Keywords: leadership, projectperformance, teamwork, SEM (Structural Equation Modeling), stakeholder satisfaction
In the highly competitive construction industry, top companies are constantly searching for proven practices that offer a com- petitive advantage. These companies generally avoid practices that do not provide proven added value. Several studies have shown that the role ofaprojectmanager is critical to project success. Green (2005) showed that an effective project leader is good at managing relationships across organizational functions and boundaries to break through organization inertia and bu- reaucracy. Sauer (1993) suggested that non-technical factors such as management, organization, and culture are associated with project success. Prior studies have shown that managing relationships is critical to project success (Acharya et al., 2006a;
This study attempts to fill this void of empirical evidence by identifying the associations between leadershipstyle, teamwork, and project success. The purpose of this research is three-fold. The first objective of this study was to investigate theeffectoftheprojectmanager'sleadershipstyleon teamwork. The second objective was to assess the impact of teamwork onproject success. The third objective was to examine the moderating role ofproject type in the relationship between teamwork and projectperformance. Moderating variable is a second independent variable that is included because it is believed to have a significant contributory or contingent effectonthe originally stated independent variable–dependent variable relationship (Cooper and Schindler, 2008). The research attempts to determine whether project type would moderate the relationship between teamwork and project success. In other words, the analysis shows the relationship between teamwork and project success for different types of projects. Additionally, the analyses oftheprojectmanager'sleadershipstyle and relationships with teamwork and projectperformance are based on an industry-wide survey performed between May and August 2008. A data collection tool was developed to assess theprojectmanager'sleadershipstyle, teamwork, and theperformanceof projects in the Taiwanese construction industry.
Incorporations and organizations nowadays are executing more and more projects because ofthe intense competition resulting from globalization. Aproject in a company organizes a crucial team to solve some specific issues. Theprojectmanager is the key figure in such teamwork, and theleadershipofprojectmanager and the culture of organization all matter when it comes to theprojectperformance This study aims to investigate the correlations among theleadershipofprojectmanager, the culture of organization and theperformanceofproject. We look into whether the leading styleofprojectmanager imposes significant influence ontheprojectperformance and whether the culture of organization interferes with the leading behavior ofprojectmanager and theperformance. The study is targeted at those who have participated in projects. Questionnaires are utilized for this study purpose, with 313 distributed and 260 of effective ones collected. The results are listed as follows. Paternalistic, benevolent, and moral leading styles present an eminent positive relationship with theprojectperformance, while authoritative leadership reveals an obvious negative relationship with theprojectperformance. Only the bureaucratic culture of organization causes interference onthe relationship between paternalistic leadership and projectperformance.
Wu, M. C. (2000). Hotel Management. Taipei City, Taiwan: Yang Chi Culture.
Yang, J. I., & Wan, C. S. (2000). The internet marketing of hotels in Taiwan. The First Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Conference. Taipei, Taiwan.
Dr. Tain-Fung Wu is currently a Professor of Business Administration at Asia University. Professor Wu holds a Master of Industrial Science from Truman University, and a Ph. D. in PAVTE from the University of Missouri-Columbia, USA. He undertakes research, teaching and consultancy relating to Human Resource Management and Operation Management, especially in Industrial Competitiveness Analysis, and has published many papers in this field. In his career, Professor Wu received a National Outstanding Youth Award (ROC), a Teaching Excellence Award, and research grants from National Science Council. Professor Wu has published more than 150 articles and contributed to various international conferences. His current research interests include human resource management, technical/vocational training, operational management, strategic management, and competitive advantage.
上傳時間: 2010-06-10T03:53:20Z 出版者: Asia University
摘要: This study was aimed at analyzing the cognition and the relationship between managers’ leadership styles and employees’ organizational commitment in the operation unit of international tourist hotels. In order to meet the features of this industry, both the theories, “situational leadership” by Hersey & Blanchard and “organizational commitment” by Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulian serve as the basis of this study. From the former theory, how subordinate managers prepare for the task becomes a situational factor. Task and relationship develop as structural sides of situational leadership. In this way, managers’ leadership styles can be sorted into the following four types: selling (persuasion), telling (command), participating and delegating (empowerment). In the latter theory, “value,” “effort,” and “retention” make up the main parts to be studied. The international tourist hotels involved in this study consisted of 58 state-qualified hotels which were evaluated and granted
Today firms usually are situated in a high intensity of competitive and limited environment; hence theproject is the very activity for the special needs. As well known, project is inherent with various levels of uncertainty and risk. To monitor and control projectperformance, Pajares and Lopez-Paredes (2010) combined Earned Value Management and the concept of risks analysis and presented two indexes, called Cost Control Index and the Schedule Control Index, to provide an early warning when project execution variance exceeds the allocated buffer size at any period proposed by them. However, the allocated buffer size may be too larger or less to lead in an excess or shortage. Hence, this study proposes an index, called Optimal Control Index, to adjust the buffer size based onproject execution variance. Finally the study uses a simple example to illustrate.
