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Figure 1.6 Research Procedures

CHAPTER 3 MOTIVATING APPLICATIONS

Conceptual framework, ecosystem and system architecture of iEnOrange CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Background, Motivation, Question, Method, Purpose, Contribution, and Content Organization

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Wearable sensors or devices, the relationship between respiration and emotion, positive emotion, engagement, customer needs about baby

boomers

CHAPTER 4 MECHANISM

Motivating Concept, Design Logic and Research Approach and Control Modules

CHAPTER 5 APPLICATION SCENARIO An Example to Present How the System Works

CHAPTER 6 ENVALUATION

The Design, Result and Discussion of the Experiment

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS

Conclusion, Managerial Implication, Future Works

wearable devices, emotion recognition in wearable devices, and the service design of baby boomers are elaborated in order to build the fundamental as the required to

Heppelmann, 2015). They say that monitoring comprehensively consists of the product’s condition, the external environment, the product’s operation and usage;

control personally consists of the product’s functions and user experience;

optimization is a stage that algorithms can enhance product performance and allow predictive service; autonomy is a stage that allows autonomous product operation, self-coordination of operation with other products and systems and autonomous product enhancement and personalization. Wearable device is aimed to find more valuable information in physical data with the help of sensors. As they mention, wearable devices can offer and create much more value in the digital environment.

As Park et.al (2014) review, wearables perform five basic functions or unit operations in each scenario, respectively are sense, process (analyze), transmit, apply (utilize), especially processing may occur at a remote location (see as Figure 2.1). A sensor is defined as “a device used to detect, locate, or quantify energy or matter, giving a signal for the detection of a physical or chemical property to which the device responds” (Kress-Roger, 1997). But not all sensors can be easily worn, so there are eight key attributes in an ideal wearable device. On the one hand, from the view of physics, it should be lightweight, aesthetically pleasing, invisible and shape conformable. On the other hand, from the view of function, it should be multi-functional, configurable, responsive and bandwidth. In our research, we use two

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available products – “Fitbit” and “Spire”, to design our services.

Figure 2.1 Unit Operations in Obtaining Situational Awareness (Park et.al, 2014) We collect the information about available devices in the market, and summary them in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 The available wearable devices in the market

BRAND FITBIT APPLE SPIRE GARMIN XIAOMI

MODEL Surge vivosmart

TYPE Watch Watch Stone Wristband Wristban

d

OPERATION TIME 7 days 1day 7 days 7 days 30 days

WASHER-PROOF YES YES

SENSOR Heart rate YES YES YES YES *1

3-aixs accelerom eter/ gyro

YES YES YES YES YES

GPS YES

WIRELESS Bluetooth YES YES YES YES YES

FUNCTION Activity Tracker

YES YES YES

Sleep Condition

YES YES *2 YES

download additional apps from App Store.)

2.1.1 The wearable devices - “Fitbit” and “Spire”

Fitbit Surge, which is a new and popular smart sports watch, has the following features (see from www.fitbit.com/ surge):

 GPS Tracking: see distance, pace and elevation climbed and review routes and split times

 PurePulseTM Heart Rate: Get continuous, automatic, wrist-based heart rate and simplified heart rate zones

 All-Day Activity: Track steps, distance, calories burned, floor climbed and active minutes

 Multi- Sport: Record running, cycling, cross training and other workouts and view exercise summaries

 Long Battery Life: Lasts longer than competing trackers with a battery life up to seven day

 Notification + Music: See call and text notifications on display and control songs from your mobile playlist

 Auto Sleep + Alarms: Monitor your sleep automatically and set a silent alarm

 Wireless Syncing: Sync stats wirelessly and automatically computers

Spire, which is an emotion monitor, has following features (see from www.spire.io):

 Track every step and every breath

 Be notified when users are tense or have not taken a deep breath

 Discover what makes you clam and focused

 Advanced step and calorie tracking

 Guided breathing exercises and meditations

These two products have satisfied the basic eight key attributes we mention

can offer better services for users.

2.1.2 The Sensors of Physical Data in Wearable Devices

Inertial sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopic sensors, and magnetic sensors, have small size, for monitoring the motion associated with human activities.

Accelerometer (triaxial accelerometer is common) is used to measure motion;

gyroscopic sensor is used to measure angular velocity; magnetic sensor is used to precisely measure body movement (Yang & Hsu 2010). The possible parameters for wearable inertial sensors are shown in the Table 2.2 (Tamura, 2014). He also mentions that static and dynamic activities can be measured through accelerometry; however, normal and abnormal walking or aged-related functions should be measured through amplitude and RMS values.

