**8.3 ANALYSIS OF STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE**

**83.2.1 Cross-sectional Analysis of Student Questionnaire. — **

(i) First cohort first administration
*Assumptions of 3 -way ANO VA*

Dependent variables (Traits)

Attitude towards English Help from NET Personality of NET

Study habit Motivation

Spread vs level plot Weak and negative

relationship No pattern No pattern No pattern One outlier and no

pattern

Levene's test p-value

0.038 -0.055 0.188 0.025 0.02

Sample size of combination groups less than fifteen

One out of 26 One out of 26 Four out of 26 Four out of 26 Two out of 26

The results shown in the above table suggest that the reliability of the analysis of all the dependent variables was generally satisfactory, except for Attitude towards English. For each of the other traits a significant effect was found in the form of an interaction between school level and teaching mode. The results suggest that a follow-up 2-way ANOVA should be conducted on all four dependent variables. The assumptions of this analysis were checked with the following results.

**Assumptions of the follow-up 2-wav ANOVA****Dependent variables**

**(Traits)**
**Help from NET**
**FersonaHtyofNET**

**Study habit**
**Motivation**

**Spread vs level plot**
**No pattern**
**No pattern**
**No pattern**
**No pattern**

**Levene's test**
**p-value**

**0.092**
**0.178**
**0.326**
**0.001**

**Sample size of combination groups**
**less than fifteen**

**None**
**None**
**None**
**None**

The results shown in the above table suggest that the reliability of the analysis of the four dependent variables is good. The significant multiple comparisons are shown in the table below.

*Multiple comparisons results*

Help from NET

Personality of NET

School Level

Low Medium

High Low Medium

High

ANOVA p-value

< 0.001 0.005 0.101 0.002

< 0.001 0.208

Levene'stest p-value

0.275 0.73 0.008 0.241 0.099 0.567

Significant comparisons Bofh>NET Both>Local NET>Local

None NET>Local Both>Local NET>Local Both>Local

None

p-value 0.002 ..< 0.001

0.005

0.005 0.006 0.001 0.019

124

Study habits

Motivation

Low Medium

High Low Medium

High

< 0.001 0.04 0.002

< 0.001 0.004

0.271

0.531 0.894 0.025 0.24 0.053

< 0.001

Both > NET Both > Local NET > Local NET > Both Local > Both NET > Local Both > Local NET > Both Local > Both

None

0.044

< 0.001 0.041 Dunnett's C

0.029

< 0.001 0.01 0.005

In the above table, for the trait 'Help from NET*, on average, students taught by a combination of local teachers and NETs have a more positive attitude than those taught by either local teachers or NETs in low-level schools. Students taught only by NETs have a more positive attitude than those taught only by local teachers in medium-level schools.

For the trait 'Personality of the NET', on average students taught only by NETs or a combination of local teachers and NETs have a more positive attitude than those taught only by local teachers in low and medium-level schools.

For the trait 'Study Habits', on average students taught by a combination of local teachers and NETs have a more positive attitude than those taught only by local teachers or NETs in low-level schools. Students taught by only NETs have a morepositive attitude than those taught by local teachers in medium level schools. Students taught by either NETs or Local teachers have a more positive attitude than those taught by a combination of both local teachers and NETs in high-level schools.

For the trait 'Motivation*, on average students taught only by NETs or a combination of both local teachers and NETs have a more positive attitude than those taught only by local teachers in low-level schools. On average students taught only by local teachers or NETs have a more positive attitude than those taught by a combination of NETs and local teachers in medium-level schools.

To conclude, 7 out of the 16 significant comparisons indicate a more positive attitude on the part of students taught only by NETs. Only 2 of the 16 significant comparisons show a more positive attitude on the part of students taught only by local teachers.

**Discussion**

The first administration of the student questionnaire was conducted with the language assessments in March 1999, The first cohort NETs had been in place since the previous September. In this period of six months, the sampled groups would have been influenced by their English teacher, whether he or she was a NET or a local teacher, or whether that class had been taught by both NETs and local teachers, perhaps in some form of team teaching or split class teaching. This influence maybe very small, but it is likely to be represented in the data gathered in the first administration of the questionnaires to the first cohort groups.

