行動電腦應用於國小教師教學使用意向之研究:以臺中市國小為例

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國立臺中教育大學數位內容科技學系碩士在職專班

碩士論文

指導教授:方覺非 博士

行動電腦應用於國小教師教學使用

意向之研究:以臺中市國小為例

The Use Intention of Mobile Computers Applied in

Elementary School Teachers’ Teaching:

An Example of Taichung City

研究生:陳香雯 撰

中華民國九十九年六月

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摘要

現今E化的教育環境中,可透過網際網路快速的傳遞知識。但是受到時間或地點的 限制,教師就只能在傳統的教室上課,教學情境受限,學生學習成效相對受影響。因此 教師使用行動電腦融入教學活動確實有其必要性。本研究主要探討教師個人特質、行動 電腦變項,對於行動電腦應用於國小教師教學使用意向之影響。研究方法採用問卷調查 的方式進行研究,並以台中市國小教師為研究對象。問卷內容包人格特質焦慮、教師資 訊素養、行動電腦自我效能、行動電腦焦慮與行動電腦教學使用意向五個向度,統計方 法是使用SPSS軟體進行描述性統計分析、相關分析、因素分析、迴歸分析。 研究結果顯示行動電腦焦慮是本研究的關鍵決定因素,而次重要的因素是資訊素 養、第三項重要因素是行動電腦教學使用意向,總共佔有 74.73%的解釋變異量。也就 是說教師感受到的行動電腦焦慮最重要,如何讓所有的國小教師都不會有行動電腦焦慮 情境產生,首要任務應是消除教師對於行動電腦或 3C 科技產品的恐懼感。其次,資訊 素養的提升,在小學應該安排教師在每週進行資訊研習課程,加強行動電腦的教學與使 用介紹等相關課程。其三,行動電腦教學系統若能適時提供教師教學上有用的資訊,則 能增進教師使用行動電腦教學的意願。 關鍵字:國小教師、行動電腦、行動電腦焦慮、資訊素養

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Abstract

Despite the fact that the educational environment is becoming more computer and

internet-based, teachers generally continue to teach in traditional classrooms where the

teaching context is limited. Teachers need to consider using mobile computers in their

teaching in order to broaden their teaching possibilities. The main purpose of this paper is to

study how teachers’ personal traits affect the choice of using mobile computers in teaching.

The subjects of this study are elementary school teachers in Taichung City. The method used

to investigate this connection is through questionnaires. The questionnaire have five parts,

which include sections on personality trait anxiety, teachers’ information literacy, mobile

computer self-efficacy , mobile computer anxiety, and use intention of applying mobile

computer in teaching . SPSS software is used for performing descriptive statistical analysis,

reliability analysis, factor analysis, and regression analysis.

The most important factor in a teacher’s decision to use mobile computers in the

classroom is found to be mobile computer anxiety, followed by information literacy and the

use intention of mobile computer in teaching. The top three factors account for 74.73% of the

explained variance. To eliminate mobile computer anxiety in elementary school teachers, the

fear of mobile computers needs to be addressed. In addition, weekly information-related

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mobile computers in teaching. If the mobile computer teaching system can provide the

teachers with useful information for teaching at the right moment, teachers’ intention of using

mobile computer in teaching will increase as well.

Keywords:Elementary School Teachers, Mobile Computer, Computer Anxiety,

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List of Content

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ... 1 1.1BACKGROUND... 1 1.2MOTIVATION... 4 1.3AIM... 7 1.4LIMITATION... 8 1.4.1 Scope ... 8 1.4.2 Subjects... 8 1.4.3 Method... 8 1.4.4 Tool... 8

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ... 9

2.1MOBILE COMPUTERS OR DEVECE USING WIRELESS NETWORKS ... 9

2.1.1 The definition of mobile computers... 9

2.1.2 The wireless network environment ... 10

2.1.3 Mobile computer, mobile learning and thier application to teaching ... 14

2.2INFORMATION LITERACY... 17

2.3COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY... 20

2.3.1 Self-efficacy ... 20

2.3.2 Computer self-efficacy... 21

2.3.3 Related studies on research variables and computer self-efficacy ... 23

2.4COMPUTER ANXIETY... 28

2.4.1The meaning of computer anxiety ... 28

2.4.2The computer anxiety scale ... 29

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD... 36

3.1RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS... 36

3.2RESEARCH PROCESS... 37

3.3QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND DATA COLLECTION... 39

