SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

In document 2017 Subsidized Schools Provident Fund (Page 34-39)

To the Board of Control, Subsidized Schools Provident Fund

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

(a) Financial reporting framework

The Fund has adopted a financial reporting framework incorporating the requirements of the Fund Rules and applicable requirements of Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (HKFRSs), which is a collective term that includes all applicable individual HKFRSs, Hong Kong Accounting Standards (HKASs) and Interpretations issued by the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (HKICPA). A summary of the significant accounting policies adopted by the Fund is set out below.

(b) Basis of preparation of the financial statements

The measurement basis used in the preparation of the financial statements is historical cost except that investments in securities at fair value and trading financial instruments are stated at their fair value as explained in the accounting policies set out below (see note 2(c)).

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the financial reporting framework (note 2(a)) requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgements about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis.

Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

(c) Financial assets and financial liabilities

(i) Initial recognition

The Fund classifies its financial assets and financial liabilities into different categories at inception, depending on the purpose for which the assets were acquired or the liabilities were incurred. The categories are: trading financial instruments, securities at fair value, loans and receivables, and other financial liabilities.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are measured initially at fair value, which normally equals to the transaction price, plus transaction costs for loans and receivables and other financial liabilities that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset or the issue of the financial liability.

Transaction costs on trading financial instruments and securities at fair value are expensed immediately.

The Fund recognises financial assets and financial liabilities on the date it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. Regular way purchases and sales of financial assets are accounted for at trade date.

(ii) Basis of recognition of gains or losses

The Fund has adopted the requirements of Fund Rule 11 to recognise revaluation gains or losses arising from changes in fair value and realised gains or losses on derecognition of financial instruments in the reserve fund (see note 2(c)(iii) and (v)). This is different from the accounting treatment required under HKAS 39 Financial instruments: Recognition and measurement where such gains or losses are recognised in the income and expenditure account.

(iii) Categorisation

Trading financial instruments

These comprise forward currency contracts used by the Fund to manage its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations. Such derivative financial instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting and are categorised as “trading”

under HKAS 39.

Trading financial instruments are carried at fair value, and presented as assets when the fair value is positive and as liabilities when the fair value is negative.

In accordance with Fund Rules 11(1)(a)(iv) and 11(1)(b)(iii), changes in the fair value are recognised as revaluation gains or losses in the reserve fund in the period in which they arise.

Securities at fair value

HKAS 39. In accordance with Fund Rules 11(1)(a)(iv) and 11(1)(b)(iii), changes in the fair value are recognised in the reserve fund as revaluation gains or losses in the period in which they arise.

Loans and receivables

Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market and which the Fund has no intention of trading, other than those that the Fund, upon initial recognition, designates at fair value. This category includes cash at banks, deposits with banks and other financial institutions, and receivables and other assets.

Loans and receivables are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method less impairment losses, if any (note 2(c)(vii)).

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset or a financial liability and of allocating the interest income or interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts or payments through the expected life of the financial instrument or, when appropriate, a shorter period to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Fund estimates cash flows considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument but does not consider future credit losses. The calculation includes all fees received or paid between parties to the contract that are an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and all other premiums or discounts.

Other financial liabilities

These are financial liabilities other than trading financial instruments. They are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

(iv) Fair value measurement principles

The Fund measures its investments in securities and trading financial instruments at fair value at each balance sheet date. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either (a) in the principal market for the asset or liability, or (b) in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability; and the Fund has access to these markets at the measurement date.

and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs. The Fund measures fair values using the following fair value hierarchy that reflects the significance of inputs used in making the measurements:

Level 1 – fair values are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

Level 2 – fair values are determined with inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices);

and

Level 3 – fair values of financial instruments are determined with inputs that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Fund determines whether transfers between levels in the hierarchy should be reflected in the financial statements by re-assessing categorisation (based on the level of input that is most significant and relevant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the balance sheet date.

(v) Derecognition

A financial asset is derecognised when the contractual rights to receive the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or where the financial asset together with substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred.

The Fund uses the weighted average method to determine realised gains and losses to be recognised in the reserve fund on derecognition in accordance with Fund Rules 11(1)(a)(i) and 11(1)(b)(i).

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or when it expires.

(vi) Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

(vii) Impairment of financial assets

The carrying amounts of loans and receivables are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is objective evidence of impairment. If any such evidence exists, an impairment loss is recognised in the reserve fund as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the asset’s original effective interest rate. If in a subsequent period the amount of such impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be linked objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised, the impairment loss is reversed through the reserve fund.

(d) Cash and cash equivalents

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents include cash at banks, deposits with banks and other financial institutions and short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, having been within three months of maturity when placed or acquired.

(e) Contributions and donations

Contributions are received from contributors and donations are received from the Government and Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) schools. Contributions and donations are recognised on an accrual basis.

(f) Revenue recognition

(i) Interest income

Interest income is recognised in the income and expenditure account on an accrual basis, using the effective interest method.

(ii) Dividend income

Dividend income from equity securities is recognised in the income and expenditure account when the share price is quoted ex-dividend.

(iii) Other income

Other income is recognised in the income and expenditure account on an accrual basis.

(g) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions during the year are translated into Hong Kong dollars using the spot exchange rates at the transaction dates. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into Hong Kong dollars at the closing exchange rates at the balance sheet date. In accordance with Fund Rules 11(1)(a)(iv) and 11(1)(b)(iii), all foreign currency translation differences are recognised as revaluation gains or losses in the reserve fund in the period in which they arise.

In document 2017 Subsidized Schools Provident Fund (Page 34-39)

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