語言、思想與戴維森的三角測量隱喻

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(1){~jLi!i~t;;k~-tg-"'*~a> "'''K~A+1L~it~. ~:1\jtjJ. ~. 67-110. ~:lt.. m-a "J[\mJ!_tlil~~jfjtllt~PiJ' ;f*tt­ .~. •• ~ •• ~~~a~?.9.*.a' •• ~ •• ~.~~~ •• ~M~~ ~~~: ••9.*.a' •• R~~ ••• '~~.~ •• '~.~~ •• ~~~ ~ ~ ~ (Thought and Talk) -:5c 0/ ' .Uft ~ JllJ!tft-1m:t 1fA.:ti1116 ~ 31 it : ,!,~, ~.~~.a •• o~~~_a,._~itft'R.ft~.~k ••• 'd'R.~ A~~ •• ft~~~.~, •• *•• ~o.1m3l •• ~1~'~~J.~.~k' .1m~~ ••- •• a.Ks.1~~"# •• «"~.*'~~'~A ••• ~~ ~ •• ~A~~~.,~a~*.~A.fi •• ~.~A,.m~*~A.~~ •. m.. 0. • o~~,~~ • • ~._~~~.ft.1m~it_-1~k.~.o*:5c~§~k.. •••• ,*g«ili._~itfto/m.a~.~~ ~~~.'~A~~.itft~ •• ~o~*:5co/,ft.~M ••• ~~.~~m.:5c .. -- (Thought and Talk) ~ (Rational Animals) -- 0/ P)f!tili ~.ft : *MI1f~~.~ kA ••• ~~~.#'~~ •• fi •• ~.,ft~~~*MI1f~~.~o~~ •• • m~~~.ftRk~.~~'*:5c~~~.~I~~t~.~~M~~.ft~ •• ~* •• ~~.ft*~o*:5c~ ••• mk.M•• ~~.*~~.~~~I.~. *~~ ••••• ~.~~o~~I.~.~_~.£~~~ •• ~.M.ft~~~ ~A'.~~~·~~~'~~I.~.m!t~~.~0k_ ••• ~~o~~I • •• ~31 •••••• ~k •• t~~,~at~~k •• ~ •••••• ~.~~ ~~~.ft, t-&k~.,!,~,~ •• ~~#'Ii(f1.1i)' ~a~~~.(~ ftl~t:~ ~.~~~._~~.1m~M~~. .'~A~t:~.'.~~~.)~_K.~~,~~~itfto. §.. •• ~·§.~ ~.tIt.ff-~.$ .. A_~:~$~.$·.m~.$·~s tIt.ff-~.$ · '. • *":st ~. 1!9. BP ~ 1]-.t..~.. * to :st. ~ i~. ••. m~.$·s.. El .. '*.t..1t ± 1ie:st THE FIRST PERSON AND PRIVATE. LANGUAGE: A CRITIQUE OF QUINE AND DAVIDSON'S THEORIZATION APPROACH TO M~NmG¥;~~-~~-~~~I~$~~~~§K#L.~'ed~~b~a~~*~'. #rJt£*.!It­.

(2) ~. (~~.kA*.*. •• ).**. Language, Thought and Davidson's Triangulation Metaphor Chung-I Lin Abstract Donald Davidson advocates the view that the constitutional involvement of language in thought is universal -- there cannot be any thought without language. More specifically, he argues that a creature cannot have thought, unless it is a member of a linguistic community, and an interpreter of the speech of others. The thesis invites many critics, mainly because it entails some seemingly counter-intuitive and counter-scientific consequences, like the idea that non-language-using creatures, such as animals and infants, and socially isolated people are not able to entertain any thought. In this paper, I however do not 'intent to join those critics, nor attempt a defense for Davidson from them. It is because that it has never been entirely clear in the first place how Davidson's argument works. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive picture and examination of Davidson's argument for the thesis that only a language interpreter can be a thinker. To achieve my goal, I first analyze in detail the relevant ideas and argument in his early works "Thought and Talk" and "Rational Animals". In the two papers, Davidson argues that a creature cannot have a thought if it does not have the concept of belief, which no one can have unless he is a member of a speech community. Even though it is decided that the argument founded in the early two works is at best only suggestive, a full understanding of it nonetheless leads to a better understanding of Davidson's most mature argument for the dependence of thought on language, which is suggested in his triangulation metaphor. The triangulation metaphor manifests in a holistic way the internal connections among the concepts involved in Davidson's early argument, and so bridges some of the gaps appeared among them. The study of Davidson's triangulation metaphor by itself is interesting, for the metaphor offers ground not only for the accepting of the thesis at stake but also for Davidson's ideas that language and thought are public, and our knowledge of self, other minds, and the external world are interdependent.. Keywords: the concept of belief, the concept of truth, the concept of objective truth, the concept of intersubjective truth, the concept objective. world,. the. concept. of. intersubjective. subjective/objective contrast, triangulation metaphor.. world,. o~. the.