Project Management is the most commonly used method for the industry to compete in the ever-changing market. The competency oftheprojectmanager is the key factor to the success oftheproject. This study aims to explore the essence ofprojectmanager core competency in construction industry, and has developed a total of 13 core competency measurement indicators upon referring to relevant project management literature. These 13 indicators are found to fall under four major perspectives, including “professional knowledge and experience”, “management skill”, “interpersonal relationship “, and “system integration skill”. This study uses analytic hierarchy process to analyze and has found the importance ranking and relative weights for all measurement indicators.
In other words, the influence of customer knowledge storage onproject delivery performance, for projects with a higher level of data complexity, is more than the same effect in the case of projects with a lower level of data complexity. It is also clear that projects with a high level of data complexity are more likely to be successful in training and education performance when they experience a high level of knowledge sharing than projects with a low level of data complexity. Projects with a high level of data complexity may involve more complicated tasks, uncertainty, and high risk. This type ofproject usually involves diverse and complex information and knowledge. It is not easy to manage the knowledge for projects with high complexity and uncertainty. However, knowledge storage and sharing is important to incorporate all the key knowledge and to integrate the complicated tasks which are influential onprojectperformance. In addition, knowledge storage and sharing may produce associations that create bridges between entities within aproject. It is also a key to team communication and an essential element for integrating knowledge from different sources. These may be the reasons why knowledge storage and sharing is more closely associated with projectperformance for projects with a high level of data complexity. Onthe other hand, projects with a low level of data complexity are more likely to be successful in delivery performance when they experience formal methods for knowledge acquisition than projects with a high level of data complexity. It is easier to improve project delivery performance with formal knowledge acquisition approach for projects with a low level of data complexity.
7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
This paper has presented the software project review and evaluation model SPREM.
SPREM can be used to express processes with sequence, parallelism, iteration, synchronization, and decision-making behaviors in software projects. Its modeling capa- bility has been demonstrated using an example which describes the spiral model in soft- ware engineering. SPREM is a superset of CPM/PERT and has more concise and natural graphical notation than do (high-level) Petri nets. Several behavioral properties of SPREM have been discussed. For example, its enaction capability can be used to evaluate the pos- sibility that a vertex will enact processes beforehand. Project managers can revise a SPREM graph in order to rescue dead vertices before project execution. Furthermore, enaction ordering allows project managers to calculate the dependency between the processes to be enacted. This might help in computing important information, such as the critical paths among these processes. The detection of MES and DES in a SPREM graph can help project managers avoid pitfalls in modeling. The algorithms Evaluate-Acyclic-SPREM and Evalu- ate-Cyclic-SPREM, based on several other algorithms, including Evaluate-A-Vertex, Evalu- ate-X-Vertex etc., have been presented to evaluate the enaction capability of acyclic and well-structured SPREMs, respectively.
their own and only report to leaders with good results after resolving. These two approaches cannot bring highest efficiency as well. For the former, employees certainly get bad evaluation because they absolutely cannot show their capacities and responsibility as well.
For the latter that employees handle matters on their own, it is good that employees apply their knowledge and experience to handle them. However, they “waste” an available source – it is leader. When leaders are advised, with their further vision and more information, they can have significant contributions for measurements of employees. This is also the good chance for employees to express their capacities before leaders during the process of presentation, handling problems, sharing opinions than reporting normally. Employees do not know that in the process of employee evaluation, leaders pay attention to matter approaches and arguments more than results, especially to matters greatly affected by objective factors and external environment. This is another good chance for employees to build direct relationship with their leaders. Leaders are also human, they feel satisfied when they are useful and can help other persons to handle problems. Giving leaders the opportunity to express their qualifications and experience, employees can build a convenient, open and effective relationship towards leaders in particular and organizations in general.
After presenting previous empirical research, now turn our attention to the case organization. Casa Pellas can be described from the following excerpt; Casa Pellas is a solid, diversified and prestigious, business consortium, with more than one hundred years of existence. Currently Casa Pellas is market leader in sales, of most ofthe products they distribute. Casa Pellas has 15 major lines of Business, is the representative of Toyota, Lexus, Suzuki, Hino, and Yamaha in Nicaragua, they also have rent a car services including, dollar rent a car, thrifty car and Toyota rent a car. Likewise, Casa Pellas has a department of industrial equipment that has the objective to give solutions to the industrial sector of Nicaragua; this department includes equipment for construction as well as different type of heavy equipment that could be utilized in these types of projects. In recent years the group has expanded in different areas by acquiring companies such as Microtec, Alpesa, Capesa and is demonstrating their strategy of integrating innovation in their structure. Casa Pellas has 15 branches in Nicaragua: Plaza Espana, Acahualinca, Altamira, Sucursal Norte, Microtec, Leon, Chinandega, Granada, Rivas, Esteli, Matagalpa, Jinotega, Puerto Cabezas, Bluefields and Taller de Motos. As of January 2014, Casa Pellas comprised was 945 employees, and 83 senior and middle managers at a national level.
