In this chapter, the researcher examines the conclusion of this study, theoretical and practical implication, limitation of the study and some suggestions for the future study.


The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among psychological flexibility, self-efficacy, study abroad length, and psychological well-being. This study especially does the research on the population of the person had study abroad experience. This study collected data from 256 respondents from several continents through an online questionnaire. The researcher conducted a reliability and validity assessment to ensure the accuracy of the measurement.

By answering the research questions, the result is summarizing into four points: First, according to the statistic result, psychological flexibility does affect psychological well-being.

Moreover, the effect of psychological flexibility to psychological well-being is positive.

Secondly, self-efficacy has a moderation effect on the relationship between psychological flexibility and psychological well-being. However, as the result shown in this study, the moderation effect of self-efficacy is in a negative way. In other words, when someone has stronger self-efficacy, the effect of his or her psychological flexibility to psychological well-being will be weaker. Third, the research question was asking whether there is a moderation effect of study abroad length to the relationship between psychological flexibility and psychological well-being. According to the result, there is no moderation effect of study abroad length. Last, does study abroad length makes a difference in one’s psychological well-being.

In addition, the result of the study reported the longer study abroad length (over 8 months) makes his or her psychological well-being higher.

In conclusion, in this globalized environment, the student went to study abroad longer does effect themselves to have a greater level of psychological well-being. In addition, to enhance his or her psychological flexibility can also positive effect on their psychological well-being. However, a higher level of self-efficacy may have a negative effect on the relationship between psychological flexibility and psychological well-being.

Implications Theoretical Implication

The finding of this study examines the relationship among psychological flexibility, self-efficacy, study abroad length, and psychological well-being. According to the result, this study


has indicated that there is a significant relationship between psychological flexibility and psychological well-being. In addition, the research gives a new perspective on the moderation effect of self-efficacy to the relationship between psychological flexibility and psychological well-being. In the existing literature, there were no studies about the moderation effect of self-efficacy to the relationship between psychological flexibility and psychological well-being.

The study showed not only the moderation effect of self-efficacy but also the relationship between self-efficacy to the other two variables. Moreover, this study was the first research to separate sample by U-curve, and divided sample by over 8 months of study abroad experience and under 8 months of study abroad experience. Therefore, this study has taken a step in the direction of defining the period of researching study abroad length to one’s effect.

Practical Implication

First, the sample of this study was someone who had study abroad experience, which demonstrated the effect of one who went to study abroad. In other words, students who want to go to study abroad can consider these effects when they go abroad. In addition, the one who had studied abroad experience may consider their balance of psychological flexibility, self-efficacy, and psychological well-being.

From an organization perspective, to enhance an employee’s psychological well-being has been an important issue. The finding of this study supports them to understand the possible indicators to improve their psychological well-being. Therefore, companies may consider hiring employees who had study abroad experience. On the other hand, by sending employees oversea studying is also a way to enhance their ability and psychological well-being. Moreover, organizations may consider helping employees to improve their psychological flexibility, because since they have a higher level of psychological flexibility their psychological well-being may be better too.


There are some limitations to this study. First, after executing CFA analysis, there are some numbers under criteria, especially psychological well-being. However, after considerate variable’s Cronbach alpha and adjust results, the researcher decided not to delete any items.

According to this situation, there may be some bias in the study result. Secondly, since study abroad experience may influence someone in many ways. Therefore, by using study abroad length to predict study abroad experience might not powerful enough. And the result of this study also showed there is no significant relationship between study abroad length to other variables. Thirdly, when collecting the sample, the researcher didn’t separate the population


into students and workers. However, someone who had working experience may have other factors to affect their psychological well-being. For example, work-related stress may also affect one’s psychological well-being. In addition, it might influence the result of psychological well-being. Fourth, in this study, the researcher collected the data all over the world. However, there are cultural differences between countries. In addition, the result of this study is hard to present a single one continent or country.

Suggestions for the Future Study

Based on the limitations mentioned above, there are some suggestions for future study.

First, since study abroad length may be too weak to measure study abroad experience, the researcher should consider other possible constructs of study abroad experience. Secondly, there are no control variables in this study. Moreover, some of the responders had working experiences. As Arnold et al. (2007) examined, leadership and meaningful work have a significant effect on psychological well-being. Therefore, the researcher recommends specifying the population either with none working experience or with working experience.

