S4, along with opportunities for taster programmes); (Refer to Booklet 9 “Career and Life Planning - Multiple Pathways for All Students to Excel” for more information.)
between ApL and “Vocational and Professional Education and Training” (VPET)?
(12) Deploying resources flexibly to achieve the school curriculum goals; and (Refer to Booklet 10 “Quality Learning and Teaching Resources” for more information.)
Refer to Booklet 10 What resources does my school have for achieving the curriculum goals? What external resources could I get hold of?
(13) Providing timely and diversified professional learning opportunities to teachers to help enhance their awareness, knowledge, skills, values and attitudes when dealing with curriculum change and sustain progress, facilitate change and strengthen the ongoing cycle of professional development through setting up communities of practice within school and with other schools and encouraging teachers to share and construct knowledge together. (Refer to Booklet 11 “Professional Development and Schools as Learning Organisations” for more information.)
Refer to Booklet 11 Is my school a community of practice where professional learning is ongoing and targeted towards enhancing students’ learning?
Figure 2.13 Five-stage Cycle for Whole-school Curriculum Planning
• The process of the five-stage cycle for whole-school curriculum planning is not necessarily conducted in a linear direction. Depending on the circumstances and needs of each stage of the planning process, schools may revert to other stages and make adjustment to planning and resource deployment.
• This booklet focuses on discussing Stage 1 “Context Analysis” and Stage 2
“Curriculum Planning and Deploying Resources”. Below is a brief description of the five stages, followed by more suggestions on Stages 1 and 2.
• Before planning, it is important to conduct a school context analysis to set the direction, priorities and major concerns for curriculum planning. Schools may adopt the planning tools suggested below independently or simultaneously to meet school needs.
• A whole-school curriculum planning should be carried out in the manner that common understanding and values of the school’s prioritised goals and curriculum initiatives are shared among all school members. In this way, every member in the school works towards the school curriculum goals and initiatives set through cautious, deliberate and collaborative planning.
• To conduct a whole-school curriculum planning, schools should utilise resources flexibly with reference to their curriculum goals, focal points and MRE for the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum.
• Adopting a whole-school approach, schools implement the plans on curriculum development through a wide range of strategies within and beyond the classroom.
• Attention is drawn to whether the expected outcomes are achieved and have brought about positive impact on students’ personal development and learning, and whether there are discrepancies between the curriculum plans and implementation. Teachers may make adjustment to the plans or formulate new strategies to achieve the curriculum goals.
• Schools continuously monitor the implementation of the curriculum to ensure the effectiveness of learning. Schools can take into consideration the following:
- Facilitating understanding of the curriculum implementation through lesson observations, observing students’ daily performance, reviewing students’ work, learning journals and assessment data, and collecting feedback regularly from teachers, students and parents
- Collecting data which can illustrate how students’ learning is enhanced, and identifying areas for improvement
- Proposing timely measures for enhancement and improvement of student learning as appropriate, for example, noting down the changes made to the curriculum plans and learning activities for review/follow-up
- Attending to the emerging needs of teachers and students regularly and providing appropriate support
• Schools make good use of the information collected for evaluation to inform curriculum planning of the new cycle and make adjustments to strategies between cycles. Valuable information for review and evaluation includes assessment data from both internal and external sources such as school tests and examinations, APASO (Assessment Programme for Affective and Social Outcomes), TSA (Territory-wide System Assessment), and feedback from different stakeholders to assess students’ strengths, weaknesses and needs.
• Schools should have a reliable and precise evaluation system which provides feedback to inform curriculum planning of the new cycle and helps make adjustments/improvements to strategies between cycles so as to facilitate the ongoing curriculum development and improve learning and teaching effectiveness.
Reflection and Action
Does the five-stage cycle for whole-school curriculum planning reflect a similar process your school goes through during curriculum planning and development? Why or why not?
How effective is the previous school development plan of your school?
In collecting information for review and evaluation, does your school include students’ voice and parents’ views?
To what extent are the prioritised goals and curriculum initiatives shared among all school members?
What are the discrepancies between your school’s curriculum planning and implementation?
Planning Tools for Stage 1 - Context Analysis
Schools can set the direction, priorities and major concerns for curriculum planning through analysing the following:
- Current situation of the school curriculum, such as curricula for all KLAs, learning and teaching, assessment, curriculum leadership and teacher professional development;
- Experiences in curriculum development;
- Emerging demands on school curriculum development; and
- Implications of the changing society on school curriculum development
Schools may use the four planning tools suggested below independently or simultaneously to conduct context analysis.
Figure 2.14 A checklist for review
Item Strength Area for Improvement
Learning and teaching
School curriculum leadership at various levels
Staff profiles and
professional development needs
Professional development of various levels of school curriculum leaders
School as a community of
and collaboration with parents
Communication, connection and collaboration with different organisations in society
Figure 2.15 SWOT Analysis
Figure 2.16 Keep-Improve-Start-Stop
Figure 2.17 Focus- Deepen- Sustain
Reflection and Action
In what way(s) can your school build on the strengths identified? What are the goals/focuses of your student programme in accordance with the abilities, interests and aptitudes of your students?