3.3.1 Questionnaire design... 39

3.3.2 Sampling method and data collection ... 43

3.4DATA ANALYSIS... 44

3.4.1 The descriptive statistical analysis... 44

3.4.2 Factor Analysis ... 45

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CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS... 46

4.1DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS... 46

4.2ITEM, RELIABILITY, AND FACTOR ANALYSIS... 49

4.2.1 Item analysis... 49

4.2.2 Reliability analysis ... 50

4.2.3 Factor analysis... 51

4.3REGRESSION ANALYSIS... 55

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS ... 66

5.1RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS... 66

5.2RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS... 71

REFERENCE ... 74

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List of Tables

TABLE 2-1COMPARISON OF WIRELESS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY... 12

TABLE 2-2COMPARISON BETWEEN CABLE NETWORK AND WIRELESS NETWORK... 12

TABLE 2-3DOUBLE NETWORKS INTEGRATION PROJECT... 14

TABLE 2-4DEFINITIONS OF INFORMATION LITERACY BY SCHOLARS AND THEIR PERSPECTIVES. 20 TABLE 2-5COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY RELATED RESEARCH... 26

TABLE 2-5COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY RELATED RESEARCH (CONT.) ... 27

TABLE 2-5COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY RELATED RESEARCH (CONT.) ... 28

TABLE 2-6A LIST OF COMPUTER ANXIETY SCALE BOTH AT HOME AND ABROAD. ... 30

TABLE 2-7COMPUTER ANXIETY RELATED RESEARCH... 33

TABLE 2-7COMPUTER ANXIETY RELATED RESEARCH (CONT.) ... 34

TABLE 2-7COMPUTER ANXIETY RELATED RESEARCH (CONT.) ... 35

TABLE 3-1QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN... 43

TABLE 3-2SAMPLING METHODS... 44

TABLE 4-1STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS. ... 48

TABLE 4-2.SUMMARY OF ITEM ANALYSIS... 49

TABLE 4-2.SUMMARY OF ITEM ANALYSIS.(CONT.) ... 50

TABLE 4-3SUMMARY OF KMO AND BARLETT’S TEST... 52

TABLE 4-4RELIABILITY AND FACTOR ANALYSIS... 53

TABLE 4-4RELIABILITY AND FACTOR ANALYSIS (CONT.) ... 54

TABLE 4-4RELIABILITY AND FACTOR ANALYSIS (CONT.) ... 55

TABLE 4-5TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED AND PERCENTAGE OF VARIANCE... 55

TABLE 4-6SUMMARY OF PEARSON CORRELATION ANLAYSIS... 56

TABLE 4-7SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODEL. ... 57

TABLE 4-8ANOVASUMMARY. ... 58

TABLE 4-9COEFFICIENTS SUMMARY. ... 58

TABLE 4-10SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODEL. ... 59

TABLE 4-11ANOVASUMMARY. ... 60

TABLE 4-12COEFFICIENTS SUMMARY. ... 60

TABLE 4-13SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODEL. ... 61

TABLE 4-14ANOVASUMMARY. ... 61

TABLE 4-15COEFFICIENTS SUMMARY. ... 62

TABLE 4-16SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODEL. ... 63

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TABLE 4-18COEFFICIENTS SUMMARY. ... 64

TABLE 4-19REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PREDICTED PATH RELATIONSHIPS. ... 65

TABLE 5-1SUMMARY OF PREDICTIVE REGRESSION ANALYSIS... 69

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List of Figures

FIGURE 2-1INFORMATION LITERACY ANALYSIS DIAGRAM... 19

FIGURE 3-1RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS. ... 37

FIGURE 3-2RESEARCH PROCESS. ... 39

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Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Background