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(10) ~. ( @~.~~ • • • • • )'~M. r~{='&-~_ A-. 1~'F3 EL~, Z11=A. ;~\. 0. {B a~ _r'lh~ ~ *~~ & ~-+l'-~~~~~~{=A--' _ ~ r'lh1 4 - fEJ..B.1~J:l~ft7(dA~1.:>( 'F.) t=l PJl':f)(J-1I J1J...,( ~ 'F3 I'9FJ ,~, Z1l=A;i3\Q~/ ~t. 0. ~ ,-+l'-Jl3E1 -illl lr.D~*{~.&- r'Ih £Jl1.'I'lt-mr---b.L>.l:c.lr.D~*{-= .&--':d:BU:A-r'lh!l::tr'1A~ -:f)(J1l Jrm~-" l§ aJcl, J=J~ - JuX J: -~---1 f1~}\ @ a;l~hK.-1}:A J~dJ~1'I II..:t.. 0. ~ffij. , f;£.-tilltJ5JTiJ I~Utt1~\j~gZP§f1ijI¥J'§~~r:p , iJt1r~-a-J~) ~ - &~m ' lUff~~ ~~~~~~~~I¥Jf!~ffiMi1I¥J~ • • ~oH~~~~.~'~.~~ • • 7~~I¥J - ~I¥J/f~~~l¥Jtt.,~ft~~m~~~~I¥J~~.I¥J~~~~. liT. 0. ffijfj£lUff~t)~m:tj:,:a~. rA. ~~¥U(aware) P J. fD r A. ~~¥U A ~~¥U P J. 1¥J~:5t*~g}]~JlBjj{-tQ El ci1~~(~ J~, ~~HD~~(~JtSt~~) ~*~~~I¥J~:5t. ' tX& fj£{t.!!.ffi1&~) r ~~&j~~I¥J J~'~~J (having reflective thoughts)fD r EliJt~~J (self­ conscious)~gqj310f~ ~ffi!.~{§~;f!lf~I¥JA ' 7iJt1r~~t)I\!~¥UlUff~~~f~*i~ ;£-(D ~ . R osenthaI). F1r::.+;J l"£ nh:n-IT~""'-".'-·¢~EH=h·. JR:T83*B--'7F1r::.f ' f a= ~r'lh83*§. -n., a. r)I...:cJ.IX:U~7JP'T5£ /~,a~J.::E.fitfH · --- ·Il9JJD'J D--K-rJJY.A)::E,li!,Iif3XO'j'Ci\/ D \ ' / JJ.E. lZ9~'2~- OO~Il"'~~, ~~(higher-order ~a btru d ~=~'I'lt-83~. thought)I¥J!lJ.. - 1~~~4t~ = ~I'lt-83~. t:. 1:§g::AE!li ;f.J-::tt-}CS.. cf.JX -=t:JI.J' /~ ,. r:tJ~~!E ;E'J}~" il~ -=t.JLJ, /D,. 8~DIJ;t. 0. 