A number of efforts have been made to understand theeffectof managers and IS team members onthe system development process, including using control theory , factors of coordina- tion , and methods in software engineering . What software ﬂexibility typically does not address is the managerial- oriented activities inherent in the system development process. In our study, two management controls were considered as antecedents to software ﬂexibility: change control and manage- ment review. The former depends onthe extent to which software change control mechanisms are implemented. The latter refers to the extent to which managers are involved in the formal review mechanisms that monitor IS teams behavior leading to the attainment ofproject goals . Prior research argued that software ﬂexibility was speciﬁcally associated with the CMM key process area: project tracking and oversight  and change control was chosen because the IS literature has shown that technical success can be best achieved by controlling technical risk [9,26]. In turn, these practices are expected to improve projectperformance, yielding themodel shown in Fig. 1. Change control reduces the need for software ﬂexibility by limiting the risks ofproject drift. Management review affects both by correcting deviations. The link reﬂects our hypothesis that ﬂexibility and performance can be simultaneously obtained, with a likelihood that software that can be easily changed will also beneﬁt productivity throughout theproject due to changes that arise before development is complete.
The increasing flows of foreign students in Taiwan may be a result from the policy orientation ofthe Taiwanese government in the internationalization of higher education. In recent years, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has clearly stated “ the internationalization of higher education”to be one ofthe policy imperatives. This policy imperative consists of two parts: one is to attract more students from abroad to study in Taiwan, and the other is to encourage students to study abroad for higher education. In order to stimulate student migration to Taiwan for higher education, the Ministry not only sets up fellowships and plans to increase the number of fellowships in the future; it also encourages colleges and universities in Taiwan to provide fellowship opportunities for foreign students. In addition, colleges and universities are asked to promote themselves in the international market of higher education to enhance their visibility and competitiveness (文建會，2005).
First, literatures stated that trust can help innovation to develop (Hurley & Hult, 1998;
Landry, Amara, and Lamari, 2002; Panayides & Venus Lun, 2009). Although trust doesn’t have any impact on innovation, the results of this study showed that trust has a significant and positive impact on organizational learning, and organizational learning has a significant and positive impact on innovation. Therefore, in this study, it found that trust indeed helped innovation, however, trust didn’t help innovation in a direct way. In fact, trust helped innovation in an indirect way. Within the PLS findings, the trust become the key factor that affects organizational learning, innovation, and business performance. This implies that the more trust an organization has, it can lead to the higher performanceofthe organization. In other words, this study suggests that organizations should put their resources to the most important factor, which is trust in order to work more effectively and achieve the goals. In terms of trust dimension, concerning the employee has the highest point. This research confirmed the literature findings that trust helped members in organization would leave their traditional comfort zones and accept their new roles and responsibility (Fawcett, Magnan, &
To meet this purpose, data was collected from Taiwan and Bosnia & Herzegovina. A TOKSIP structural research framework model was created, and Partial Least Square (PLS) was employed to conduct a comparative analysis ofthe results. After sending out 300 questionnaires, the researchers received 225 usable completed forms, and this brought the response rate to 75%. The empirical results indicated that transformational leadership has a positive and highly significant effecton organizational trust, in which organizational trust has significant effecton customer relationship management, as well as customer relationship management on innovational capabilities. Furthermore, the results showed that innovation capabilities have a significant positive effecton business performance. This comparative study contributes a lot to the investigation of transformational leadership similarities and differences between Taiwan and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The study ends by providing practical implications and suggestions for future research.
skewness of item distribution can be great. Factor analysis with “miniscales” approach can reduce this problem [18,19] . By grouping items into “miniscales”
or “parcels”, we can reduce problems inherent in factoring items. Gorsuch advocated the assignment of “miniscales” on an empirical base  . This procedure required grouping of items based onthe results of first order factor analysis and extracting higher order factors from primary factors. In this study, factors obtained from the primary factoring procedure were equivalent to “minscales”, which entered second order factor analysis. Associations ofthe four learning style scales were examined by Pearson’s correlation. We also examined the orthogonal bipolar hypothesis by factoring with sum scores ofthe four learning style scales and compared our results with the results of previous studies. In addition, we compared the learning styles between men and women and among different academic groups using ANOVA.
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