Table 2.2 Possible Parameters for Wearable Inertial Sensors

PARAMETERS SIGNALS

VELOCITY Triaxial acceleration

NUMBER OF STEPS Triaxial acceleration

NUMBER OF STRIDES Triaxial acceleration

TIME Triaxial acceleration

AVERAGE STRIDE TIME Triaxial acceleration

CADENCE Triaxial acceleration

ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS) VALUES

Triaxial acceleration, triaxial gyroscopic velocity & triaxial magnetic field

REGULARITY OF STEPS Triaxial acceleration

REGULARITY OF STRIDES Triaxial acceleration

ANGLE Combined with triaxial acceleration,

triaxial angular velocity & triaxial magnetic field

Another common kind of values is heart rate, which can be got from assessing the arterial pulsatility skin vascular beds with LED technology, which is called

Photoplethysmography (PPG). According to Lemay et.al (2014), it illuminates a living tissue with a light beam, and capture a portion of the light that has propagated through the living tissue, then analyze and depict functional information on the tissue.

As we review the inertial sensors and PPG technology, these two main kinds of physical values are the fundamental of activity-based engagement measurement, we build the basic background and idea to how to design our services, but we still need to consider the features of users in our research.

2.1.3 The Sensors of Emotional Data in Wearable Devices

Spire, which is the first product of emotion recognition in the world, use the technology of respiration to fulfill its functions and its inventor – Moraveji introduces the fundamental in his paper (2011). He says the breath speed easily be influenced by different emotion, and the changes can be recorded by sensors. The most salient finding in his studies is breath regulation, which reduces breath speed, activates the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), the so-called ‘rest-and-digest’ response, to relax the body, reducing stress and anxiety.

Philippot and Chapelle (2002) give the description about four typical emotions like following:

 Joy: Breathe and exhale slowly and deeply; breathing is very regular.

 Anger: Breathe and exhale quickly; slightly deeper than regular breathing amplitude. And breathing is slightly irregular with some tremors.

 Fear: Breathe and exhale quickly; with a normal amplitude. And breathing is slightly irregular with some tremors.

 Sadness: Breathe and exhale through the nose with a normal amplitude and pace. And there are some sighs in your expiration.”

They also point that expressive emotional components like laughter or tears tend to be associated with happiness and sadness.

As we review the fundamental of emotion measurement through wearable sensors, we intend to enrich the patterns of emotion that can be recognized in our research, and also consider the features of users to affirm the certain patterns.

2.2 The Service Design in Wearable Devices

the real service the customer need. Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry pointed in 1985,

“Service quality is more difficult to evaluate, and quality is a comparison between expectations and performance.” Therefore, we should make a balance among physical, functional, and users’ features in the current technology in order to minimize the gaps between users and markets, meanwhile maximize the value of services.

De Deugd et.all (2006) express the view of modeling devices as service, which is called service-oriented device architecture (SODA). SODA focus on the gaps between physical and digital realms; in the other words, a real problem can be delivered and solved through information technology such as internet with less labor cost and less space limitation. The devices range from basic sensor interfaces to complex equipment.

The former services based on wearable device are divided into two areas: one is for non-professional needs like cellphone, another is for professional needs like ECG monitoring device, whereas with the development with hardware and software, the new service between two areas is emerging. Now several enterprises have already offered the services that focus on the fitness of daily life and are preparing to cooperation with hospitals to offer pre-diagnoses and after-diagnoses care to the patients of certain disease (Ghosh et.al,2013).

We have mentioned the physical and functional features before; we review the features of baby boomers and then connect their need with wearables. According to Maclnnes’ research (2006) about work-life balance of baby boomers in Europe, a man or a woman often devotes himself or herself to work or family when they are young. He then points that a certain number of them confuse leisure in meaning of life after decades of bustle.

According to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which was designed to measure assets, health, wellbeing of Americans over the age of 50, it can be found that median Boomer is richer over the past decades, yet those in the lowest quartile are less well off (Lusardi, Mitchell, 2007). They also tell us the cruel truth that is wealth distribution is quite unfair and related improvement has not been uniform.

Whereas, there are still many needs not only is about material but also mental in this generation’s heart (Gilleard, Higgs, 2007).

We can find some regardless truth about baby boomers that lead to the fact that there are no specialized services designed for them. We will integrate all the features,

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and then optimize the services with the view of service design. So in our research, we not only integrate current functions from different wearable devices but also provide optimization mechanisms considering the basic functions in order to build a completed interactional service system.