0. '. t\t*ff~B~f.ffi§f1ij~/f. ~a ~~. ~~*~ ~ r'Ih. J..e.7E~M ' ~iJil-t;f(*[jfmiifl.l=I ~. , (l)~~JFf1if~ffi- ~~~~~ , ~~Ij/ffi~Hfj{§ ~ ; (2)~~JF~ - @JgB § I¥Jfifffl ~ , ~~Ij::ffi~fn~{§~~f~~~ ffij~~JFrn~t)f§~ ~ tJ.B~~~~ , f~tJ~Ui~ ~ 8~f!~ , iJt1r~::ffi~fn1'r~~'Ij:{§~ ~§ ~ , iJt1r~~~)I\!~¥U ' ftJtUff~ffij. ~. 0. 0. = a. ~h~=n=. ' L3(.' f=j. il t:l. a '. -+l'-Jl3E1o'i+"T S ~iff~l+I-~d~.xr."t¢I'lt-nh83*§ j'"~ II JiJYL -' I"7'!: ' F3 J ~, ilijX/I.:t:. ~-:fr- }crta~ 1 ::t:.1:r~J J!.J' JD \. 0. ~*iJtl¥Jl\!~~K&I¥J,~~.a~I¥J.m~- oo~~W~/f~I¥J~~: _~*~~~~ ~a ~~~~ .&- r'lh , N~I~{4. ~iI'lf:**I7G:lllO'[:o1jjj:1 a. ~fl~Htf:. 0. &\~{'*{tf:. *~~ ffi= ad~ ~ ~ 'I'It-~'&-r'lh, N. 7E,~, ii~I.:t:.H:i ID,p~X,\:>CII,* ,. , :JI'.iJEJ.v<.,JJj:1 i57E?'r}0ii~ .:t:.IB JD ' P~~\. ~r:p -@~mj!&~~~~~. ' ZJFElP , ~PX~- OOJtSt~~. , ~1'r -~6;-g~'Ij:{§~~~~{ffPJ~ ~ i¥J , :$fC~PX~ -OO El iJt~~~(self-conscious)8~. ~~~ o ~B,~~@~.r:piJt~~~~~'ffifjm~~~B~tt~~,~~. ~OO~.~~1'r£*ffi~0.~~~#• • riJt~~J~OO.~~~f!.o~ @I~if$i:l1 Y9.~. , ~D.a~pJT~ , iflt~&'iJtfr~1=J- lMl~, ;I'~~{§~B~ , iJt1r~&\~Ji1=J. -{l?JJt)'2~f.t.I¥JJ~,~~{-g~ ~~:{£&,{~g~ J~, 5~~:t-'J'JJD\/ D ". , ~D*iJtB~~$~K&1¥J ' lUff~~ , ill~~~Y ~I¥J ' -~I¥J~ r:t;~ , :$fC1=JJF. ---b~f ' f-~~~er'lh83~. ...-:1'F3Y..A~ - IIJ~'jj!'J*Q'J J LJ\ JD \ '. 7. *-,If 1:. U.• 324-26. 8. *-,If . Gli4* . [1993] , 158 ~~4. 9~~~D~. , ¥:r]jlj~~~g~r:p. e~'I'lt-r'lh83~. 9t-,lf .. 0. 0. ' [1982] , 326. 0. 0. ~---b~{~{~= ~ 'I'lt-r'lh83~·fm~. ~..-:f " F3 I IlJ J~" il~.:t.J.J'J".:J" D". :3:..P=l.

