T- test value of social ties manipulation

6. Limitations and future research

This study has certain limitations, which must be noted, despite the cautious steps that were taken during the theoretical deduction and data collection. First, the strength of social ties in the experimental cyber settings was manipulated in such a way that both friends and non-friends appeared in the brand communities, and the avatars of friends were set to be purely experimental. Thus, subjects may have perceived those “friends” as fictitious, resulting in inconsistent questionnaire results.

Second, future studies can be addressed by investigating (a) the influence of the size of brand community membership on subjects’ perceptions about the presence of their friends, and (b) the influence of various factors on consumers’

positive and negative emotions or brand selection. Third, as the selection of products only focuses on 5 brands of sports shoe, they were selected as the research product in this study. Future studies can focus on different products and conduct different comparisons, such as search products, experiential products, and credence products. Final, an online questionnaire survey was used to collect data in this study, thus, future research can use different methods and compare the experimental results obtained with different research methods.


Aarts, H. and Dijksterhuis, A. (1999). How often did I do it? Experienced ease of retrieval and frequency estimates of past behavior. Acta Psychology, 103(1-2), 77-89.

Adams, P. (2011). Grouped: How small groups of friends are the key to influence on the social web. San Francisco, CA: New Riders.

Argo, J. J., Dahl, D. W., and Manchanda, R. V. (2005). The influence of a mere social presence in a retail context. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(2), 207-212.

Allen, V. L. (1965). Situational factors in conformity. In L. Berkowitz. (Ed.), Advances in experimental and social psychology (pp. 133-175). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Asch, S. E. (1951). Effect of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership and men; research in human relations (pp. 177-190). Oxford, England: Carnegie Press.

Barlow, A. K., Siddiqui, N. Q., and Mannion, M. (2004). Developments in information and communication technologies for retail marketing channels.

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 32(3), 157-163.

Bearden, W. O. and Etzel, M. J. (1982). Reference group influence on product and brand purchase decisions. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 183-194.

Bearden, W. O. and Rose, R. L. (1990). Attention to social comparison information: An individual difference factor affecting consumer conformity.

Journal of Consumer Research, 16(4), 461-471.

Belk, R. (2010). Sharing. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(5), 715-734.

Brown, J. J. and Reingen, P. H. (1987). Social ties and word-of-mouth referral behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(3), 350-362.

Burnkrant, R. E. and Cousineau, A. (1975). Informational and normative social influence in buyer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(3), 206-214.

Calder, B. J., Malthouse, E. C., and Schaedel, U. (2009). An experimental study of the relationship between online engagement and advertising effectiveness.

Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(4), 321-331.

Cha, J. (2009). Shopping on social networking websites: Attitude toward real versus virtual items. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10(1), 77-93.

Chai, S. and Kim, M. (2012). What makes bloggers share knowledge? An investigation on the role of trust. International Journal of Information Management, 30(5), 408-415.

Chiu, C. M, Hsu, M. H., and Wang, E. T. G. (2006). Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1872-1888.

Chu, S. C. and Kim, Y. (2011). Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 47-75.

Chung, N., Han, H., and Koo, C. (2015). Adoption of travel information in user-generated content on social media: The moderating effect of social presence. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(9), 902-919.

Cohen, J. B. and Golden, E. (1972). Informational social influence and product

evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56(1), 54-59.

Dahan, E. and Srinivasan, V. (2000). The predictive power of internet-based product concept testing using visual depiction and animation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17(2), 99-109.

Daugherty, T., Li, H., and Biocca, F. (2008). Consumer learning and the effects of virtual experience relative to indirect and direct product experience.

Psychology & Marketing, 25(7), 568-586.

Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., and Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(4), 522-527.

Floyd, S. W. and Wooldridge, B. (1999). Knowledge creation and social networks in corporate entrepreneurship: The renewal of organizational capability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23(3), 123-143.

Gefen, D. and Straub, D. W. (2004). Consumer trust in B2C e-Commerce and the importance of social presence: Experiments in e-Products and e-Services.

Omega, 32(6), 407-424

Gladwell, M. (2006). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. New York, NY: Little, Brown.

Gnyawali, D. R. and Madhavan, R. (2001). Cooperative networks and competitive dynamics. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 431-445.

Gwinner, K. and Swanson, S. R. (2003). A model of fan identification:

Antecedents and sponsorship outcomes. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(3), 275-294.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tathman, R., and Black, W. (Eds.). (1998). Multivariate data analysis with readings. (4th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hanneman, R. A. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to social network methods.

Riverside, CA: University of California, Riverside.

Hoffman, D. L. and Novak, T. P. (1996). Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: Conceptual foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60(3), 50-68.

Holzwarth, M., Janiszewski, C., and Neumann, M. M. (2006). The influence of avatars on online consumer shopping behavior. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 19-36.

Jahn, B. and Kunz, W. (2012). How to transform consumers into fans of your brand. Journal of Service Management, 23(3), 344-361.

Kaplan, A. M. and Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.

Keng, C. J., Ting, H. Y., and Chen, Y. T. (2011). Effects of virtual-experience combinations on consumer-related “sense of virtual community”. Internet Research, 21(4), 408-434.

Keng, C. J., Liao, T. H., and Yang, Y. I. (2012). The effects of sequential combinations of virtual experience, direct experience, and indirect experience: The moderating roles of need for touch and product involvement.

Electronic Commerce Research, 12(2), 177-199.

Keng, C. J. and Liu C. C. (2013). Can avatar and self-referencing really increase the effects of online 2-D and 3-D advertising?. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 791-802.

