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aCGH Array comparative genomic hybridization (also CMA, Chromosomal Microarray Analysis, Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, array CGH,

在文檔中 系統生物學 (頁 41-55)

Central Dogma and Existing Microarrays Types

1. aCGH Array comparative genomic hybridization (also CMA, Chromosomal Microarray Analysis, Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, array CGH,

a-CGH, aa-CGH, or virtual karyotype) genomic copy number variations at a higher resolution level than chromosome-based comparative genomic hybridization

1. aCGH

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array

6. RNA array resolution level than chromosome based comparative genomic hybridization

(CGH). This is a molecular-cytogenetic method for the analysis of copy number changes (gains/losses) in the DNA content of a given subject's DNA and often in tumor cells.

6. RNA array 7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP pronounced snip) is a DNA

1. aCGH A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, pronounced snip) is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C, or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species (or between paired chromosomes in an individual). For example,

2. SNP array

3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array

6. RNA array p ( p ) p ,

two sequenced DNA fragments from different individuals, AAGCCTA to AAGCTTA, contain a difference in a single nucleotide. In molecular biology and bioinformatics, a SNP array is a type of DNA microarray which is used

6. RNA array 7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

to detect polymorphisms within a population.

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

1. aCGH Tiling arrays differ in the nature of the probes Short fragments are

2. SNP array

3. Tilling array

4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

Tiling arrays differ in the nature of the probes. Short fragments are designed to cover the entire genome or contigs of the genome.

Depending on the probe lengths and spacing different degrees of resolution can be achieved. Number of features on a single array can

6. RNA array 7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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range from 10,000 to greater than 6,000,000, with each feature containing millions of copies of one probe. Tiling arrays can produce an unbiased look at gene expression because previously unidentified genes can still be

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

incorporated. On top of individual gene expression analysis, other tiling arrays can be used in transcriptome mapping, ChIP‐chip, MeDIP‐chip and DNase Chip studies, Array CGH among others.

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as gene or genome chip DNA

1. aCGH A DNA microarray (also commonly known as gene or genome chip, DNA chip, or gene array) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots, commonly representing single genes, arrayed on a solid surface by covalent attachment to a chemical matrix. DNA arrays are different from other

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array

4. cDNA array

5. qPCR array

6. RNA array y

types of microarray only in that they either measure DNA or use DNA as part of its detection system. Qualitative or quantitative measurements with DNA microarrays utilize the selective nature of DNA‐DNA or DNA‐

6. RNA array 7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

RNA hybridization under high‐stringency conditions and fluorophore‐

based detection. DNA arrays are commonly used for expression profiling, i.e., monitoring expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously, or

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

for comparative genomic hybridization.

Isotope Two‐colour Affymetrix

Nylon – cDNA (300‐900 nt) cDNA or Oligo (80 nt) 500 – 11,000 elements

Silicone – oligo (20 nt) 22 ,000 elements

1. aCGH Tiling arrays

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array

5. qPCR array

6. RNA array

Tiling arrays

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a modification of the

6. RNA array 7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

polymerase chain reaction used to rapidly measure the quantity of DNA, complementary DNA or ribonucleic acid present in a sample. Like other forms of polymerase chain reaction, the process is used to amplify DNA samples, via the

t t di t d DNA l PCR A d i d t

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

temperature-mediated enzyme DNA polymerase. qPCR Arrays are designed to profile the expression of a panel of genes relevant to a specific pathway or disease state.

1. aCGH In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single‐stranded RNA molecules of 21‐

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array

6. RNA array

In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single stranded RNA molecules of 21 23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (non‐coding RNA); instead each primary

6. RNA array

7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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transcript (a pri‐miRNA) is processed into a short stem‐loop structure called a pre‐miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

(mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down‐regulate gene expression. MicroRNA array is a kind of arrays which is designed for the detection of miRNA expression profile.

1. aCGH A protein microarray is a piece of glass on which different molecules of

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

A protein microarray is a piece of glass on which different molecules of protein have been affixed at separate locations in an ordered manner thus forming a microscopic array. These are used to identify protein‐protein interactions, to identify the substrates of protein kinases, or to identify the

7. Protein array

8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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targets of biologically active small molecules. The most common protein microarray is the antibody microarray, where antibodies are spotted onto the protein chip and are used as capture molecules to detect proteins

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

from cell lysate solutions. Related microarray technologies also include DNA microarrays, Antibody microarrays, Tissue microarrays and Chemical Compound Microarrays.

