109-1 第一次學藝競試 (L1.2.5)
1. Our seas are heavily polluted by plastic. Studies now suggest __(1)__, on average, one
square kilometer of ocean contains around 580,000 pieces of plastic. Needless to say, this is having a huge effect on ocean life. Around 700 kinds of creatures are directly affected by this waste, mostly through __(2)__ tiny bits of plastic, or through what ’s known as “entanglement.” The latter refers to* occasions __(3)__ sea creatures such as fish or crabs get caught or trapped inside larger pieces of plastic trash. This, of course, not only leads to injury or limits their
movement, but also negatively affects their ability to find food. __(4)__, they either die of their injuries or starve to death.
By continuing to litter the oceans with plastic, humans are destroying the only natural home that these creatures have. After all, it ’s not like they can simply __(5)__ their things and go somewhere else! It’s up to us to make sure that, for years to come, they will still have somewhere to call home.
註：refer to 描述；涉及
（ ）(1) (A) that (B) which (C) what (D) whether
（ ）(2) (A) surrounding (B) producing (C) consuming (D) recycling （ ）(3) (A) where (B) which (C) who (D) when
（ ）(4) (A) Actually (B) Finally (C) Typically (D) Fortunately （ ）(5) (A) end up (B) come across (C) pack up (D) carry out
2. Plastic is slowly but surely destroying our oceans. Unfortunately, the situation only seems
to be getting __(1)__. Land-based plastic processing plants and factories continue to dump their waste into rivers or the sea, and plastic forms a large part of the litter people continue to
__(2)__. This is damaging precious underwater ecosystems* and affecting millions of sea creatures.
__(3)__ the latest studies, by 2025 there could be as much as a ton of plastic in the ocean for every three tons of fish! An even more frightening thought is that around 95% of this waste will be made up of “microplastics.” These are very tiny bits of plastic (measuring under 5mm each) that pollute the water, __(4)__ much damage. Unlike larger “macroplastics,” microplastics usually don’t float on the surface of the sea. It ’s therefore not as if a boat with a large net can simply __(5)__ and scoop up all these little bits of trash. Instead, they settle on reefs* and ocean beds, and are swallowed by sea creatures. In other words, if we don’t do something soon, we’ll have a sea of trash on our hands!
註：ecosystem 生態圈 reef 珊瑚礁
（ ）(1) (A) badness (B) worsen (C) worse (D) badly （ ）(2) (A) surround (B) envy (C) produce (D) poison
（ ）(3) (A) According to (B) Due to (C) In addition to (D) Up to （ ）(4) (A) caused (B) causing (C) causes (D) cause
（ ）(5) (A) take place (B) hang out (C) make sense (D) come along
3. I found a plastic bottle on the beach yesterday. Though trash washes up along the coast all
the time, this bottle can tell quite a story. Its barcode shows, for example, the name of the Chinese city __(1)__ it was made. The barcode also reveals __(2)__ the bottle was produced two years ago. __(3)__ the price label, the product was sold for one dollar in the US. After it was used there, instead of being __(4)__, it simply became litter. At some point, it somehow
made its way into the water and then was swept out to sea by the current. It may have taken a long time for it to float across the ocean. Some fish probably __(5)__ and tried to bite it, which left little marks on it. Numerous* bottles like this are polluting our environment. I think pe ople should be more responsible for their waste. 註：numerous 為數眾多的
（ ）(1) (A) when (B) which (C) where (D) that （ ）(2) (A) which (B) what (C) whom (D) that
（ ）(3) (A) Thanks to (B) According to (C) Up to (D) In addition to （ ）(4) (A) harmed (B) surrounded (C) consumed (D) recycled （ ）(5) (A) came along (B) took place (C) showed off (D) ended up
4. When we arrived at the beach for our big cleanup, I couldn ’t believe my eyes. It was so
dirty! __(1)__, I just stood there staring at all the trash. Why do people keep littering so much? Don’t they realize the damage they’re doing to the __(2)__?
I grabbed my gloves, garbage bag, and tongs, and joined the rest of the class on the sand. First, our teacher divided us into __(3)__ groups, each with aro und six students. Then she had us spread out and tackle* different areas of the beach. Our group was sent from where we were standing all the way __(4)__ the other end of the beach, but I didn’t mind. I felt like taking a walk.
