3. Methodology

3.1 Case Study

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3. Methodology

After reviewing precedent literature on health communication and the newly observed field of voluntourism, this chapter draws out an appropriate methodology matches the qualitative nature of the study and explains why case study research methods are chosen as the most suitable methods, based on the organization features and the research goals. Observing and participating simultaneously, the researcher utilized secondary materials and conducted semi-structured interviews with informants appeared in the voluntary visit with Love Binti project, Step 30 for gaining insights in health communication promotion.

3.1 Case Study

Case study tends to be the main method in qualitative research for understanding human affairs since it is down-to-earth and attention-holding. Various sub-methods were used: interviews, observations, document, and record analysis, work samples, and so on (Gillham, 2000). Though Yin (1984) argued that there are various forms of case studies, and most of which do not involve participant observations however, the methodology of participant observations generally is carried out as a form of case study, which involves detailed description and analysis of an individual case (Becker, 1968, pp.232-38). Merriam proposed the four characteristics of case study (Wimmer

& Dominick, 2013):

1. Descriptive: detailed collected descriptions are used as qualitative data research report.

2. Narrowly focused: A case study offers a description of only a single individual, and sometimes about groups.

3. Combines objective and subjective data: All are regarded as valid data, despite objective or subjective, for analysis, and as a basis for inferences within the case study.

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4. Process-oriented: The case study method enables the researcher to explore and describe the nature of processes, which occur over time.

Stressing the holistic examination of phenomena, the subjects being studied as the cases may be a culture, society, community, subculture, organization, group, or phenomenon (e.g. beliefs, practices, or interactions) and all aspects of human existence (Jorgensen,1989). In terms of a research problem, case studies realized by participant observation aims to describe comprehensively and exhaustively of a phenomenon. Moreover, a common discrepancy appears between what people say about themselves in contrast to what they actually do. Similar situation appeared in health education where assumption predicting if people know more about health risks and healthy living, they will change their behavior (Gillham, p. 14).

A variety of case studies are described in different terms by Yin (2003) and Stake (1995). Yin categorizes case studies as explanatory, exploratory, or descriptive, he then further differentiates single, holistic case studies and multiple-case studies;

while Stakes pinpoints case studies as intrinsic, instrumental, or collective. Clearer definitions of the case studies types are listed in Table 3.

Type of Case Study Definition

Explanatory Seeking an answer to a question that sought to explain the presumed causal links in real-life interventions, of which are too complex for the survey or experimental strategies.

(Yin, 2003)

Exploratory Exploring situations where the intervention being evaluated has no clear, single set of outcomes (Yin, 2003).

Descriptive Describing an intervention or phenomenon and the real-life context in which it occurred (Yin, 2003).

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Multiple-case studies The researcher is able to explore differences within and between cases. The goal is to replicate findings across cases. Since comparisons will be carried out, it is imperative that the cases are chosen carefully so that the researcher can predict similar outcomes across cases, or predict contrasting results based on a theory (Yin, 2003).

Intrinsic Researchers who have a genuine interest in the case should use this approach when the intent is to better understand the case. It is not undertaken primarily because the case represents other cases or because it illustrates a particular trait or problem, but because in all its particularity and ordinariness, the case itself is of interest. Understand some abstract construct or generic phenomenon is not the purpose. Building a theory is neither the purpose (Stake).

Instrumental Accomplishing something other than understanding a particular situation. It provides insight into an issue or helps to refine a theory. The case is of secondary interest;

it plays a supportive role, facilitating our understanding of something else. The case is often looked at in depth, contexts scrutinized, ordinary activities detailed, and helps pursue the researcher’s external interest (Stake, 1995).

Collective Collective case studies are similar in nature and description to multiple case studies (Yin, 2003)

Table 3. Types of Case Studies and its Definitions

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After the researcher’s trip back from Kenya, in-depth interview toward Love Binti as the main case study was carried out. The advantage of in-depth interviews, as stated by Keats (2000), allowed the interviewer to adapt the questions by meeting the informants’ expertise, backgrounds and languages and a valuable trust and empathy between researcher and participant was easier to build. Keats also indicated that this method facilitates a more controlled situation where questions can be rephrased, and that reluctant or anxious respondents can be helped by given encouragement.

Accordingly, the questions covered were left deliberately broad to create and develop wider dialogues.

Research Unit Profile

Love Binti, Step 30 International Ministries( )

Step 30 International Ministries was initially a campaign called “Used Shoes Save Lives” to encourage people sending their unwanted footwear to African countries i.e. Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. Overwhelmed by the positive feedbacks from Taiwanese, the campaign transformed and renamed as NGO Step 30 International Ministries in 2015. Love Binti was a new project launched by Step 30 to promote health issues awareness in Kenya and had sent three groups of voluntourists from Taiwan to Kenya to date. As a Taiwanese female-organized voluntary group prompted by the pressing need to girls in Kenya’s rural and low-income areas who cannot afford disposable sanitary pads, Love Binti had accomplished in helping 400 African girls to stay at school and continue their education in 2015.The numbers is still adding up as the project goes on. This initiative enabled the poverty cycle decomposed in Kenya by forbidding African girls from skipping schools and empowering women there to pass down the self-love conscious. Based on humanitarian principles, Love Binti targeted at giving love and care to African

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women, committing to transmit techniques of making pads, and teaching African female the correct menstrual conception.

在文檔中 台灣赴非志工旅遊之健康促進與反思-愛女孩計畫個案研究 - 政大學術集成 (頁 33-37)