It has been about half a century since the invention of the computer, and it has had an

enormous impact and influence to society. During the 1980s to 1990s, computers were

growing by leaps and bounds, and with the debut of the first laptop notebook computer as

well as the birth of the wireless Internet, the information technology are growing at an

amazing speed, and the wireless Internet is even closely related to the day-to-day life of every

one of us. Recently, with the introduction of mini laptops or notebooks, mobile computers

have become a necessary part of our life and a valuable learning tool. During the period from

2002-2007, Executive Yuan developed his “Challenging 2008: Major Plans for National

Development”, in which was the promotion of “E-Taiwan”, and the establishment of “A Fiber

to the Home”, which was an island-wide network in which citizens across the island could

have access to the internet no matter where they lived. Other programs (“E-Government”, “Bridging the Digital Divide”, “E-Life”, and “E-Business”) were designed to enable Taiwan to become one of the countries in Asia which made the best use of the Internet (CEPD, 2003).

What followed during the period 2007 to 2011 was that the government invested 55.6

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also formulated the “M-Taiwan” plan to make Taiwan move from an E-society to an

M-society through the construction of a wireless broadband network, in the hope of achieving

the goals of mobile internet service, mobile life, and mobile learning. A “Double Networks

Integration Project” was also introduced which included the two main mobile phone and

wireless networks. The project would integrate with the General Packet Radio Service and

Wireless LAN to develop a future networking move toward mobility. With the wireless

environment developing rapidly, mobile computer use will increase. (National Information

and Communications Initiative Committee, 2010)

The Ministry of Education had promoted two plans the “TANet to Elementary and

Junior High Schools Plan” and the “ICT Education Infrastructure Plan”. In these plans, all

elementary and junior high schools had to not only set up computer classrooms but also had

access to the Internet, thereby speeding up the process of equipping both elementary teachers

and junior high school teachers with a basic knowledge of IT (Ministry of Education, 1998).

In 2001, the Ministry also started planning the “Master plan for ICT in education”, which

promoted the integration of IT with teaching in elementary schools and junior high schools

(Ministry of Education, 2001).

The total number of trained teachers from all counties and cities with information

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teachers (Ministry of Education, 2009). The Grade 1-9 Curriculum emphasizes that the

educational goal of the 21st century is to integrate information into teaching and apply them

in creating teaching materials, in the teaching act itself, in designing curriculum, and in

assessing students. Teachers must understand the technology and use it to innovate (Wu, 2000;

Mitchell & Hunt, 1997). Computer and technology use can increase student interest in

learning through computer-assisted instruction, distance learning, and multimedia instruction.

As a result of the promotion of government policy and the trend towards using information

and communications in society, every teacher must think of a way to raise his or her

information literacy. In this way he or she will be able to timely and appropriately combine

information technology with instruction in order to deal with the advent of the Information

Age characterized by mobile learning.

In recent years, many countries have been working hard to promote U- Learning. For

example, Japan started promoting U-Japan in 2005, Korea proposed IT839 project in 2004.

Recently, Executive Yuan proposed U-Taiwan project. All aimed to bring wireless

communications and mobile equipment to our lives and studies, transforming the environment

in which cable networks were extended to wireless internet networks. Therefore, the

application of future wireless mobile devices will be more diversified (Lai, 2007). Mah (2006)

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wireless and mobile. E-learning, together with the development of wireless internet and

mobile technology can help people to obtain knowledge through not only the use of cable

internet but also the extension of wireless technology, thereby creating a mobile learning

environment which transcends time and space.

Currently, information technology integration mostly relates to tablet PCs. Teachers and

students can participate in on-line learning, take on-line tests, or access necessary information

(Hsu, 2006). Many other mobile computer devices have emerged in recent years such as the

smart phones, PDAs, Pocket PCs, and Palm Computers. They are small and light and have

wireless transmission function. They are equipped with more functions such as word

processing software, enable users with powerful digital learning and connection to the world

(Xu & Wang, 2002). The advantages of mobile computer instruction are manifold. The

teaching environment itself becomes mobile, instructional or learning materials can be

searched for through the wireless network at any time and from any place, and

communication between students or teachers is enhanced. All these make information

technology integration becomes more versatile and more flexible (Hsiao, Tsai & Yu, 2005).