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CHAPTER 3. iEnjOrange PROJECT

Nowadays, people’s expectation to quality of life grows higher and higher. Health becomes a hygiene factor, a basic need. Especially for the baby boomers aged beyond 50, they have already spent most of their lives on pursuing something, and besides staying in health, “wellbeing” now is a higher goal for them to pursue. iEnjOrange plans to provide a platform that integrates services from different stakeholders and creates an ecosystem focusing not only health but also wellbeing. This chapter aims to depict the whole picture of our integrated research project-“iEnjOrange”.

3.1 The Conceptual Framework of iEnjOrange

In iEnjorange, we assume that wellbeing is an ultimate goal for everyone. Wellbeing is a broader concept beyond happiness (Seligman, 2011). In order to achieve wellbeing, we thought there is no doubt for them to find their own meaning in life because meaning refers to a sense of comprehensibility (Park, 2014) and it is central to wellbeing (Steger, 2012). But the word “meaning” is too abstract to realize, it needs some method to measure and calculate. Based on PERMA model, there are five dimensions: positive emotion, engagement, relationship, and accomplishment (Seligman, 2011).

PERMA model is our core theory, to which we add another concept, vitality, as shown in figure 3.1. It’s important to define and explain what they really work. There are some statements of explanation as follows:

Figure 3.2 Conceptual Building Block

Note: P = Positive Emotion; E = Engagement; R = Relationship; A =

Strength Activity

P E R A V

Meaning

Wellbeing

through PERMAV. It’s important to define and explain what they really work. There are some explanations as follows:

 Positive Emotion:

Positive Emotion involves positive senses, such as pleasure, comfort, good, happy, satisfied, and so on (Seligman, 2012). Positive Emotion has been considered as an important factor toward flourishing by many positive psychologists (Rogers, 1951;

Maslow, 1954 & 1962; Jahoda, 1958; Erikson, 1963 & 1982; Vaillant, 1977; Deci &

Ryan, 1985, Ryff & Singer, 1996; Murray, 2003; Cameron et al., 2003).

 Engagement:

Engagement is related to the sense of flow, which means one is completely self-less absorbed in activities (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997). People may feel time passing quickly, and focus on what they are doing when they are in flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1999).

 Relationship:

Relationship involves one’s authentical connection with others (Seligman, 2012), and it is a critical factor of achieving wellbeing (Grootaert et al., 2003). Through measure social capital in online and offline, it’s easier to understand people’s relationship situation and achieving social wellbeing (Antheunis, Abeele and Kanters, 2015).

 Accomplishment:

Accomplishment relates to the sense of accomplishment and successful pursuits (Seligman, 2012). According to Seligman’s PERMA model, achievement means a sense of accomplishment and success in one’s pursuits. Further, achievement is strongly linked with purpose and pursuit of important goals, which are elements of meaning of life (Park, 2014). We propose that we can reach higher degree of Accomplishment, when we well pursue meaning and purpose in life.

 Vitality:

In iEnjOrange, vitality means health, which represents one’s physical and phschological status. In addtion to being the most fundamental element regarding the other four values, vitality is even more important among seniors. For example, the prevalence of reports of four chronic conditions increased significantly among 40- to

59-year-olds baby boomers, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, lung problems, and diabetes (Martin et al., 2009).

 Meaning

Meaning involves one’s purposeful and meaningful sense (Seligman, 2012).

Meaning in life has been found a great importance in psychology, even in positive psychology, which is popular recently, leading to wellbeing. Steger in 2013 stated that the influences of Relationship and Achievement depend on character of each individual, which is affected by personal strengths. And, Achievement related to goals and purposes pursuing, which also are covered by Meaning (Park, 2014). Engagement and Positive Emotions cannot stand alone without meaning pursuing (Steger, 2013).

Therefore, we put Meaning as our base of concept.

 Strength

Identifying and developing Strengths can help individuals to keep pursuing goals (Segerstom, 2001), and help them to identify meanings and purposes (Sweeney, 2014). As the result, we define strength as one of our bases under meaning.

 Activity

Therapeutic recreation has developed for a long time in positive psychology. It means that specialists utilize one’s leisure experiences to enhance Strength, and reach the goals, which is meaning and purpose in life (Anderson and Heyne, 2012). In our project, we facilitate activities intervention as leisure intervention to provide to individuals and help them reach their final goals in life. Therefore, Activity is also an important base under Meaning in our project.