As we started collecting the trash, I noticed that most of it was plastic. Old toothbrushes, toys, food wrappers, and straws just lay there, __(5)__ and __(5)__ all their toxic* chemicals. There were lots of plastic bags too. One caught my eye because on it was the logo of a store that I know only exists in Europe, far, far away. “How on earth did you get here?” I thought to myself.
註：tackle 應付 toxic 有毒的
（ ）(1) (A) On my own (B) For a while (C) All of a sudden (D) In addition （ ）(2) (A) substance (B) production (C) convenience (D) environment （ ）(3) (A) a little (B) each (C) a few (D) much
（ ）(4) (A) to (B) by (C) at (D) on
（ ）(5) (A) decomposing; releasing (B) decomposed; released (C) decomposes; releases (D) decompose; release
5. There once was a plastic bag. It was sent to a __(1)__ store after it was made in a factory.
One day, a group of children came in and bought some snacks. They __(2)__ not carry all these snacks by themselves, so the shop owner gave them the plastic bag. After that, the children went to the beach. The bag was happy to be of use at last, but then the children finished their picnic and went home, __(3)__ to take it with them! Soon after, the wind blew the bag into the sea. Then it was swallowed by a fish. Of course, the fish later died and rotted, and the bag floated out into the ocean again. A big wave came and spat the bag back out onto the beach. __(4)__, a group of responsible students who were collecting trash found it there. After that, the bag __(5)__ in a recycling plant. It hoped that it could be used properly in its next life. （ ）(1) (A) convenience (B) production (C) poison (D) substance
（ ）(2) (A) should (B) will (C) do (D) could
（ ）(3) (A) forgotten (B) forgets (C) forgetting (D) to forget （ ）(4) (A) Personally (B) Finally (C) Actually (D) Recently
6. The plastic bag was very excited when he left the factory. He was sent to a convenience
store, and someone was sure to use him there. His dream finally did come true. A group of children __(1)__ were on their way to the beach came in and bought some snacks. They needed him to carry their stuff away.
The beach was wonderful, but the bag’s luck didn’t last. The kids simply left him there all __(2)__! Then the wind picked him up and blew him right out into the sea, __(3)__ he was swallowed by a fish.
It took a long time for this fish to die and decompose. Then, the plastic bag floated __(4)__ months on the current before a wave cast him back onto the shore. Being a(n) __( 5)__ bag’s not easy, he thought, as some kind souls placed him in a larger black bag. At last, he was taken to a recycling plant along with some other kinds of trash.
（ ）(1) (A) which (B) who (C) where (D) when
（ ）(2) (A) on his own (B) for example (C) for a start (D) in case （ ）(3) (A) which (B) what (C) when (D) where
（ ）(4) (A) with (B) upon (C) for (D) from
（ ）(5) (A) plastic (B) proper (C) obvious (D) eager
7. I was swimming near the land one day when I noticed something shiny in the water. After
eyeing it __(1)__, I decided it must be a juicy little fish. I was getting __(2)__ after not eating for a day or two, and this would make a decent* meal.
Very slowly I swam a little closer, __(3)__ care not to scare it away. I __(4)__ opened my mouth and then, in a flash, darted* forward, and seized my prey* in between my teeth. I bit and bit and didn’t stop __(5)__ the delicate* dinner was halfway down my throat. __(6)__, I felt like there was something very strange inside my body. Somehow, that slippery little fish had __(7)__ getting stuck in my throat. This was the moment __(8)__ I first realized that I ’d made a big mistake. It wasn’t a fish like me after all.
I tried __(9)__ some time to cough it back up, but it was of no use. It was definitel y stuck. Then I tried to swallow something else, but I just couldn ’t get it down. It was __(10)__ that without food, there was no way I could survive. I guess plastic bags make for a deadly dinner. 註：decent 像樣的 dart 飛奔 prey 獵物 delicate 可口的
（ ）(1) (A) for a while (B) at the same time (C) before long (D) all of a sudden （ ）(2) (A) hunger (B) hungrily (C) hungry (D) hungers
（ ）(3) (A) took (B) taking (C) taken (D) takes
（ ）(4) (A) eagerly (B) properly (C) harmfully (D) obviously （ ）(5) (A) unless (B) while (C) until (D) although
（ ）(6) (A) Fortunately (B) Suddenly (C) Actually (D) Additionally （ ）(7) (A) packed up (B) showed up (C) gave up (D) ended up （ ）(8) (A) where (B) which (C) who (D) when
（ ）(9) (A) at (B) for (C) with (D) from
（ ）(10) (A) obvious (B) crowded (C) poisonous (D) plastic
8. Ocean pollution* is really getting out of hand. All around the world, __(1)__ and __(1)__
trash is ending up in the sea and on our beaches. This is not only destroying nature, but also __(2)__ sea creatures and birds. Over 100,000 fish and other forms of ocean life die every single year, __(3)__ as a direct result of swallowing items like plastic bags and pieces of Styrofoam. __(4)__ recent studies, around a million birds a year suffer the same fate.