While the influence of the students' English teacher (whether a NET, a local or Both) is likely to account for a certain proportion of the findings, they will have been influenced by a host of other factors and it is not possible to identify any causal factors for the differences found. These is baseline information, gathered in order to identify and understand the pre-existing patterns or tendencies in the data and provide a basis for making longitudinal comparisons based on the second administration findings obtained from the same students.

**(ii) First cohort second administration**

**Dependent variables**
**(Traits)**

**Attitude towards English**
**Help from NET**
**Personality of NET**

**Study habit**
**Motivation**

**Spread vs level plot**
**No pattern**
**Weak and positive**

**pattern**
**No pattern**
**No pattern**
**Three outliers**
**But no pattern**

**Levene's test p-value**
**0.004**
**0.046**
**0.078**
**0.002**
**0,007**

**Sample size of combination**
**groups less than fifteen**

**14**** out**** of 27**
**15**** out**** of 27**
**13**** out**** of 27**
**15, out**** of**** 27,**
**16**** out**** of 27**

The results shown in the above table suggest that the reliability of the analysis of all dependent variables was moderate. The signij&cant effect of each analysis is indicated in the table below.

Significant effect

Attitude toward English Interaction of form

level and teaching mode

Help from NET Teaching mode

Personality of NET Teaching mode

Study Habit None

Motivation Form level

The results of the above table suggest that a follow-up 2-way ANOVA should be conducted on

* Attitude towards English*, and multiple comparisons should be conducted on 'Help from the NET'and TereonaUty of the NET'.

*Checking the Assumptionsof a follow-up two-way ANOVA*

Dependent variable (TralO

Attitude towards English

Spread vs level plot No pattern

Levene's test p-value 0.009

Sample size of combination groups less than fifteen

loutof 11

The assumptions of this analysis were checked and the results are shown above. They suggest that the analysis of the trait 'Attitude towards English' was reliable.

**126**

The multiple comparison analysis results are presented below.

*Multiple comparisons results*

**Attitude toward**
**English**

**School**
**level**
**Low**
**Medium**

**High**

**ANOVA**
**p-value**

**0.074**
**0.039**
**0.1**

**Levene's test**
**p-value**

**0.448**
**0.258**
**0.456**

**Significant comparisons**

**N->N > L->L****None**
**N->N>N->L**
**L->N>N->L**
**L->L>N~>L**

**p-value**

**0.036**
**0.05**
**0.031**
**0.009**
**0.005**
For the trait * Attitude towards English', on average students in Low ability schools taught by a
NET for two consecutive school years (N to N) have a more positive attitude than those taught
by a Local teachers for the same two-year period (L to L). The same holds for students in High
ability schools: those who were taught by a NET for two consecutive school years (N to N),
tended to show more positive attitudes to English. However, those students in Hi£h ability
schools who were taught by a Local teacher in the first of the two years and by a NET in the
second year (L to N) as well as those taught by a Local teacher for two years (L to L), have a
more positive attitude than those taught NET in the first year and a Local in the second (N to L).

*Multiple comparisons results*

Help from NET Personality

ANOVA p-value

0.005 0.011

Levene's test p-value

0.046 0.078

Significant comparison N->N>L->L N^>L>L->L N->L>L~>L N->L>L->N

p-value 0.001 0.004 0.016 0.039

The results in the above table suggest that, in the trait 'Help from NET*, on average students taught by a teaching transition of NET for two consecutive years (N to N) or a NET in the first year and a Local teacher in the second (N to L) have a more positive attitude than those taught by Local teachers for two years (L to L).

For the trait 'Personality', on average students taught by a NET in the first year and a Local teacher in the second (N to L) have a more positive attitude than those taught by Local teachers for two years (L to L) or by a Local teacher in the first year and a NET in the second (L to N).