3.2 The Ecosystem of iEnjOrange

In order to improve wellbeing through meaning in life, it is not easy to achieve it only by a device or a service. That is why iEnjOrange project not only needs a platform but builds a whole ecosystem, which is depicted as a value network shown as Figure 3.2.

The main purpose of iEnjOrange is to co-create the value and deliver them to users by the cooperation between each stakeholders and the integration of resources.

As the main role between stakeholders and consumers, iEnjOrange holds massive user information, e.g. biological information and user behaviors etc. According to these information, iEnjOrange tries to find the meaning of each users and cooperates with all the stakeholders in our ecosystem to provide integrated services and

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encourage users to achieve their life meanings.

The stakeholders inside dotted lines are in the same system and directly impact the value co-creation of iEnjOrange platform. On the other hand, the stakeholders outside the dotted lines support the operation of the platform. They will be individually introduced as follows:

Figure 3.3 The iEnjOrange Ecosystem

1. Activity Providers

In the ecosystem of iEnjOrange, activity providers are one of the most important stakeholders, which directly or indirectly provide baby boomers with their favorite or potentially interesting activities. iEnjOrange platform can support the activities in many ways, like biological information, location information, user behavior, or communication and interaction. Users will be more willing to join or enjoy activities as activity providers can provide feedbacks to iEnjOrange, such as user behavior or status. This will result in a positive feedback cycle and gradually find the real views

2. Digital Service Providers

Apps for wearable devices are the key stakeholders bridging between activity providers and iEnjOrange. The purpose of Apps is to support users to record behaviors through wearable devices.

3. Insurance Companies

iEnjOrange plans to cooperate with insurance companies and issues new health care plan, which focus on not only health but also wellbeing to improve the quality of life. Insurance companies provide users with smart wearable devices for free so that the users can enjoy the services in iEnjOrange platform, which are co-created by the service providers.

4. Medical Institutions

iEnjOrange holds massive user information so it can know the lifestyles or habits of users by analysis and professions can find meaningful insights from the analysis results. This provides a way for medical and health care institutions to accurately track the patients’ life and doctors can track the changes after treatments and see whether they are effective. This will improve medical-related institutions and their treatments in the long run.

5. Device Suppliers

Since iEnjOrange platform highly relies on smart wearable devices, iEnjOrange includes device suppliers in our ecosystem. We expect that the device suppliers can cooperate with the insurance companies in leasing model so that the users participating the new insurance plan can freely use the device and normal users can directly buy it as well.

6. Banks & Venture Capital Companies

iEnjOrange cooperates with financial institutions to encourage App developers to develop new Apps and to lower the threshold of it. A financial institution like a bank or a venture capital company plays a role as an investor. App developers propose their ideas to the investors and those who hold potential benefits and markets can win the investme1nts from the bank or the venture capital company.

3.3 The System Architecture of iEnjOrange

The iEnjOrange project intends to provide services to help baby boomers achieve

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their life well-being with an integrated wearables-based platform. The platform is activity-driven and focuses not only vitality but PERMA well-being. It comprises of four components including Well-being Maximization System, Meaning System, Relationship Ameliorating System, and Positive Emotion and Engagement Optimization System (as shown in Figure 3.3).

Positive Emotion and Engagement Optimization

System

Relationship Ameliorating System

Meaning Searching System

Well-being Maximization System

iEnjOrange Platform

intervention observation & feedback

Figure 3.4 The iEnjOrange System Architecture

 Well-being Maximization System

This system integrates all the resources within the platform and generates personalized activity-based interventions through an approach that combines the results of local mechanisms to get the global optimality. It also uses an evaluation matrix to measure well-being value, a multi-dimensional concept, between each intervention. By the well-being valuation and maximization, the system tries to provide the most appropriate interventions with most expected value.

 Meaning Searching System

We proposed a mechanism using strength-based activity intervention to help individuals reach their meaning value maximization. To reach the goal, we identify what users’ strengths and plans are, and adjust users’ plan through changing activities

they are engaging based on their individual signature strengths.

 Relationship Ameliorating System

This system provides methods to improve relationship based on the concept of social capital (Putnam, 1993). According to the behaviors on virtual and real world, system will provide solutions by the following four modules: social capital

This system provides methods to improve relationship based on the concept of social capital (Putnam, 1993). According to the behaviors on virtual and real world, system will provide solutions by the following four modules: social capital

在文檔中 通過可穿戴裝置最佳化以活動為基礎的嬰兒潮顾客參與度研究 - 政大學術集成 (頁 20-59)