(11) *1> '. ,~,~,~tx.,~A{(.J-=-ftJ iMJ:It~. 77. .'~~~ff~~Wti.I¥J~~·A~'~0~~~~.~~~A~~I¥J.~ B9m'~~ , tzO:R-¥~¥-J(D, Dennett) [1996] , !mLi'@f(P. Carruthers)[1996]fOlt*1t~, (M.. Davies)[1992] , 1lmtt~{*~tj:gg;>g~ , ~~x~g~tE~,;t~I¥J.~L:tID~. ~~I¥J~~'~- ®Mg~tt~~I¥J.~L'~~~m~l¥Jo~~,~~ ~~tzOfPJ1~¥U{*;f§~~¥-JI¥J*5~1fIi. '. ~~-@1NWj@I¥JI{'F. '. ••. 1B§jIcijl~fr'@]¥U. }E" A.6{111'm:4. '1~7B~Q :.J1-':A.,D'. j1cM~~~~'xW.M~~I¥J-~I¥J~m~~l¥Jtt.,:t~.M~~1¥J. • 1B~f§~~W{t~fl-~I¥J~m~~I¥JJ~~ ? PJT~~{§~ , gt~J.r t7]1~~~iliW a]lgA~I¥JJ5ttf{ • lZ9llt ' ~~~ , ~fr':f!mW®~fr'I¥J,IGJ,;t~~W m~~~~~ , ~~iJ ' ~fr':Mz19.W~~{§~~m't~· 10$JfL ' ti.Ut~ffiJ~ , ~mm5ll1m~Mlgttzo~~fmW{§~~.~ ~~, ~lt*1E~ffiJ~ , &'~fr'f!M ttl ' W®(~f~~~~*ms5t)~fr'tJ~~$JfI¥J$ , Wm~~$.L:Mz~~jj:~. .~I¥J¥-Jti. 0. ~,~~gt~RW~~~.~o~~'~~~~.MMW~~~~~$.I¥J$. fJJ -. tzO-®J!iihfp~fDf9:~$~. ~g~~fr~RW{§~~f~l~. 0. 1B~. , 1lmWm~~$JfL:Mz~tzo~fr'tJ~I¥Jjj:~f~ , :t , ~~~-@Ag;>g~¥U{*w®{§~m~~@r~.~. .g- , =@~Ij , {*::f~~iJf!tj:g~1*ffilW{§~~.~. 0. , It.~I¥J~~1fIi(2)mtJ~miiitj:g~~~ , ~~~~fr'~M 7~fr'W®JGI,;t~Wm~~~~'I§'~1¥J ' =@9W~fr'~~MmWf§;% .*t~~tzDfPJffi1ijgIl it~..!iI¥JO~? 1£[1982]$ , It.~~tJ5t;ffT r_M(surprise) J * rffifH~J ~@W m5M~fr'mt)~DJ[. 0. ~ ; ~7@@5t;ffT ' It*t~19.W~~tj:gmC±Hf{pJA@I¥J~Bjj. :~lHa~IfIi~'. 0. {*5t;ffT_~~:fJi.. r ~:t-®~Hm~~.~~L~.W]~,~~I¥JJE5t&\~11*1* J 11 ~~lt.~~tz01PJt).~~:fJ!.~ ,IGJ,~~~l;%~*5¥tl ,IGJ,~~ • fili~ : 12. 10. 1i]J:. '326. 0. 0. -tUH!. ' afrHE.~-t-*-1mA.1ft-:t:j£?Jf~1t:t{(.J~~.. '. ~fr'*. ~~.i.fiE.~1t1t:t{(.J#. W~-1m~~{(.J~~o~~'~fiE..~~fiE..~n:t{(.J.£*{(.J#I'~~:t:j£~~,a~~ ~t~~~~~n:tAfia{(.J~~~.'~~~~n:t{(.J.:t°. 111i]J:.o 12 Ii] J:.. 0.