To conclude, 3 out of the 8 significant comparisons consist of a more positive attitude demonstrated by students taught only by a NET (N to N). Only one of the eight consists of a more positive attitude demonstrated by students taught by Local teachers for the same period (LtoL)/

**(iii) Second cohort first administration**
**Assumptions of3-way ANO VA**

**Dependent variable**
**(Trait)**

**Attitude towards English**
**Help from NET**
**Personality of NET**

**Study habit**
**Motivation**

**Spread vs level plot**
**No pattern**
**No pattern**
**One outlier, weak pattern**

**No pattern**
**Negative relationship**

**Levene's test p-value**
**0.195**
**0.371**
**0315**
**0.284**
**0.012**

**Sample size of combination**
**groups less than fifteen**

**None**
**None**
**None**
**One**
**None**

The checking of assumptions gave a negative result. As shown in the above table, the findings suggest that the analysis for the trait- 'Motivation' was unreliable. The reliability of other analyses was good and the corresponding significant effect is indicated in the table below.

Significant effect

Attitude toward English Interaction of school level and teaching mode

Help from NET Interaction of school level and teaching mode

Personality of NET Interaction of school level and teaching mode

Study Habit School level

The results of the above table suggest that a follow-up 2-way ANOVA should be conducted on
the three traits, * Attitude towards English1, 'Help from the NET' and 'Personality of the NET7.
*Assumptions of follow-up two-way ANOVA*

**Dependent variable**
**(Trait)**

**Attitude towards English**
**Help from NET**
**Personality of NET**

**Spread vs level plot**

**No pattern**
**No pattern**
**Negative pattern**

**Levene's test p-value**

**0.11**
**0.581**
**0.185**

**Sample size of combination**
**groups less than fifteen**

**None**
**None**
**None**

After checking the assumptions of the follow-up 2-way ANOVA it was clear from the results, as shown in the table above, that the further analysis of the trait "Personality of the NET' was likely to be unreliable.

The significant follow-up multiple comparisons of the other reliable analyses are shown in the table below*

*Multiple comparisons results*

Attitude toward English

Help given from NET

School level Low Medium

## High

LowMedium High

^ANOVA p-value

0.044 0.12 0.011 0.025 0.002

< 0.001

Levene's test p-value

0.684 0.135 0.038 0.616 0.132 0.854

Significant comparisons Local>NET

Both>NET NET>both NET>both Both > NET NET>Local

NET>Both NET>Local

NET>Both

p-value 0.027

0.02 0.05 Dunnett's C

0.009

< 0.001 0.009

< 0.001 0.001

128

The results in the above table suggest that, for the trait 'Attitude towards English', on average students taught by a local teacher or a combination of local teacher and NET have a more positive attitude than those taught only by a NET in low ability school

In Medium and High ability schools, however, students taught by a NET have a more positive attitude than those taught by a combination of local teacher and NETs.

For the trait 'Help from the NET', on average students taught by a combination of local and NET have a more positive attitude than those taught only by a NET in low ability schools.

On the other hand, in Medium and High ability schools, students taught only by a NET have a more positive attitude than those taught by either local teachers or by a combination of local teachers and NETs.

To conclude, 6 out of the 9 significant comparisons involve a more positive attitude shown by students taught only by a NET. Only one of these 9 findings consists of a more positive attitude demonstrated by students taught only by local teachers.

**(iv) Second cohort second administration**
*Assumptions of 3-way ANOVA*

Dependent variable (Trait) Attitude towards

English Help from NET Personality of NET

Study habit * Motivation

Spread vs level plot No pattern No pattern Negative relationship.

Positive relationship Negative relationship

Levene's test p-value 0.625 0.122

< 0.001 0366 0.001

Sample size of combination groups less than fifteen

4 out of 17 3outofl3 4 out of 17 7 out of 24 4 out of 24

The results of the checking of assumptions shown in the above table suggest that the analysis of personality, study habit and motivation was unreliable.

The only significant effect of the reliability analysis related to 'Attitude towaids English1 as shown in the table below.