This is a problem __(5)__ is so serious that it ’s even led to hundreds of so-called “dead zones” in and around the ocean. These are areas __(6)__ high levels of pollution have made living there simply impossible. In other words, dead zones are so full of plastic and other manmade __(7)__ that they can no longer support life. Sharks, lobsters, and seals, simply __(8)__ their things and leave. __(9)__, even underwater plant life cannot survive in these areas.
Today, around 500 of these dead zones exist around the world, and yet humans continue to dump tons and tons of waste into the ocean. Are we hoping some sea god will __(10)__ and clean up all our trash for us? Are we hoping it will all just disappear, or that the ocean will somehow save itself? Perish the thought!*
註：pollution 汙染 Perish the thought! 死了這條心吧！
（ ）(1) (A) little; little (B) more; more (C) many; many (D) much; much （ ）(2) (A) consuming (B) envying (C) poisoning (D) recycling
（ ）(3) (A) harmed (B) harming (C) harms (D) harm
（ ）(4) (A) In addition to (B) Thanks to (C) Similar to (D) According to （ ）(5) (A) , which (B) , who (C) which (D) who
（ ）(6) (A) which (B) where (C) that (D) when
（ ）(7) (A) consumers (B) substances (C) crowds (D) surroundings （ ）(8) (A) carry out (B) go through (C) turn to (D) pack up
（ ）(9) (A) Personally (B) Usually (C) Finally (D) Hardly
（ ）(10) (A) come along (B) die away (C) end up (D) make sure
9. In 2013, a special non-profit organization called The Ocean Cleanup was formed. Its
founder* was Boyan Slat, a Dutch inventor __(1)__ was just eighteen at the time. As the name suggests, the organization’s focus is cleaning the ocean, and it aims to rid the ocean of 90% of its floating plastic trash by 2040.
About a truckload* of human-made waste, mostly in the form of plastic, __(2)__ in the ocean every single second. This ruins underwater ecosystems* worldwide and kills over a million creatures a year. Plastic can also last __(3)__ as long as 400 years before it decomposes completely, and it therefore isn’t going away anytime soon.
The Ocean Cleanup relies on a series of “systems.” These are giant, half-moon- shaped collection structures that __(4)__ along with ocean currents and scoop up floating plastic in a giant net. This trash is then pushed to the shore, __(5)__ it can be collected, sorted, and turned into sellable items. In addition, the team also places “ interceptors” at the mouths of rivers. These act like a giant filter* and catch plastic waste b efore it flows out into the sea. Next, the Ocean Cleanup also plans to address the problem of how so much plastic gets into these rivers. 註：founder 創辦者 truckload 貨車荷載量 ecosystem 生態圈 filter 過濾器 （ ）(1) (A) which (B) where (C) what (D) who
（ ）(2) (A) carries out (B) packs up (C) ends up (D) hangs out （ ）(3) (A) with (B) upon (C) at (D) for
（ ）(4) (A) consume (B) drift (C) produce (D) harm （ ）(5) (A) where (B) which (C) that (D) when
10. Alex and Andrew loved surfing. They loved it so much that they decided to fly all the way
from Florida __(1)__ they were both students, to Bali. This Indonesian island is famous for its great waves and beautiful beaches, so both of them were expecting a surfing paradise. When they finally set foot on a Balinese beach, however, they found themselves __(2)__ by trash instead! Locals then told them the area had actually* been cleaned just hours before. The locals also said they were tired __(3)__ the mess, but more ocean trash simply kept washing up on their beaches. It was then that the two friends realized this was not a problem Bali could handle __(4)__. As a result, they started a company called “4ocean.” The aim of this business is to collect sea and beach junk like plastic bags, and use it to __(5)__ items people can buy. For every 4ocean bracelet* sold, for example, they remove around one pound of trash from coastlines* around the world. It’s junk to wear, for those who care!