1.2 Motivation

With government active promotion of wireless networks, currently more and more

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Taiwan Situation of and Demand for Wireless Broadband Internet Connection in 2008” made

by the Institute for the Information Industry, the number of people using mobile wireless

networks reached 5,840,000; up 11.5% from the same period in 2007. It is, therefore, obvious

that the population using mobile/wireless tends to be increasingly growing. The use of such

mobile computer devices as GPRS mobile phones, WAP mobile phones, Palm computers, as

well as PDA will be the future development trend, and Teachers, therefore, need to be aware

of the increasing need to become familiar with information technology.

McDonald (2004) also believes that traditional classroom environments restrict students.

Teachers in such environments primarily teach what is written in textbooks. Such teaching

lowers student interest and, by extension, learning. That is a passive way of learning. If

information technology can be integrated with instruction to assist students in learning, good

results can be achieved as E-learning helps students to understand abstract concepts that can

not be expressed by words. As a result, online learning has recently become a very popular

learning style. Internet access information and transmission is very convenient. Anyone can

study online anytime as long as the computer is connected to the internet (Lin, 2008).

With teaching becoming more connected to the use of information technology, Teachers

should not only have an adequate knowledge of their professional area but knowledge of

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effectiveness (Ho, 2001a). Teachers’ IT literacy is related to whether IT can be appropriately

integrated into their teaching. However, there are still many people who have displayed the

emotions including anxiety, fear, escape and resistance because of the lack of

computer-related knowledge or a fear of IT or its related technologies. As a result, people

have gradually paid attention to the anxiety arising from the computer (Lin, 1997; Wu, 2007).

Pina and Harris (1994) have suggested those learners’ problems such as computer anxiety and

a lack of confidence should be solved early on. If the problems are left unsolved,

computer-based instruction will fail. If teachers have a similar negative attitude, it will have

an impact on both their willingness to use computers and the promotion of IT education. So, a

teacher’s computer anxiety is a question worth discussing.

Levine (1997) points out that faith decisively affects behavior. The learning mental and

physical efforts that learner invests are greatly affected by computer confidence. If personal

computer self-efficacy is low, resistance of using computer and computer anxiety might occur.

Whether teachers are confident about such technological product as computers and able to

apply them to instruction is certainly connected with their computer self-efficacy. Despite the

fact that the educational environment is becoming more computer and internet-based, teachers

generally continue to teach in traditional classrooms where the teaching context is limited.

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possibilities. In order to overcome the limitations of time and space, to extend learning to

outdoors, to increase students’ interest, to make learning more lively, and to create a learning

environment with highly interactivity between teacher and student, it is necessary to integrate

mobile computers into learning activities. Past researches focused mainly on instruction

outcome assessment and did not probe into teachers’ personal background, mobile computer

anxiety, mobile computer self-efficacy, and the use intention of mobile computer in teaching.

1.3 Aim

This research purposes to:

1. Discuss the influence of different backgrounds on mobile computer self-efficacy in

elementary school teachers in Taichung City.

2. Discuss the influence of different backgrounds on mobile computer anxiety in elementary

school teachers in Taichung City.

3. Analyze the relationship between the mobile computer self-efficacy and the mobile

computer anxiety in elementary school teachers in Taichung City.

4. Analyze the effect of mobile computer self-efficacy and mobile computer anxiety of

elementary school teachers in Taichung City on the use intention of applying mobile

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1.4 Limitation

1.4.1 Scope

The scope of this research is limited to the mobile computer-related devices for wireless

LAN, such as notebooks, Tablets PCs, PDAs, smart phones, Pocket PCs, and Palm

computers.

1.4.2 Subjects

The participants are elementary school teachers in Taichung City. They are not limited to

those who have previously used or owned mobile computers.