**Significant effect**

**Attitude toward English**

**Interaction of school level and teaching mode**

**Help from NET**
**None**

The results suggest that a follow-up 2-way ANOVA should be conducted on 'Attitude towards English'.

Dependent variable (TraitV Attitude towards

English

Spread vs level plot Weak and negative pattern

Levene'stest p-value

0,127

Sample size of combination groups less than fifteen

None

The checking of assumptions for the follow-up ANOVA shown in the above table suggests that the reliability of the analysis was moderate. The significant multiple comparisons are shown in the table below.

*Multiple comparisons results*

Attitude toward English

School level Low Medium

High

ANOVA p-value

0.051 0.001 0.033

Levene's test p-value

0.146 0.402 0.653

Significant comparisons

Local > NET None None

p-value

0.004 None none

For the trait 'Attitude towards English', on average, students in low ability schools taught only by local teachers have a more positive attitude than those taught only by a NET.

**(B) Primary**

The primary school pupils* questionnaire contains only three traits for analysis: 'Attitude towards English*, 'Personality of the NET*, and 'Motivation*. The analysis of these three traits is described below.

**(i)** **First cohort first administration**
*Assumptions of 3-way ANOVA*

**Dependent variable**
**(Trait)**

**Attitude towards English**
**Help from NET**
**Personality of NET**

**Spread vs level plot**
**No pattern**
**One outlier,**

**no pattern**
**No pattern**

**Levene's test p-value**
**0.022**
**0.013**
**0.02**

**Sample size of combination**
**groups less than fifteen**

**2 out of 8**
**2 out of 5**
**2 out of 8**

The results of the checking of assumptions shown in the table above suggest that the reliability of the analysis of all dependent variables is moderate. The significant effect of each analysis is indicated in the table below.

Significant effect

Attitude towards English Interaction of form level and

teaching mode

Help from NET None

Personality of NET Interaction of form level and

teaching mode

The results suggest that a follow-up 2-way ANOVA should be conducted on two traits 'Attitude towards English' and /Personality of the NET',

*Asmmptions of the follow-up 2-way ANOVA*

Dependent variable (Trait)

Attitude towards English Personality of NET

Spread vs level plot One outlier, Weak & negative pattern

One outlier, No pattern

Levene's test p-value

0.191 0.022

Sample size of combination groups less than fifteen

None None

The results of the checking of assumptions for the follow up task shown in the table above table suggest that the reliability of the analysis of the two dependent variables was good. The significant multiple comparisons which showed up in the further analysis are shown in the table below.

130

*Multiple comparisons results*

Attitude towards English

Personality

Form level

P 3 P5 P 3 P5

ANOVA p-value

0.018 0.06 0.004

0.026

Levene's test p-value

0.068 0.416 0.490

0.274

Significant comparisons

none NET>Local Both> Local

None

None

p-value

0.004 0.008

The results in the above table suggest that for the trait 'Attitude towards English', on average, P5 pupils taught by either a NET or a combination of a local and a NET have,a more positive attitude tHan those taught by a local teacher.

**(ii) First cohort second administration**
*Assumptions of3-way ANOVA*

**Dependent variable**
**(Trait)**

**Attitude towards**
**English**

**Help from NET**
**Personality of NET**

**Spread vs level plot**
**One outlier,**

**No pattern**

**Too few data points**
**One outlier,**

**No pattern**

**Levene's test**
**p-value**

**0.006**
**0.836**

**< 0.001**

**Sample size of combination**
**groups less than fifteen**
**3 out of 8**

**None out of 3**
**4 out of 8**

The results of the above table suggest that the reliability of the analysis of all dependent variables was moderate. The significant effect of each analysis is indicated in the table below.

**Significant effect**

**Attitude towards English**
**None**

**Help from NET**
**Teaching mode**

**Personality of NET**
**School level**

The results of the analysis suggest that a follow-up ANOVA should be conducted for the trait 'Help from NET'. Data were available at only one school level and two teaching modes. The result is shown in the table below.

