisations are working hard to keep performance steady and sustainable. The phenomenon of organisation performance is not peculiar inthe management science researches, as such numerous studies has been conducted on it. However, measuring it was considered a difficult task inthe sense it entails critical and salient dimensions that sometimes makes it hard to measure. Therefore, it’s multidimensional. Notwithstanding the magnitude of study on organisational performance, focus on sub-Saharan countries, especially inThe Gambia has limited literatures. This study aims to examine theeffectof motivation, knowledgecreation process, knowledgesharing, and innovation onThe Gambia Telecom and Cellular Company’s performance. It is important to note that this study is non-comparative instead treating the two companies as one based on their commonalities both in terms of management practices and operation mode. Most importantly, for easy access to diverse employees for convenient data collection, thus help present justifiable and reasonable results. The research approach was typically quantitative and Partial Least Squares (PLS) was purely used to analyse the obtained data, with a total of 206 valid participants who completed online questionnaires. The participants of this study included employees of both (Gamtel/Gamcel), which excluded auxiliary staff, contract staff and trainees. The results reveal that both motiving factors has a positive and significant effectonknowledgesharing. Likewise, knowledgesharing and innovation has positive and significant effecton organizational performance. Onthe other hand, knowledgecreation process has a weak effectonknowledgesharing thus the null hypothesis for this relationship was accepted.
With the advent ofknowledge economy, knowledge has become one ofthe most important assets for modern enterprises. Consequently, implementation oftheknowledge management system is a key success to businesses. It is believed that a company who keeps up knowledgecreation can continuously maintain competitive advantages. Therefore, adoption of a knowledgecreation mode would highly influence the ability ofknowledgecreation. To be a remarkable creative organization, it has been seen that the characteristics of organizational culture could have impact on a knowledgecreation mode and knowledgecreation performance. However, the question of how a company considers the characteristics of organization culturein order to appropriately adopt a knowledgecreation mode becomes critical to knowledgecreation performance. In consequence, this research conducted an empirical investigation for the relationships among organizational culture, knowledgecreation modes, and knowledgecreation performance.
Although Taiwan isn’t located at the core of financial tsunami, but many company have bought Lehman Brother and other company’s structured note. Therefore, financial institution and its clients were influenced InTaiwan, financial industry may effectTaiwan’s economic. InTaiwan, financial industry is very important. They are many industry rely on financial institution to survive. Financial industry is the engine for economic growth hence if we have financial crisis it will have huge impact to other industries. There are three major genres for global financial crisis. First, it’s all about human frailty. But there’s a whole world of explanations that it’s the predatory instincts. The delusion of investors and the greed and all the rest of it. The second genre is that there are institutional failures. Regulators were asleep at the switch. We look at the institutional level and say that has failed and that has to be reconfigured. The third genre is to say, everybody was obsessed with a false theory. They read too much Hayek and believe inthe efficiency of markets. And it’s time we actually got back to something like Keynes. Or we took seriously Hyman Minski’s theory about the inherent instability of financial activities. Out of this comes a theory which is very, very important that Capitalism never solves its crisis problems. It moves them around geographically and what we’re seeing right now is a geographical movement of that. In order to fully explore the global financial crisis. A KMS system influence model was build in this study.
Furthermore, strong leadership support and reward system can be very instrumental in motivating UniversityofThe Gambia’s staff towards the practice ofknowledgesharing. In other words, they are great influencers of organizational knowledgesharing. Therefore, paving the way for organizational knowledgesharing should be initiated and supported by the leadership. Meaning that every facility, equipment and resources that are vital and facilitate knowledgesharing process should be readily provided by the management. Inthe same vein, the leadership’s inclination and overall behavior towards the practice ofknowledgesharinginUniversityofThe Gambia serve as great determinants and rudiments towards its success. If their attitude is that of a positive one towards knowledgesharing, then all their subordinates will certainly cultivate and follow that particular path. In addition, rewards, be it remuneration or recognition or monetary or non- monetary can greatly influence and motivate the staff towards knowledgesharing practices. When staff are well paid, and their efforts are well recognized and appreciated, they are self-motivated to share their knowledge. A conducive knowledgesharing environment has a supportive and effective rewards system that it is linked to. To conclude, monetary and non-monetary rewards are both vital for a prosperous knowledgesharing practices. However, UniversityofThe Gambia’s management should be aware of collaboration and best practices ofsharing as well as be considerate while trying to design a vibrant reward system.
The independent variable, the strength of ‘social tie’, was measured using the Brown and Konrad (2001) questionnaire on Granovetter’s (1974) four dimensions. The four dimensions are ‘Frequency of contact’, ‘Emotional intensity’, ‘Intimacy’ and ‘Reciprocal services’. Some questions were modified to simplify the questionnaire. The respondents were asked to consider only the colleagues with whom they cooperate within a recent project. ‘Frequency of contact’ expresses how often a respondent talks to his/her co-workers. The response categories were as follows: 1 = less than once a day, 2 = once a day, 3 = several times a day but less than once an hour, 4 = once an hour, and 5 = more than once an hour. ‘Emotional intensity’ indicates how long a respondent has known his/her co-workers. The response categories were as follows: 1 = less than 1 year, 2 = 1–3 years, 3 = 3–5 years, 4 = 5–10 years, 5 = more than 10 years. Moreover, ‘Intimacy’ was measured by a five-interval scale to evaluate participants’ perception of whether he/she feels comfortable discussing with his/her co-workers. A score of ‘5’ indicated that the respondents feel ‘very comfortable’ and a score of ‘1’ indicated ‘very uncomfortable’.
sector agencies throughout the country. Therefore, sample’s representativeness is a notable concern of this study. A study with more national coverage could reveal more disparities in various regions and the sector is encouraged for future research.
