漢語母子對話中修護行為的研究 - 政大學術集成

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(1)國立政治大學語言學研究所碩士論文 National Chengchi University Graduate Institute of Linguistics Master Thesis. 政 治 大. 立 指導教授: 黃瓊之博士. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. Advisor: Dr. Chiung-chih Huang. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. n. v i n Ch 漢語母子對話中修護行為的研究 engchi U A Study of Repair Behavior in Mandarin Mother-Child Conversation. 研究生: 李怡嫻 撰 Student: I-Hsien Li 中華民國 九十九年七月 July, 2010.

(2) List of figures. Acknowledgment……………………………………..………………………..............v Chinese Abstract………………………………...……………………………............vi English Abstract...……………………………………………………………...........vii Chapter 1 Introduction………….…………………………………………. ……….1 1.1 Motivation……………………………………………………….....................1 1.2 The purpose of the study ……………………………………………………..2 Chapter 2 Literature review…...……………………………………………………..3 2.1 The definition of repair……………………………………………………….3 2.1.1 Repair and correction…………………………………………………...4 2.1.2 Repair and repetition …………………………………………………...4 2.1.3 Categories of Repair……………………………………………………5 2.2 Pragmatic functions and children’s repair…………………………………….8 2.2.1 Slobin’s Principles…………………………………………………….8 2.2.2 Garvey…………………………………………………………………9 2.2.3 Chang………………………………………………………………...10 2.2.4 Ke…………………………………………………………………….10 2.3 Repair in child language……………………………………………………11 2.3.1 Studies on English-speaking children’s repair ………………………11 2.3.2 Studies on Mandarin-speaking children’s repair …………………….13. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. io. Chapter 3 Methodology …………………………………………………………….16 3.1 Subjects and data……………………………………………….…………..16 3.2 Coding framework…………………………………………………………17 3.3 Coding system……………………………………………………………..23 3.4 Reliability…...……………………………………………………………...25. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Chapter 4 Result and Discussion ………..…………………………………………26 4.1 Repair types………………………………..……………………………….26 4.2 Devices of Repair…………………………………………………………..34 4.2.1 The devices of repair of children’s repair utterance………………….34 4.2.1.1 Distribution for repair devices of children’s utterance………34 4.2.1.2 Distribution for Verbal repair utterance of children’s repair utterance …………………………………………………….36 4.2.1.3 Distribution for linguistic structure of children’s repair utterance……………………………………………………..38 4.2.2 The devices of repair of mothers’ repair utterance…………………...42 4.2.2.1 Distribution for repair devices of mothers’ repair utterance……………………………………………………..42 ii.

(3) 4.2.2.2 Distribution for Verbal repair utterance of mothers’ repair utterance………………………………...…………………...45 4.2.2.3 Distribution for linguistic structure of mothers’ repair utterance……………………………………………..………46 4.2.3 Summary……………………………………………………………..52 4.3 Pragmatic functions of Repair utterance…………………………………...53 4.3.1 The relationship between repair devices and pragmatic functions of children’s repair utterance…………………………………...53 4.3.2 The relationship between repair devices and pragmatic functions of mothers’ repair utterance…………………………………….64 4.3.3 Summary…………………………………………………………......73 Chapter 5 Conclusion ….…………………………………………………………...75 5.1 General Findings……………………………………………………….75 5.2 Limitations and suggestions……………………………………………77. 政 治 大 Reference ……………….……………..……………………………………………..78 立 Appendix ……………...……………………………………………………………...82 ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. iii. i n U. v.

(4) List of Figures. Figure 1 The structure of repair sequence………………………………………. Figure 2 The structure of repair………………………………………………… Figure 3 Coding structure for devices of repair of repair utterance…………….. Figure 4 Frequency of repair types by age groups……………………………… Figure 5 Percentage of children’s devices of repair utterance…………….......... Figure 6 Percentage of children’s Verbal repair utterance by age………………. Figure 7 Percentage of children’s linguistic structure of repair utterance by age. Figure 8 Percentage of mothers’ devices of repair utterance………………….... Figure 9 Percentage of mothers’ Verbal repair utterance ….………………….... Figure 10 Percentage of mothers’ linguistic structure of repair utterance ….…... 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. iv. i n U. v. 3 18 24 27 35 37 39 43 46 47.

