Part II Career-oriented Studies (COS)
Chapter 8 Development of Curriculum Framework
8.4 The curriculum design for NSS(ID) has made reference to local and overseas experiences. The design principles are:
The seven learning goals5 of the curriculum framework will be suitably adapted to suit the characteristics and practical needs of individual students, in terms of content, pace of learning, and expected learning outcomes.
In order to lead a quality and meaningful life in the community, students with ID need to develop sound social skills. These include positive peer relationships, self-esteem and ability to work as a member of a group or team. These will be embedded in the core, electives and OLE as an integral part of the NSS(ID) curriculum.
Prior Knowledge in Basic Education
The NSS(ID) curriculum should help students progress beyond their current level of attainment through the basic education.
Schools require evidence-based assessment of the prior knowledge and experiences already acquired, which will inform the design of the IEP under the senior secondary curriculum.
The Structure and Learning Outcomes of NSS(ID) Curriculum
Language, mathematics and independent living will form the core of learning to meet the practical needs of work and life beyond schooling.
5 The Seven Learning Goals are Responsibilities, National Identity, Habit of Reading, Language Skills, Learning Skills, Breadth of Knowledge and Healthy Lifestyle.
Some students with ID could aspire to attain threshold Level 1 in HKDSE for all or some of the core subjects of NSS (Chinese Language, English Language, Mathematics and Liberal Studies).
Other students with ID would have educational programmes in literacy, numeracy, and independent living targeted to their needs and which are based on high expectations of progress.
Where appropriate, the core is complemented by electives or other school-based programmes, including OLE to reinforce the development of positive values and attitudes, and the capability to explore and learn in an authentic environment.
The Committee on Special Educational Needs (CSEN) of the CDC, with professional support from CDI, local and international experts, and frontline teachers, will develop the various subject curriculum frameworks in core and electives for informing what students should learn. The curriculum frameworks would be supported by the development of learning outcomes which will indicate what students are expected to achieve and the yardsticks for assessing students with ID.
In Chinese Language, English Language and Mathematics, the Learning Outcomes Framework (LOF) covering the 4 Key Stages in ordinary schools to be rolled out in 2006 could be partly used for assessing the attainments of students with ID at the higher ability end. The first level of the LOF could be further developed or fine-tuned to describe performance at sub-levels of Level 1. With such development, feedback to learning of students with ID could be given to improve learning, and their achievements could also be recognised.
experts and reference to experiences of EYE. The initial NSS(ID) framework will be used in the pilot in conjunction with the draft subject curriculum framework for students with ID and be validated to develop a more consolidated LOF for them.
For curriculum areas adapted for ID students without a LOF, broad learning outcomes would be initially developed with reference to overseas experiences together with expert judgement, and be validated in the local context through a pilot.
HKEAA will take part in the development of learning outcomes and advise on the validation and assessment design and processes.
During the course of development, HKEAA will explore and develop an assessment mechanism that helps certify achievements of students with ID.
It is necessary to align the curriculum intentions and expected learning outcomes to avoid either too low or too high expectations of students and inconsistent expectations amongst different components of a student programme.
In this connection, it is noteworthy that the Study has concluded that to extend students’ potential beyond the existing level of attainment would be as essential as to promote the lateral coherence amongst KLAs.
Each school needs to establish an effective mechanism for developing a version of the school-based curriculum framework, stating the expected learning outcomes with due regard for the characteristics of its students, and monitoring the progress of learning.
Interface with Further Education and the World of Work
The NSS(ID) curriculum in general, and the IEP in particular, should prepare students for independent living and post-school learning opportunities at skills centres, integrated vocational training centres or other forms of training and employment.
Core, Electives and Other Learning Experiences
8.5 The proposed NSS(ID) curriculum framework enables teachers to locate the needs of students on a continuum of Core, Electives and OLE (Appendix 6).
8.6 Appropriate COS courses could be provided to students having the capability of attaining the threshold or higher standards in these areas.
8.7 Through OLE, such as leisure and recreational activities, the NSS(ID) curriculum will provide opportunity for whole-person development and better preparation for adult life.
8.8 EMB will conduct research and development projects (Seed Projects) jointly with schools, local and international experts to pilot the subject curriculum frameworks where local experiences are lacking. The purpose is to provide the professional and practical knowledge and experiences necessary for finalising the curriculum frameworks and learning outcomes, as well as the content of PDP.
Schools will be invited to take part in the pilot and the scale of the projects should be manageable.
COS for Students with SEN
8.9 There are two options of COS for students with SEN:
(a) For students without ID, as they will follow the ordinary school
other students. Where necessary, special arrangement or support will be provided, e.g. reading aid for students with visual impairment. Mode 16 of implementation, i.e. courses delivered at the venues of the course providers and taught by the staff of the course providers, will provide more variety of COS courses to cater for the interests and aptitudes of students, and should be encouraged.
(b) For students with ID, COS courses with appropriate adaptation to provide vocational awareness and where appropriate practical skills will suit the needs of these students better. EMB is working with potential course providers to offer suitable courses for these students under the COC pilot. A more targeted approach would be to develop COS courses for students with ID to suit the competency requirements of potential employers. This approach will help improve the employability of the students.
8.10 Depending on the course design and the students’ ability, credits may be awarded under the QF to give recognition to the competency standards attained in a particular area for further education or employment.
8.11 To better cater for the needs of students with SEN, consideration will be given to inviting non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which have a proven record of serving such students to be course providers. To ensure the standard of COS, all courses, including those that may be adapted and designed for students with SEN, will undergo the same rigorous quality assurance process (see Chapter 4 of Part II).
6 For details of the three modes of COS delivery, please see para. 3.4 in Part II.