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(14) w. (~~.~*. CP1~~i!1t&. '. ••••• )'*AA. ~~l¥Jf§{§iMtMl¥J1§~W~l¥J~;1J~HtJ\15L/fr~. [~D~]~~. [­ 00111 1L 1n ~ l¥J 1§ ~ l¥J ~ e Jf1:E ) (the idea of an objective reality which is independent of my belief) l¥Jm~ J 15 i§::fI ' ~*~ffl [-@Il1i1LD~~l¥J1§~!¥J 0. 0. ~eJf1:E)m@lm~,*~~~e.g.~l¥Jr~eJm@l®~o.~~~~ &Bl¥J".g»®~,~e.g.~.W~E~:~~A~7B'~~.m,. ~l¥J{§~l¥J.~~~~-@Il1i~1n~l¥J{§~Z~l¥J~e.1:E°~~~7 [ -@ 1Ii1L1n~l¥J1§~l¥J~eJf1:E) i§:@1.~ ,. l¥JUlf '. ~~~M-J~l¥J1§~~Q}ij~~. .l¥Jfu~Q}~~~l¥Jo~7i§:~,m1:E~~l¥J~mti.~'~ff~~#A~. [ -@Il1i1LD~~l¥J{§~l¥J~e.1:E ) m@lm~ , ~~IJ~fr~/fA~13:{i1J{§~? 1:E [1982]CP~*t~Mz15i~m{~~fr~-@Ii§~ ~~f ' ~fr~Q}l:)1'Fmfll¥J5tfJT ~ ~A.~ti!!~f-IM§1§ p ~ , 1ili-~I!U~7~1iliffflB p ~YQ}ij~~.l¥J ' 1Z9~~ fr~/f~f§{§~fr~3lJm~l¥J*~ ; i§:fugt~IDt~~fr~f§1§ p ~ , ~fr~-~3,>g~ p 0. 0. ~Q}~~Jf~&~-@Il1i1L~~~{§~Z~l¥J~e.1:E°lZ9a'~~/fA~ [ -@1I11L1n~l¥J{§~l¥J~e.1:E)i§:@I.~'~~~/fti/f~IDt~~A~ff {i1J1§~. 0. ~@Ifr3mIDt. '. ~~fr~IDt~fr~f§1§ p ~ , ~fr~-~ffi~ p ~Q}ij~~~. ~JlIJIDt~fr~~O~ p tt~~fr~f§1§ p ~~. 0. ~D~fr~e~l¥J. '. ,. .m7~fr~' l¥J1§~~. Q}~~~,ti~ • • 7{§~l¥Jm~o@~i§:@5tm~m~~~l¥Jrn.N~M. WJ. 0. IZSJ~. , i§:~~~-@Ie*~~El~l¥J{§~~pJT&JGI,l¥JAPJTf'Fl¥J5tfJT. m~. , ijft~fr~*~~::t~e~tt(the. 0. subjective-objective contrast)i§:OO. • • ::t~e~tt 16 1:E[1982Jep , ~.. , A~Fa~~*(requires) *~1~-¥R~'§'mm~~ , ffflfC~15i~~~fr~ff{i1J~!±I*5z:fflB ~D*.f£::t~ ft~tt ' RW,&1'F• • ~ft.~zm~~Fa~Zmtftl¥J-OO&'~1~1t ' ~tt~ ~. 0. ~*l~g,>g~. 0. 0. N~~~l¥Jo~~~~.f£~ft.gZm~~{§~Zm~,gt~.M~~l¥J{§. ~~~~l¥JQ}ijg'~. ' ~fr~~/fQ}ijg.M~fr~ l¥JFa~~~~l¥JJ:ijijgtt ~* ' ~~fffl~ , JJ1tJpOj1;J5/fff}frDJJ1tJPOitlif/lZ(JP1tJ (l;jSjZPOff}) , Zra'l¥J5t53IJ(the distinction between things in fact being the case and things seems to be the case) ~/ff¥1:El¥J ; ~gt~$f!.fiJlPJ1o/J~D;¢~~D{i1JQ}ij~W. ~O/)~D~ff~Z~pJT/f~ , ~$t!!mi§:@IQ}ijgl~ , {i1~~fr~~$f!.m~fr~l¥J{§~~ 0. fffl~:}F • • 7::t~ftZra'l¥J~tt 0. IS. fli]..t. •. 16. fli]..t. •.