**Multiple comparisons results**

**Help from NET**

**ANOVA**
**p-value**
**0.022**

**Levene'stest**
**p-value**
**0.191**

**Significant comparison**
**N->N>N->L**

The results in the above table suggest that for the trait 'Help fiom NET', on average pupils in medium ability schools who are taught NET for two consecutive years (N to N) have a more positive attitude than those taught by a NET in the first year and a local teacher in the second (N to L).

(iii) Second cohort first administration

**r -J s**

**Dependent variable**
**(Trait)**

**Attitude towards English**
**Help from NET**
**Personality of NET**

**Spread vs level plot**
**Weak and negative**

**relationship**
**Too few data points**
**Negative relationship**

**Levene's test p-value**
**0.111**
**0390**
**0.237**

**Sample size of combination**
**groups less than fifteen**

**2 out of 6**
**2 out of 5**
**2 out of 6**

The results of the checking of assumptions shown in the above table suggest that the reliability of the analysis of all dependent variables was moderate to poor. The significant effect of each analysis is indicated in the table below.

Significant effect

Attitude towards English

None

Help from NET None

Personality of NET None

The results suggest that there is no significant teaching mode effect on all dependent variables in the 2nd cohort 1st administration data.

**(iv) Second cohort second administration**
*Assumptions of3-wayANOVA*

**Dependent variable**
**(Trait)**
**Attitude towards**

**English**
**Help from NET**
**Personality of NET**

**Spread vs level plot**
**Negative relationship**

**No pattern**
**Negative relationship**

**Levene's test p-value**
**0354**

**0.09**
**0.002**

**Sample size of combination**
**groups less than fifteen**

**2 out of 6**
**lout of 5**
**1 out of 6**

The results of the checking of assumptions shown in the above table suggest that the reliability of the analysis of all dependent variables were moderate to poor. The significant effect of each analysis was indicated in the table below.

**Attitude towards English Help from NET** **Personality of NET**

**Significant effect None** None School level

The results in the above table suggest that no significant teaching mode effect on all dependent variables in the 2nd cohort 2nd administration.

**83.2.2 Longitudinal Analysis of Student Questionnaire Using Repeated Measures**
**Analysis**

The objective of the longitudinal analysis is to investigate quantifiable changes in attitudes to language over time and to determine whether or not the effects of different modes of teaching (Le, whether the students were taught by a NET, a local teacher or by both), at different levels of form and school can be found in the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for each of the traits. This was done by investigating the following effects:

132

*Within-subject effect:*

Does the mean trait scores change across the administrations in 1st and 2nd cohort?

*Between-subject effect:*

Are there differences in the mean trait scores for each trait between teaching modes?

*Between-Subjects Interaction effect:*

Does the pattern of differences between mean trait scores for teaching mode change for each group combination of form and school level?

*Within-Subject by Between-Subject Interaction Effect:*

Does the pattern of differences between mean trait scores for different teaching modes changes in each administration?

For our purposes, the evaluation of Within-Subject by Between-Subject Interaction Effect is the ultimate objective. Therefore analyses were conducted with the aim to illustrate this effect.

**(B) Methodology**

The three-way, repeated measures ANOVA methodology employed was parallel to that used for the analysis of language assessments (see Section 6.23.1 above).

**(C) Findings**

**(i) Secondary school**

In the first cohort, teaching mode was not interacting with the time effect for any of the five traits. However, for the trait 'Study Habits', the teaching mode effect was different for each group combination of school and form level, in different administrations.

In the second cohort, teaching mode was not interacting with the time effect for any of the five traits. However, for the trait "Personality of the NET, the teaching mode effect was different for each group combination of school and form level, in different administrations.

**(ii) Primary school**

The traits 'Study Habit' and 'Motivation' were not included in the primary student questionnaires.

In the first cohort, teaching mode was not interacting with the time effect for any of the three traits.

In second cohort, teaching mode was not interacting with the time effect for any of the three traits.