Keng, C. J., Pao, C. H., Ting, H. Y., and Chang, N.Y. (2015). Impact of machine and interpersonal virtual experience combinations on sense of virtual community: The moderating roles of optimum stimulation level and motives for reading customer articulations. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 16(1), 34-55.

Kevin, E. (2010). Focus on facebook to drive social success. available at:

http://multichannelmerchant.com/news (accessed 16 February 2010).

Kiesler, C. A. and Kiesler, S. B. (1969). Conformity. Reading, Massachusetts:


Klein, L. R. (1998). Evaluating the potential of interactive media through a new lens: Search versus experience goods. Journal of Business Research, 41(3), 195-203.

Koch, R. and Lockwood, G. (2011). Superconnect: Harnessing the power of networks and the strength of weak links. New York, NY: Random House Digital, Inc.

Kolm, S. (2000). Introduction: The economics of reciprocity, giving and altruism.

Basingstoke, Macmillan Press, New York, St Martin's Press.

Lardinoit, T. and Derbaix, C. (2001). Sponsorship and recall of sponsors.

Psychology and Marketing, 18(2), 167-190.

Lascu, D. and Zinkhan, G. (1999). Consumer conformity: Review and

applications for marketing theory and practice. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(3), 1-12.

Lee, J. (2017). Social capital expectation and usage of social media: the moderating role of social capital susceptibility. Behaviour & Information Technology, 36(10), 1067-1080.

Lee, E. J. (2006). When and how does depersonalization increase conformity to group norms in computer-mediated communication. Communication Research, 33(6), 423-447.

Lee, J., Park, D., and Han, I. (2008). The effect of negative online consumer reviews on product attitude: An information processing view. Electronic Commerce Research and Application, 7(3), 341-352.

Lennox, R. D. and Wolfe, R. N. (1984). Revision of the self-monitoring scale.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(6), 1349-1364.

Li, H., Daugherty, T., and Biocca, F. (2001). Characteristics of virtual experience in electronic commerce: A protocol analysis. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(3), 13-30.

Malatesta, G. (2001, August 22). Conformity rules in cyberspace. The Australian, pp. 40.

Meyer, D. J. and Anderson, H. C. (2000). Preadolecents and apparel purchasing:

Conformity to parents and peers in the consumer socialization process.

Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(2), 243-257.

Naylor, R. W., Lamberton, C. P., and West, P. M. (2012). Beyond the “like” button:

The impact of mere virtual presence on brand evaluation and purchase intentions in social media settings, American marketing association. Journal of Marketing, 76(6), 105-120.

Nelson, P. (1970). Information and consumer behavior. Journal of Political Economy, 78(2), 311-329.

Nunnally, J. C. and Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pai, P. Y. and Tsai, H. T. (2011). How virtual community participation influences consumer loyalty intentions in online shopping contexts: An investigation of mediating factors. Behaviour & Information Technology, 30(5), 603-615.

Raman, N. V. (1996). Determinants of desired exposure to interactive advertising.

Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas, and Austin, Texas.

Park, W. C. and Lessig, P. (1977). Students and housewife: Differences in susceptibility to reference group influence. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(2), 102-110.

Parsons, A. G. (2002). Non-functional motives for online shoppers: Why we click.

Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19(5), 380-392.

Rosenbaum, M. S. and Massiah, C. A. (2007). When customers receive support from other customers: Exploring the influence of intercustomer social support on customer voluntary performance. Journal of Service Research, 9(3), 257-270.

Ruiz-Mafe, C., Marti-Parreno, J., and Sanz-Blas, S. (2014). Key drivers of consumer loyalty to Facebook fan pages. Online Information Review, 38(3), 362-380.

Schaefers, T. and Schamari, J. (2015). Service recovery via social media: The social influence effects of virtual presence. Journal of Service Research, 19(2), 192.

Schiffman, L. G. and Kanuk, L. L. (2000). Consumer behavior (7th ed.). NJ:

Prentice Hall, Inc.

Shih, C. (2009). The Facebook era: Tapping online social networks to build better products, reach new audiences and sell more stuff. Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.

Simonson, I. and Nowlis, S. M. (2000). The role of explanations and need for uniqueness in consumer decision making: Unconventional choices based on reasons. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(1), 49-68.

Skågeby, J. (2010). Gift-giving as a conceptual framework: Framing social behavior in online networks. Journal of Information Technology, 25(2), 170-177.

Snyder, M. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30(4), 526-537.

Stephen, A. T. and Galak, J. (2012). The effects of traditional and social earned media on sales: A study of a microlending marketplace. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(5), 624-639.

Tse, Alan C. B., and Chan, C. (2004). Relationship between interactive functions and web xite ranking. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(4), 369-374.

Valerio, A. A. (2013). Egocentric online social networks: Analysis of key features

and prediction of tie. Computer Communications, 36(10-11), 1130-1144.

Wang, J. C. and Chang, C. H. (2013). How online social ties and product-related risks influence purchase intentions: A facebook experiment. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(5), 337-346.

Wei, H. L., Lin, K. Y., Lu, H. P., and Chuang, I. H. (2015). Understanding the intentions of users to ‘stick’ to social networking sites: A case study in Taiwan. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(2), 151-162.

Zajonc, R. B. (1965). Social facilitation. Science, 149(3681), 269-274.

在文檔中 The influence of mere virtual presence with product experience and social virtual product experience on brand attitude and purchase intention: Conformity and social ties as moderators (頁 32-38)