註：actually 事實上 bracelet 手環 coastline 海岸線 （ ）(1) (A) , which (B) that (C) who (D) , where
（ ）(2) (A) surrounded (B) recycled (C) produced (D) envied （ ）(3) (A) for (B) in (C) of (D) on
（ ）(4) (A) at the same time (B) on its own (C) all of a sudden (D) for a while （ ）(5) (A) making (B) make (C) makes (D) made
11. Dear John,
It’s hard to say this, but I have to. Although we had some great times together, our __(1)__ must end. I can see now that you aren’t good for me.
Still, I won’t forget you. The time that we __(2)__ together means a lot to me. With you __(3)__ my side, I found all the answers I needed. I learned about new music and games, and even made new friends. But even when I was with my friends and family, I __(4)__ all my time with you. I can’t focus on school with you around. I even turn to you in the middle of the night. Please don ’t __(5)__. The problem isn’t you; it’s me. I know I will miss you, but I have to end this.
（ ）(1) (A) disappointment (B) relationship (C) attention (D) response （ ）(2) (A) have had (B) were having (C) had had (D) are to have （ ）(3) (A) in (B) to (C) by (D) over
（ ）(4) (A) cost (B) took (C) paid (D) spent
（ ）(5) (A) hang out with me (B) go through this (C) turn to me (D) take this personally
12. I was so careful getting ready for my first day of high school. I was going to meet all of the
people I’d know __(1)__ the next three years, so I wanted everything to be just right. But w hen I saw my __(2)__ in the mirror that morning, I almost cried. There, on the tip of my nose, was a zit. And it wasn’t just a small zit, or a pale one. It was big, and it was very red. It __(3)__ a clown nose. I tried medicine to get rid of it, but that j ust made it shinier. I tried to hide it with makeup, but that made it bigger. I tried everything I could think of, but __(4)__ worked. My mom wouldn’t let me stay home from school, either. This was __(5)__. My social life was over. Or at least that’s what I thought that day. When I asked my friend later, she said she hadn ’t noticed the zit at all. No one else had, either.
（ ）(1) (A) from (B) for (C) at (D) upon
（ ）(2) (A) embarrassment (B) reflection (C) memory (D) depression
（ ）(3) (A) looked (B) looked to be (C) looked like (D) looked as （ ）(4) (A) nothing (B) something (C) anything (D) everything
（ ）(5) (A) a sense of fulfillment (B) a waste of time (C) the best opportunity (D) the end of the world
13. Life puts all of us in embarrassing situations sometimes. These situations may be __(1)__
fault or may be accidents. So what should you do when you __(2)__ a fool in front of other people? First of all, try to be realistic*. Did anyone even notice what happened? __(3)__, most people are busy thinking about themselves a lot of the time, and don’t pay much attention to others. If people did notice, what then? Here are some tips that may help:
․Try to keep your sense of humor. If there is __(4)__ about your situation, try to laugh at it. If you can do that, you __(5)__.
․Stay calm. If you need to be alone __(6)__ a few minutes, do so. Everyone gets embarrassed occasionally*, so people will understand.
․Try to __(7)__ other embarrassing things that have happened to you. The new incident* may __(8)__ seem so bad __(8)__.
․Share your story with a friend. Psychologists* say __(9)__ sharing embarrassment with someone else makes it weaker. And you may hear a worse story of theirs!
․Remember, everybody does embarrassing things sometimes. Nobody is __(10)__, in cluding you. Making mistakes makes us human.
․Finally, forgive yourself and move on. You can’t change what happened, but you don’t have to hold on to it forever.
註：realistic 現實的 occasionally 偶爾地 incident 事件 psychologist 心理學家 （ ）(1) (A) you own (B) your own (C) own yours (D) yours own
（ ）(2) (A) feel like (B) feel (C) feel of (D) feel for
（ ）(3) (A) Suddenly (B) Additionally (C) Fortunately (D) Sadly
（ ）(4) (A) funny anything (B) anything funny (C) funnily anything (D) anything funnily
（ ）(5) (A) are off to a good start (B) roll up your sleeves (C) cost an arm and a leg (D) go from bad to worse
（ ）(6) (A) without (B) from (C) at (D) for （ ）(7) (A) reply (B) reflect (C) realize (D) recall
（ ）(8) (A) not; more (B) be; more (C) not; anymore (D) be; anymore （ ）(9) (A) what (B) which (C) that (D) who
（ ）(10) (A) memorable (B) perfect (C) disgusting (D) upset
14. Sally’s smartphone changed her life in many ways. With her phone, it was always __(1)__
to find something to do. She had her music with her all the time, and a web browser to find any information she needed. She could __(2)__ with friends on various apps, such as messaging apps like LINE and social media like Facebook and Instagram. The phone brought her new friends. __(3)__, it brought her new music and games. From checking her friends’ social media feeds when she first woke up in the morning to sending messages just before bed, she __(4)__ her whole day on the phone. Actually, Sally was starting to worry that she used the phone too much. Her parents said she did. Sally knew that her phone __(5)__ made her life better, but lately her grades were getting worse, and she didn’t talk to her friends very much, except on LINE. Was her phone becoming a problem?