Thirdly, since there are some issues about the CFA model of some variables, the researcher suggests being more serious to choose the instrument. Lastly, future researchers can consider specifying the country or continent to study. It is because there are cultural differences between different countries and the cultural difference may affect individuals on a different level.




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Dear participants:

Thank you for your valuable time to answer this survey. This survey hopes to explore your oversea experience and psychological situation. There are four sections in this survey. Your responses will be utilized only for this study and all information will be confidential. Thank you for taking your time to fill in this survey, your output is very valuable for this research.


Graduate Institute of International Human Resource Development (國際人力資源發展研究所)

Advisor: Wei Wen. Chang, Ph.D. (張媁雯 教授)

Part I Background Information 第一部分 基本資料

For the following section, please choose the best description of you.


________years 年 ________months 個月


6. What was the longest duration that you were abroad? 您出國最久的時段有多久?

________years 年 ________months 個月

7. What was the purpose of your longest staying abroad? 根據上題,您出國的目的為何?

□ Travel 旅遊 □ Study 學習 □ Work 工作 □ Working Holiday 打工度假 □ Immigrate 移民 □ others 其他_________

8. Where was the country that you have you stayed abroad the longest? 您出國最久的國家 在哪一洲?

□ Africa 非洲 □ Asia 亞洲 □ Europe 歐洲 □ North America 北美洲 □ South America 南美洲 □ Antarctica 南極洲 □ Australia/Oceania 大洋洲

9. Do you have over 1-year regular work experience?


□ Yes 有 □ No 無

10. How long have you been working in this job? 您這份工作已經做了多久?

________years 年 ________months 個月

11. Are you currently work in your mother country? 這份工作是否在您的母國?

□ Yes 有 □ No 無

12. In your current work, how often do you need to interact with customers?


□ Always 永遠 □ Often 經常 □ Sometimes 偶爾 □ Seldom 很少 □ Never 從不 13. In your current work, how often do you need to interact with co-workers?


□ Always 永遠 □ Often 經常 □ Sometimes 偶爾 □ Seldom 很少 □ Never 從不

Part II 第二部分

There are 6 items in this section. Please circle the appropriate answer according to your situation. 此階段有六個題項,請圈選最符合您的現狀。

1=Strongly disagree 非常不同意, 2=Disagree 不同意, 3=Somewhat disagree 有點不同 意, 4=Neither agree or disagree 普通, 5=Somewhat agree 有點同意, 6=Agree 同意, 7=Strongly agree 非常同意



2. I handle daily affairs well.


3. I generally feel good about myself, and I’m confident.


4. People think I am willing to give and to share my time with others.


5. I am good at making flexible timetables for my work.


6. I love having deep conversations with family and friends so that we can better understand each other.

There are 8 items in this section. Please circle the appropriate answer according to your situation. 此階段有八個題項,請圈選最符合您的現狀。

1=Strongly disagree 非常不同意, 2=Disagree 不同意, 3=Neutral 普通, 4=Agree 同 意, 5=Strongly agree 非常同意

54 2. When facing difficult tasks, I am certain that I will accomplish them.

當面對困難的工作,我很確信自己能完成它。 3. In general, I think that I can obtain outcomes that are important to me.

一般而言,我認為我能獲得我認為重要的結果。 4. I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which I set my mind.

我相信,只要我努力就幾乎能夠成功。 5. I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges.

我能夠成功跨越許多挑戰。 6. I am confident that I can perform effectively on many different tasks.

我有信心可以有效率的完成許多困難的工作。 7. Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well.

和他人比較起來,我能將大部分的工作做得非常好。 8. Even when things are tough, I can perform quite well.



Part IV 第四部分

There are 7 items in this section. Please circle the appropriate answer according to your situation. 此階段有七個題項,請圈選最符合您的現狀。

1=Never true 從來不是, 2=Very seldom true 非常少 , 3=Seldom true 很少,

4=Sometimes true 有時是, 5=Frequently true 經常是, 6=Almost always true 幾乎是, 7=Always true 總是

1. My painful experiences and memories make it difficult for me to live a life that I would value. 3. I worry about not being able to control my worries and feelings.


Never true 從來不是

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Always true

總是 4. My painful memories prevent me from having a fulfilling life.



In document The Relationship between Psychological Flexibility and Psychological Well-Being with the Moderation Effect of Self-Efficacy and Study Abroad Experience (Page 53-66)