(5) 致謝. 我能夠完成這篇論文,首先要感謝的是我的指導教授黃瓊之博士。如果沒有 老師耐心的指導、不厭其煩的討論與批改以及鼓勵我要堅持,就沒有這篇論文的 完成。尤其返回工作崗位邊寫論文期間,老師的鼓勵更是我不放棄的動力。此外, 我也要感謝我的口試委員詹惠珍博士與陳淑惠博士,他們二位給我許多寶貴的指 正,讓這篇論文更完整。感謝所上的許多優秀的老師,讓我學習到語言學的知識: 徐嘉慧老師、何萬順老師、蕭宇超老師、萬依萍老師。還有助教惠鈴學姐,總是 熱心的回答我的問題並給予我許多幫助及貼心提醒與鼓勵。 在碩士班階段,我認識許多鼓勵我的師長及好朋友。劉老師、趙老師及楊鎮 鴻學長,若沒有他們不斷的鼓勵,我無法走上語言學的領域。並且,語言習得研 究室的學長姐與學弟妹:郁彬、康雯、冠男、妃容與曉晴,謝謝他們給予我許多 的幫助,尤其妃容與曉晴在最後這個階段總是盡可能的幫助我解決許多疑難雜 症。還有一起讀書的好朋友:慧盈、聰賓、儷雲、雅婷與佩郁,尤其是雅婷與佩 郁,在我最後這段寫論文的階段,感到挫折、沮喪時,持續的給我關心、加油打 氣。工作環境裡學校同事也給我很多支持與幫助:毓敏、毓敏、鳳枝、家元、素 惠主任。高中好友六姐妹,特別是素菁,感謝她以過來人身分勉勵我,還有家銘 子雯、盈絜在最後口試的階段不斷給我鼓勵。這一切我覺得十分感恩。 最後要感謝我的媽媽,如果沒有媽媽開放的教育態度,就沒有不斷追尋夢想 的我,她不僅給我精神的支持,也給我實際的幫助,幫我照顧女兒佩霓,讓我能 安心完成論文。也謝謝先生煌翔教我統計,使論文更趨完整。. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. v. i n U. v.

(6) 國立政治大學研究所碩士論文提要 研究所別:語言學研究所 論文名稱:漢語母子對話中修護行為的研究 指導教授:黃瓊之. 博士. 研究生:李怡嫻 論文提要內容:. 政 治 大. 本篇論文的目的在於討論兒童在漢語母子對話中修護行為(repair behavior). 立. 的情況,研究問題如下:1.兒童修護形態(repair types)的表現狀況 2.兒童修護. ‧ 國. 學. 行為在語言形式、語用功能的習得是否隨年紀增加而呈現發展變化 3.母親的語言. ‧. 形式、語用功能隨著兒童年紀增加有何改變。研究對象是六位兒童與他們的母親,. Nat. io. sit. y. 年紀介於三歲至五歲。研究結果顯示,語言型態的使用隨年紀增加而有所不同,. er. 年幼孩子相較於年長孩子更依賴母親來開啟修護句型。並且,結顯示,三歲組採. al. n. v i n Ch 用 Lexical 語言形式的修復,另一方面年長孩子運用 e n g c h i U Syntactic. Editing terms 來執行修護行為。最後,母子對話的互動過程可以幫助孩子習得運用 更成熟的修護技巧,年紀越大的小孩越能掌握以多樣的語言型式來達成多樣的語 用功能。而這些不同可能是孩子的語言學習能力、記憶廣度、及認知能力所導致。. vi.

(7) Abstract The use of repair strategies has been pointed out as important characteristics for children to develop mature conversation skills. This thesis aims to investigate how children acquire repair in the interaction with their mothers. Six dyads in three age groups from three to five year olds are investigated. There are three research questions proposed: first, what patterns of repair are used by Mandarin-speaking three-year-old,. 政 治 大. four-year-old, and five-year-old children? Second, is there a developmental change in. 立. children’s repair types, linguistic forms, and pragmatic functions in conversation?. ‧ 國. 學. Finally, how would mothers’ repair linguistic forms and pragmatic functions change. ‧. with children’s age? Each repair utterance in the repair sequence of children and their. Nat. io. sit. y. mothers was analyzed in term of: (1) Repair types: SISR, OISR, SIOR, and OIOR. er. (Schegloff, 1992). (2) Linguistic forms: nonverbal, lexical, syntactic, editing term (Ke,. al. n. v i n C h functions: emphasis, 2005), and combination. (3) Pragmatic e n g c h i U specification, confirmation, elaboration, and floor-holding (Garvey, 1984; Chang, 1998; Wei, 2003). The result showed that younger children contributed relatively higher percentages of OIOR than older children. In contrast, older children contributed relatively higher percentages of SISR than younger children. It appeared that trend of the provision of guidance by mothers may decrease as children’s ability to repair developed with age. Second, it appeared that the influence between the children and the mothers is mutual in the. vii.

(8) course of interaction. In other words, children’s maturity of repair ability influences how the mothers interact with the children. Moreover, the findings display children’s discrepancy in language development around three years old. It is observed that three-year-old group adopts Lexical of linguistic forms to repair. On the other hand, older children used Syntactic and Editing term of linguistic forms to repair. Finally, the interaction of linguistic forms and pragmatic function displayed that both mothers and. 政 治 大. the children in all age groups use more Specification than other categories. It appears. 立. that in mother-child interaction, both parties tend to apply repair to specify the other’s. ‧ 國. 學. intention. The result also indicates that older children appear to use repair to display. ‧. their involvement in the conversation for an even large variety of pragmatic functions.. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. viii. i n U. v.

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