（ ）(1) (A) easily (B) ease (C) easy (D) easiness
（ ）(2) (A) refresh (B) communicate (C) disappoint (D) focus （ ）(3) (A) In addition (B) In fact (C) In case (D) In person （ ）(4) (A) took (B) spent (C) cost (D) paid
（ ）(5) (A) suddenly (B) sadly (C) luckily (D) mostly
15. Sam’s father entered her room with an envelope in his hand. Sam recognized the name on
it right away. It was her top-choice university. “Sam, this letter came for you. It ’s probably telling you __(1)__ you have been accepted.”
Sam sighed. “Dad, that envelope doesn’t hold __(2)__. I knew I wasn’t accepted immediately after my interview.”
Sam’s dad asked, “What happened? You never told me about your interview. You looked very sad when you came home.”
“Well, everything was __(3)__ at first. I was doing great until it was time to leave. Then I shook the interviewer ’s hand, turned around, and walked __(4)__ into a wall!” Sam put her head in her hands. “I felt so stupid. They’ll never accept me after that.”
“Well, Sam, why don’t you just open the envelope to __(5)__? Maybe it wasn’t as bad as you think.”
Sam shook her head but took the envelope anyway. She opened it, pulled out a paper, and shouted, “Dad! I got in! They said I made a strong impression*.”註：impression 印象
（ ）(1) (A) what (B) whom (C) which (D) that
（ ）(2) (A) anything good (B) good anything (C) anything well (D) well anything （ ）(3) (A) disgusting (B) perfect (C) embarrassing (D) upset
（ ）(4) (A) ahead (B) once (C) past (D) right
（ ）(5) (A) make sense (B) make a face (C) make sure (D) make a mess
16. Sally looked down at her smartphone. It was such an important part of her life. After
getting the phone, her life had become __(1)__ different. When she had a question —or even when she was just bored—she could always __(2)__ her phone. It was hard __(3)__ goodbye to the phone that had brought her so many new games, music, and friends. She had even begun to think of the phone itself as a friend.
Still, she knew that she had to stop __(4)__ it. The smartphone was taking over her life! With the phone in her hand all the time, she had begun to __(5)__ her friends and family. Her school performance and sleep were also getting worse. Sally sighed and turned the phone off, putting it deep in the back of her drawer. “Goodbye, my friend,” she thought.
（ ）(1) (A) totally (B) slowly (C) fortunately (D) finally （ ）(2) (A) go through (B) look for (C) turn to (D) let out （ ）(3) (A) to say (B) says (C) for saying (D) of saying （ ）(4) (A) to use (B) using (C) by using (D) uses
（ ）(5) (A) respond (B) introduce (C) inspire (D) ignore
17. According to psychologists*, smartphone addiction* is a real and growing problem.
Smartphones __(1)__ the way people live and work, and have many great benefits. However, many people use their phones far too much, and can’t stop themselves. If you __(2)__ use your phone, it’s obvious that you don’t have a problem. But if you do use your phone a lot, how do you know when it’s too much? Some researchers have created a short quiz to help people determine if they have a problem with their phone use. To take the quiz, people simply have to __(3)__ to twenty statements about their feelings about their phone. After they __(4)__ all the statements and rate how much they agree with each, a final score lets them see how much of a smartphone problem they have. If you’re afraid __(5)__ you have a problem, it might be a good idea to take the quiz yourself. Then you will know if you need to take action.
註：psychologist 心理學家 addiction 成癮
（ ）(1) (A) will change (B) were changing (C) have changed (D) are to change （ ）(2) (A) always (B) seldom (C) totally (D) recently
（ ）(3) (A) focus (B) communicate (C) respond (D) connect （ ）(4) (A) go through (B) turn to (C) give up (D) come up with （ ）(5) (A) of (B) to (C) with (D) that