S + V ... + to V. 兩個動作同時發生 S + V ... + to have pp. 不定詞動作發生在先 * 他似乎現在很有錢。
He seems to be rich. (= It seems that he is rich.) * 他似乎過去很有錢。
He seems to have been rich. (= It seems that he was rich.) 86. 更不要說...；何況...
S + V ...,
to say nothing of ...
not to mention ...
not to speak of ...
let alone ...
He can speak English, to say nothing of Mandarin.
= He can speak English, not to mention Mandarin.
= He can speak English, not to speak of Mandarin.
= He can speak English, let alone Mandarin.
87. do nothing but + 原形 V 只...(動作) but 可換成 except * 他只是笑。
He does nothing but eat. (= He does not do anything but eat.)
＊假如前面的動詞不是 do，nothing but 要看成等於 only，由該動詞決定後面形式。
如：He enjoys nothing but eating. 他只喜歡吃。 Enjoy + Ving 88. 不得不...；忍不住...
can’t help + Ving but
= can’t help but + V choose but
= have no choice but + to V
= have no alternative but + to V * 我不得不做。
I can’t help doing it.
= I can’t help but do it. = I can’t but do it.
= I have no choice but to do it.
be going to + V
= be about to + V
= be on the point of Ving
n. point 可換成 verge, edge, brink ,eve * 人之將死，其言也善。
When a man is going to die, his words are good.
= When a man is about to breathe his last, his words are nice.
= When a man is on the point of death, his words are gracious.
All you have to do is + (to) V all 後面可以有關代 that
= What you have to do is + (to) V what 後面不可以再有 that
= The only thing you have to do is + (to) V
= You have only to V.
All you have to do is (to) do your best.
= What you have to do is (to) do your best.
= The only thing you have to do is (to) do your best. = You have only to do your best.
91. 當形容詞用的現在分詞 Ving 有主動、正在、令人…...的意思。
當形容詞用的過去分詞 pp. 有被動、已經、感到……的意思。
* 我不會照顧正在哭的嬰兒。 I can’t take care of a crying baby. 主動正在哭的 我父親是一位退休的將軍。 My father is a retired general. 已經退休的 這是一項令人振奮的消息。 This is a piece of exciting news. 令人振奮的 激動的暴民縱火燒大樓。 The excited mob set fire to the building. 感到激動的 口語英文比較難。 Spoken English is more difficult 被說的
92. 1. n. + 形容詞子句
可改成 n. + Ving 片語 子句中動詞為主動時
2. n. + 形容詞子句
可改成 n. + pp.片語 子句中動詞為被動時
* 那本屬於他的書不見了。 * 藏在書裡的郵票不見了。
The book which belongs to him is lost. The stamp which is hidden in the book is gone.
= The book belonging to him is lost. = The stamp hidden in the book is gone.
93. S + 來往站坐 V + 分詞 分詞當主詞補語用 * 他跑著來。 他們鍛羽而歸。
He came running. They returned defeated.
S + 感官V
使役V + O. +
原形 V 一般主動 Ving 強調正在進行的主動 pp. 被動
* 我看見他走進了醫院。 * 他走進醫院的時候被我看到。
I saw him enter the hospital. I saw him entering the hospital.
* 我看見他被送進了醫院。 我把我的作文拿去給老師改。
I saw him sent to hospital. I had my composition corrected by our teacher.
* 我叫他去做。 I have him do it. = I make him do it.
= I get him to do it. get 人+ to V 是超級大例外 95. find
leave + O. + keep
Ving 主動 pp. 被動
* 他發現狗被殺了。 He found his dog killed.
很抱歉讓你久等了。 I’m sorry I have kept you waiting so long.
副詞子句， S + V.
= 分詞構句， S + V. 主動用Ving, 被動用 pp.
When he saw the video machine, he exclaimed with joy.
= (When) Seeing the video machine, he exclaimed with joy. 意思清楚時，連接詞可省。
Though the hotel was crowded, we managed to find a room.
= The hotel crowded, we managed to find a room. 兩句主詞不同時，主詞還是留下。
97. 分詞構句表「接續動作」的變化句型 S + V and S + V.
= S + V， 分詞構句， 主動用Ving, 被動用 pp.
She stood amazed, and (she) did not know what to do.
= She stood amazed, not knowing what to do.