Secondly, the population empirically studied were public-sector employees. Therefore, inthe process of applying the results ofthe study to other kinds of occupational employees, care should be taken. Also, beware that the employees of those public agencies are full-time working professionals. Collecting data of employees from different contexts and categories can increase the generalizability ofthe research model of this study. Thirdly, this study measured attitudes to KS instead ofthe actual behavior to KS. Various studies have presented that behavior to KS and attitude to KS are different to some degree. Additionally, the affective commitment items in OC were used instead of all three components in OC. Finally, by means of survey method, this study is also limited for cross sectional design which implies that the population under study is obtained and analyzed from a representative subset. This technique undermines the changing patterns ofthe population across time which would could not represent the relationship between independent and dependent variables accurately.
From the aspect of social network centralities, no matter how much does the degree centrality, closeness centrality, or betweenness centrality, as the members with higher centrality they play central positions inthe network. They can also be regarded as the experts ofknowledge contributors, and hold most knowledge resources. However, they only occupy a small number of all members. Thus, forum operators are suggested to keep those experts as lifelong members in varied ways as long as they are willing to share knowledgeinthe network, for instance, to design a reward mechanism to encourage them spending more time onknowledgesharing and problem solving, to promote their membership, and to accumulate their prestige value. Furthermore, forum operators can establish a recommendation system to have knowledge seekers quickly locate an expert whom is familiar with their problems and can provide solutions to the problems effectively. The experts can feel of being needed, and may speed up the response time for knowledge seekers in any interaction opportunities intheknowledge forums.
In relation to the support from top management, the mean score for TM3 which indicated that top management provides rewards in efforts of building a knowledgesharingculture (M=3.21) was the lowest. Goodman and Darr (1998) study indentified rewards as an important element in fostering a knowledgesharingculture. With that said, management may need to consider providing adequate rewards in order to developing such a culture. This may indicate how much top management values knowledgesharing. When it comes to organization structure, two items OS1 and OS4 had the lowest mean scores. Therefore in order to increase the flexibility ofthe organization structure, management may consider addressing issues related to delegation of power and employee participation in decision making. Management may also encourage horizontal communication among members in organization units/ departments as a way to improve employees’ perceptions of organization structure’s flexibility.
Taiwan auto components which have their advantage of producing small quantity but diversity and flexible have developed for an half of century inTaiwan auto industrial history and become the Asia supply center of auto parts now. Drucker(1993) suggested that inknowledge economy society,the basic economy resources do not lie in capital,land or labor skills but knowledge itself.Davenport and Prusak(1998)argued that only knowledge market be established on mutual trust could it convey knowledge
In this study, we explore the effects of IC, experi- ence and their interaction on wealth creation using a sample of non-equity involved ISAs. Previous stud- ies onthe issue of inter-ﬁrm experiential learning have focused largely on joint ventures, and results are mixed. 1 Instead of joint ventures, we have chosen non- equity, contractual ISAs as the sample since without equity investment, contractual alliances are likely to involve greater risks and uncertainty than joint ven- tures. Equity investment in joint ventures functions to align mutual interests among partners . It also provides hierarchical controls which simplify the de- cision making process and make the alliance process more predictable . In contrast, without equity par- ticipation, contractual alliances have to rely more on cooperative know-how to cope with collaboration dif- ﬁculties. Since IC and experience are expected to be more important when the transactions involve greater risks and uncertainty, we believe theinﬂuence of IC and experience will be stronger in non-equity alliances than in joint ventures. For similar reasons, we selected international alliances rather than domestic alliances as the sample to test our hypotheses. Cross-border cooperations are far more complex than domestic ones because ofthe greater diversity and variation in
5 Conclusions and Suggestions
This study discovered the background factors of technology universities students, such as: gender, educational system, department, using technology, social relationship, family relationship and awareness of health; besides the age, revealing the significant differences on scale contents ofknowledgesharingof health technology. Then the model ofknowledgesharing structure of health technology for university students had a good suitably fit through structural equation modeling (SEM). The hypotheses derived from literature review were proved just as TPB had conform. It meant that thesharing attitude had a positive correlation toward behavioral intention;
To rectify the situation, in 2002, the Bureau of Pharmaceutical Affairs, Department of Health ofTaiwan, began to sponsor a national effort, titled Community Education Program on Medication Use, to involve the expertise of pharmacists in public education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of this education program by analyzing the changes inknowledgeof drug therapy among the participating public.
Technical knowledge capability emphasizes knowledge integration in an organization through the capability that the information infrastructure provides for knowledgesharing – that is, the more technical knowledge organizations own, the more their members tend to share knowledge. In addi- tion, structural knowledge capability emphasizes the development of a mechanism including orga- nizational regulation and an incentive system. Reward, compensation, promotion, and prizes are among the incentive systems which can encourage individuals to contribute their professional knowledge to the organization. The organizational regulation is composed of a subjective norm, political directives, and a procedure design that are common ordinances to foster knowledge shar- ing behavior within the firm’s members. A good structural knowledge capability increases the indi- vidual’s motivation for knowledgesharing. Beyond identified effects, human knowledge capability concentrates on establishing positive relationships and a good social network for effective knowl- edge sharing. Quality relationships can improve the trust among a firm’s members and further pro- mote the members’ attitude to and intention ofknowledgesharingin an organization.