1. aCGH ChIP‐on‐chip (also known as ChIP‐chip) is a technique that combines

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

ChIP on chip (also known as ChIP chip) is a technique that combines chromatin immunoprecipitation ("ChIP") with microarray technology ("chip"). Like regular ChIP, ChIP‐on‐chip is used to investigate interactions between proteins and DNA in vivo. Specifically, it allows the identification

7. Protein array

8. CHIP on chip

9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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of binding sites of DNA‐binding proteins on a genome‐wide basis. One of the long‐term goals ChIP‐on‐chip was designed for is to establish a catalogue of (selected) organisms that lists all protein‐DNA interactions

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

under various physiological conditions.

1. aCGH An antibody microarray is a specific form of protein microarrays a

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

An antibody microarray is a specific form of protein microarrays, a collection of capture antibodies are spotted and fixed on a solid surface, such as glass, plastic and silicon chip for the purpose of detecting antigens.

Antibody microarray is often used for detecting protein expressions from

7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip

9. aAntibody

10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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cell lysates in general research and special biomarkers from serum or urine for diagnostic applications.

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

1. aCGH A chemical compound microarray is a collection of organic chemical

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

A chemical compound microarray is a collection of organic chemical compounds spotted on a solid surface, such as glass and plastic. In chemical genetics research, they are routinely used for searching proteins that bind with specific chemical compounds, and in general drug discovery

7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array

10. aOrganic cpd

11. ELISA array

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research, they provide a multiplex way to search potential drugs for therapeutic targets. There are three different forms of chemical compound microarrays based on the fabrication method, to covalently

11. ELISA array 12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

immobilize (usually called Small Molecule Microarray), to spot and dry organic compounds on the solid surface without immobilization (commercial name as Micro Arrayed Compound Screening (µARCS)), and to spot organic compounds in a homogenous solution without immobilization and drying effect.

1. aCGH Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay or ELISA is a biochemical technique

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, or ELISA, is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. The ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine and plant pathology, as well as a quality control check in various industries. ELISA array (or

7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound

11. ELISA array

pathology, as well as a quality control check in various industries. ELISA array (or array ELISA) is a new technology capable of simultaneously identifying multiple biomarkers to generate a biochemical profile. Once the ELISA protocol is completed the array is imaged using either a CCD imaging system or X-ray film to

11. ELISA array

12. Cell array 13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

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capture the chemiluminescent signal. The pixel intensity of each spot is directly correlated to the concentration.

1. aCGH Cell array is a common term for different techniques which are used in

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

Cell array is a common term for different techniques, which are used in genomic‐level cell biological testing. The live cell array, a microscope slide‐

based high content analysis tool, enables multi‐parametric imaging‐based assays on thousands of intact individual cells, including non‐adhering

7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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blood and bone marrow cells. Cells can be observed in their own identified location, tracking individual, real‐time responses to intervention. Multiple functional assays can be performed on a living cell,

12. Cell array

13. Tissue array 14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

followed by post‐fixation studies on the same cell to maximize usage of cell samples

LIVECELL ARRAY microscope slide

The Individual Cell Array with 15 (left) and 100‐micron.

1. aCGH Tissue microarrays are produced by a method of re‐locating tissue from

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

Tissue microarrays are produced by a method of re locating tissue from conventional histologic paraffin blocks so that tissue from multiple patients or blocks can be seen on the same slide. This is done by using a needle to biopsy a standard histologic sections and placing the core into

7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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an array on a recipient paraffin block.

12. Cell array

13. Tissue array

14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

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sausage  tissue array 

1. aCGH Lab‐on‐a‐chip (LOC) is a term for devices that integrate (multiple)

2. SNP array 3. Tilling array 4. cDNA array 5. qPCR array 6. RNA array

Lab on a chip (LOC) is a term for devices that integrate (multiple) laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size and that are capable of handling extremely small fluid volumes down to less than pico liters.

7. Protein array 8. CHIP on chip 9. Antibody array 10. Organic compound 11. ELISA array

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12. Cell array 13. Tissue array

14. Lab‐on‐a‐chip

在文檔中 系統生物學 (頁 41-55)

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