(15) t~1; , .w.~~~~~fI-J-=-fll iM./l!;~. iT~l¥J~ijg'l1:. 0. ~ii]§3~ , fF~-1lJEI~B~I¥J~§{§1f. '. 81. ~fr1&:<AE:¥:m7±'~. , ~?Mm~I¥J~.R /fU~H~:f1~ffiji§{~-'f~D~I¥J$fo/J ~ ffij , ~D*~/fijg:Elm!til ' $~foJt~fD$~fotftJjiJlZ($~{JXSPfO~)~Fs~~5t )]Ij , ~1J!/f~ijg~-@$~fott;ffJlZI¥J~l~ 1Z9~ , ~~F~ $~foJt,PJf~1lJ ~~{'F~-OO~ijgl¥J~tt ' ~~rj$~fOt€/ffJlZi§:1lIm:~:Mz1~~B~ i&1&~~!Ui ili~8}]7m{iiJ¥:m~I5[~:EI~WE~ -- ( -oo1;tr[1i~~I¥J{~~I¥J~I5[.1£ ) , ~ llf1tt. 0. ~A~§t1f~. 0. 0. 0. ~~±. ~l5[tl;f ttl¥J - 1lJ&:\~{L~Wf:. 0. 1£[1975]CP , lUfE~?JTJ1H5-I¥J~i§:{~~ifB~ : ~~1a~--¥:m±'~I5[~tt-­ ~~~I5[~:EI~m:~o~~M~,~~.m~m.~I¥J~* o ~~ , m~~~ ~{~~~*(requires) ¥:m±'~W~tt? ~*fE~~1£~7~~§3~1&{'F7 ~~I¥J. '§'ffij17 : - 1m 1. #J ft -af. t:.J.. 1! ::f ~ ~. * M... propositions)t:.J..~ ~ 7J ~*.&.JJI i!!-.J. ~ I~' ~, 0. r. (without entertaining any. t -af t:.J.lldH::f!ill ~UJH~.. ' ,*:il '. .-f*,~~ 0 t-aft:.J. ' . , ' , ~~, ~~t~ff~*$"~:lf7Jll*#J 0 t -af t:.J. ' . ~ it' (generalize) - t ... 1f.tN 1~ ~~ 'AU t J')f .&. JJI ~ ,Ol ~ iii" ,~ ~~m.&.JJlo$W'. •• 1!~~~'rtffl~~~~,tffl~~~AA~~. 1m1.li*Jfl*tli.*ltlf~ .... i~J~~3~~7~Tii~OO /IjSl,~ .~*fE~. ,A. 0. 0. ®~-oo~~o/Ja A 1~~¥:m±'~W~tt. J~~~~-~~~i:J!!fj\i5lI¥Jj1[~&J~I¥J{tj~. ~i:J!!fj\i5ll¥J&l¥~fM. ,A. '. tJ:B~fN. J~~~~-~~. ' fD?g&HI¥J1mt!j{~l¥fDm~~*ti1~~. it~I¥J~J~ tJ:[)~ , ~fr1~~illD~ffijtJ:l300~~o/Jmm-OO~§1a1f? ~D* ' ~fr1 /fijg-g-:Eltth~~~m-OO~§ffi1f ' tJ:I3~ , ~fr1~1f~~ , ¥:m±'~fi~tt~~ ~ffi~I¥J-1lJ~~.~ o ~. ~ijg~.~~.~.oo~ • • ~m~om-,. ftj1[W:~tJ:I3~~fo/JE/f~~{§~ , {B~~®{J\g~_BP~/frnJl¥J~$; IZ9llt ' ~*fE~~~~ftlEz~~{UJ?JT~tJ:I3~l¥J~fo/J/f~~ffi~I¥J:ElEEB}]a~f~I±D~ m ~fr1.~~8}] , m {UJ1~~¥:m±'~fi~tt ' -OO~fo/JEJ~~~~-~f1~ '. ~~&l¥~*ti. 0. 0. 0. ='. Ui5ll¥J&l¥~*ti. 0. J;J~~~fr11£[1982]CP?JTijg~f~. J7~..LO. , ~~*fE~~D{UJ~ifB~1§~{1( !~~1§~~~1.

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(41) t~-r. ' .~, ~~~Ht410;.fll iM-t-""jf,J. 107. m~tt~~~~m~~~~'~ -~~~~m~~~~~¥.,~~,~~~ ;fDf1Z~~~iJtEtW~ JEGt~;fDm~:1J1!~*g~t§~~. §JJJUW(the principle ffl<:~-OO~~i*~IJ. 0. ~f~1~~Ut~pJT3:.~~J[. of charity):;rfif1Z~ffl<:~-llI~~~&;;~ffl~. , m[QJ~f1Z~~. 0. ~~U'*~M~~~:;r~=~~ • •~~~.~~~~llI~* o ~~M~ ~~~=~~U• • ~$(Df~ l~JJUB,EjSI, ~$(Df~{iX~!~m ~. 5;Dili '. $(D*&ff§i~~JW~. 0. ~=~~U • •~r:p~fr~. , $(D*1~ffAJ~Zra~~m~1~~ , ~fr~~ifJ(zJff~. ¥.*~-llI&~~m~~ffffWM~~~~o~~OOM~~X~~'~~~ m ~ &;\~tili~A-OO JEjSI,;fJ!~~~. 0. *~~~~~~~~**~*~~±~~~~.

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