1.4.3 Method

A questionnaire is used in this study. The questionnaire have five parts, which include

sections on personality trait anxiety, teachers’ information literacy, mobile computer

self-efficacy , mobile computer anxiety, and use intention of applying mobile computer in

teaching .

1.4.4 Tool

As a self-report scale is used as a research tool, a respondent, when choosing an answer,

may have been influenced by such factors as emotional state, cognition, and social

expectations. His or her responses to the items within the questionnaires may have also been

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Mobile computers or devices using wireless networks

2.1.1 The definition of mobile computers

All devices for mobile computers have the advantages of being light and easy to carry. In

addition, they have the function of wireless transmission, capable of storing and retrieving

information in the wireless network or the mobile network environment. Therefore, this

research defines mobile computers as devices which can provide the users with information

storage and retrieval anytime and anywhere in the environment where wireless networks are

available as well as with other related services needed, including notebook computers, smart

phones, PDAs, Webpad, and tablet PCs. But compared to the traditional, large mainframe

computers, desk-top computers or cable equipment, the mobile computer devices have some

disadvantages. For example, the screen is relatively small, keyboard is relatively small,

battery life is short, memory and disk capacity are limited, manipulation is hard, interface is

user-unfriendly, and images are restricted. So, make the best use of mobility characterized by

mobile computers. In the foreseeable future, apart from mobile internet access, people can do

mobile shopping, mobile ticketing, mobile learning, and mobile money management. It is

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(Peng, 2006).

2.1.2 The wireless network environment

Wireless network has many different types. The first is the personal wireless network,

in which a person can interconnect his or her own electronic devices. The network covers an

area about 10 meters. The second is Wireless LAN, suitable for offices, buildings, and even

campuses. This network covers several tens of meters and provides users with a wireless

internet access system. The third is Wide Area Network, which covers a broad area, with high

mobile capacity.

The wireless LAN network refers to IEEE 802.11 LAN, which is a Wireless LAN group

of communications standards made by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

As its fundamental techniques are very similar to those of Wireless Ethernet, IEEE 802 is also

called Wireless Ethernet. With only 2Mbps, the transmission speed of 802.11 is not high,

and is also very expensive, so the wireless LAN does not receive attention on the market at

that time. With the release of IEEE 802.11b, it is gradually withdrawn from the market. IEEE

802.11b operates in 2.4GHz band range and transmits data at a speed of 11Mbps, with range

of 100-200 meters, and despite the fact that it is unable to transfer large amounts of data such

as voice and video, it has become the mainstream specification of wireless LAN market.

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Immediately developed is IEEE 802.11a, which operates in 5.2GHz band range, and its

internet speed is 54Mbps, five times faster than IEEE 802.11b.This extended standard makes

the speed of 802.11faster than Bluetooth, greatly enhancing the availability of wireless

network. As a result, IEEE802.11a is thought of as replacing 802.11b wireless local area

network transmission standard. What followed is IEEE802.11g, a modulation standard ratified

in March, 2000, and it works in the same band as IEEE802.11b. The existing IEEE 802.11b

users can upgrade speed through IEEE802.11g protocol. IEEE802.11g used 2.4GHz band, but

can transmit data at a speed of 54Mbps, quite enough to provide the speed for data, voice, as

well as multimedia transmission.

IEEE802.11 wireless LAN has many advantages. For example, wireless network can

work without having the need to attach network cable, and has high mobility when used.

Besides, there is no need for wiring construction and so saves a lot of construction time and

cost for long-term use. So, wireless LAN has gradually replaced the cable network. In

addition, Wireless LAN can be constructed at a reasonable cost without applying for licenses,

and it requirs no particular techniques. At present, many countries of Asia have offered

costumers wireless broadband connection through WLAN in many public places (Tsuo,

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Table 2-1 Comparison of wireless network technology section band range transmission distance transmission speed (Mbps) suitable range type

Bluetooth 2.4GHz 10M 1 home individual

network IEEE 802.11b 2.4GHz 30~300M 1, 2, 6, 11 school, office

or public place LAN IEEE 802.11 a 5GHz 100~150 M 6, 9,12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 school, office or public place LAN