What can be done to address the weaknesses identified in your school?
How can your school make use of the opportunities ahead?
How can your school defend against threats?
Planning Tools for Stage 2 – Curriculum Planning & Deploying Resources
A Checklist for Curriculum Planning
Schools may refer to the following checklist and determine strategies that best fit their contexts.
Checklist on the Implementation Strategies Consideration of the School
Understanding students’ learning needs and culture
Understanding the latest development trends in education
Strengthening leadership in whole-school curriculum development
Fostering connection between the Four Key Tasks and the Major Renewed Emphases at the JS Level and beyond
Strengthening cross-curricular and interdisciplinary linkage
Enhancing teachers’ repertoire of pedagogy
Deploying resources effectively
Other strategies (e.g. Interface at P6 to S1, S3 to S4, S6 and multiple pathways)
Coherence of the Four Levels of Curriculum Planning
The four levels of curriculum planning, namely whole-school level, KLA level, year level and class level by lesson blocks, are interrelated. Coherence among these four levels of curriculum planning is of utmost importance as it:
- helps ensure school priorities, in terms of vision, curriculum goals, major concerns, focal points and MRE, to be realised in student learning;
- allows effective learning to occur by making meaningful connections within and across the curriculum and progression from year to year; and
- helps identify gaps and remove unnecessary duplications in the school curriculum.
Curriculum planning of the lower levels informs that of the upper levels and vice versa. For example, when KLAs are planning the curriculum, gaps and feedback to the whole-school curriculum which lead to adjustment in the whole-school curriculum planning may be identified (see Figure 2.19).
A Planning Tool for Whole-school Curriculum Planning and Self-evaluation
The planning tool in Figure 2.20 is designed to support schools in whole-school curriculum planning, e.g. the planning of MRE (please refer to Section 126.96.36.199
“Four Key Tasks: Towards Major Renewed Emphases” for more information), the five essential learning experiences under LWL at the JS level and the five essential areas of learning under OLE at the SS level.
Schools may use this planning tool flexibly with appropriate adaptation to suit the school contexts. (Please refer to Appendices 5 and 6 for illustrations.)
Schools may also consider incorporating plans derived from this tool in their school development plan/school reports.
Figure 2.19 Four Levels of Curriculum Planning
A Checklist for Whole-school Curriculum Planning and Self-evaluation
Figure 2.20 A Checklist for Whole-school Curriculum Planning and Self-evaluation
Whole-school Curriculum Planning and Self-evaluation Remarks (A) Lesson Hours and Learning Hours
Curriculum/Subject Learning (Classroom) Related KLA(s)/Subject(s)/ Functional Area(s):
Year Level: S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Lesson hours: _________________
Student Learning Experiences/Activities (e.g. LWL, OLE) Related KLA(s)/Subject(s)/Functional Area(s):
Year Level: S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Learning hours: _________________
Non-local Learning Experiences/Activities (e.g. MEP, overseas visits)
Related KLA(s)/Subject(s)/ Functional Area(s):
Year Level: S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Learning hours: _________________
(B) Use of Learning and Teaching Resources & Assessment
Resources from the EDB:
Other resources (including resources developed by the school):
Observations/comments on the resources used:
Mode of assessment:
(C) Staff’s Participation in Training/Professional Development Activities
Training/professional Development Activities:
No. of hours: ______________
No. of staff participated in the training/professional development activities: _________________
Overall Reflection and Action In relation to the school mission:
How are the school mission, curriculum goals, major concerns and focal points for the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum reflected in the curriculum planning, school calendar and timetable
In relation to students and teachers:
How are issues related to students’ diverse needs (e.g. their interests, social needs, leisure and rest, academic abilities) and concerns for interface between different key stages addressed?
Under what circumstances can the lesson or learning time in schools be maximised?
How can space and time be provided for teachers to enhance their professional development?
In relation to resources:
How can the physical environment and facilities of the school be fully utilised to enable better timetabling arrangement?
Reflection and Action
When planning the curriculum, what will you do to avoid the curriculum content being dictated by textbooks?
How would you prepare and adapt technology as an evolving entity to the changing educational contexts and pedagogies in the whole-school curriculum planning?
How can the teaching and non-teaching staff be better deployed to facilitate an effective time-tabling arrangement?
What contributions can the teacher-librarian make?
How can we make good use of parental support to help with school activities?
How can we explore opportunities for co-operation with different organisations?
How can different community resources be utilised to facilitate student learning?
In relation to curriculum planning
How can we offer a broad and balanced curriculum to flexibly cater for student needs?
How many periods should we offer per day/week/cycle?
How can the lesson time be provided to meet the minimum requirement of each KLA?
How can we encourage connections and collaboration across KLAs?
How can the school curriculum, school calendar and timetable be better co-ordinated with co-curricular activities/OLE?
How much time is allocated to the five essential learning experiences?
Are students provided with opportunities to explore their interests and aspirations towards further studies in VPET?
Is there sufficient time for Physical Education lessons and sports?
To what extent can improvements be made through curriculum planning, school calendar and timetabling arrangement?