IEEE 802.11g 2.4GHz 30~300M 22~54 school, office or public place

LAN

Table 2-2 Comparison between cable network and wireless network

item cable network wireles network

the ease of installation difficult easy

construction cost high low

mobility difficult easy

installation and remove difficult easy

maintenance cost high low

transmission rate high low

transmission distance far near

security management easy difficult

signal stability high low

aesthetic appeal low high

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According to the “Double networks Integration Project” developed by NICI, “Double

networks” refers to the combination of “wireless broadband internet connection” and “mobile

internet”. This project integrates two different systems: wireless local area network (WLAN)

standards (e.g. 802.11x) and mobile phone communications (cellular) standard (2.5G, 3G,

PHS, etc.). As a result, each can fully optimize its system performance. The advantage of

WLAN is that the prices are low, with high frequency bandwidth and continuous connection.

Another advantage is that it can offer multimedia services, without license fees and easy

deployment. These advantages are not found in mobile phones. However, the advantages of

mobile phones are high mobility, wide coverage, perfect billing system, mature roaming

mechanism, popularity, all of which make up for the disadvantages of WLAN (Yu, 2004;

Yen, 2005).

The Double Networks Integration combines mobile phone with wireless broadband

internet connection, with mobile phone base stations functioning as voice communications.

The other function is to access wireless internet to get data using WLAN. Mobile phone is not

only a voice tool of making a call but also a tool of getting data by means of internet

connection. If users need mobile internet access, they can do so with low prices but high

speed access at places where WLAN is available. But at places where WLAN is unavailable,

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internet access. Using 3G/GPRS/GSM is, however, more expensive (Lo, 2005)

Table 2-3 Double networks integration project

item Cellular WLAN

specifications 2G、2.5G、3G、PHS IEEE 802.11 a IEEE 802.11 b IEEE 802.11 g advantage wide coverage

high mobility

perfect billing system mature roaming mechanism popularity

continuous connection easy deployment the prices are low

offer multimedia services without license fees Data sources:Yu (2004); Yen (2005)

2.1.3 Mobile computer, mobile learning and their application to teaching

The wireless network has created a brand new learning environment; learners can obtain

the information they want anytime and anywhere. They are able to communicate with people

and to learn through the wireless network equipment. This new type of learning is called

mobile learning (Mah, 2006). Harries (2001) defines mobile learning as a form of learning

created by combining mobile computers with E-learning. Through the mobile equipment

learners can feel and enjoy the experience of being taught anytime and anywhere, making

teaching extend from traditional classrooms to real world in the great outdoors (Pan, 2007).

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mobile phones and to access wireless networks in order to get learning resources and do

learning activity.

A brand new mobile learning environment is created based on wireless network

application and has the following characteristics: Mobile learning is necessary whenever the

learning requirement is urgent and present problems need to be resolved immediately, access

to specific knowledge is needed in real time, learner mobility is required and wireless

applications are necessary, teachers need to contextualize their activities, and the teacher

needs to add credibility to the instruction. (Kao, 2001;Mah, 2006).

Chu (2003) also elucidates the features of mobile learning from the perspectives of both

students and teachers. Students can gain a number of benefits from mobile learning. Mobile

learning can make students take responsibility for their learning. They can access information

on the Internet at anytime through mobile tools. In addition, learning can occur in a real

learning environment. Students can also create a personalized learning model, as learning

patterns can be diversified and flexible. Finally, the learning process and results can be

recorded at anytime.

Teachers also gain benefits from mobile learning. Teachers can understand how and

what students learn by means of mobile equipment. They can intervene to give reminders or

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evaluate students on the way they solve problems rather than on the solution itself, and can

individualize instruction.

Studies show that using mobile computers in teaching can bring positive results.

Integrating PDAs into the instruction of science and technology in junior high school

upgraded both the teaching and student learning outcomes (Hsu, 2006). Hung (2004) took 24

fifth grade students and their science teacher as research objects. All the students

interviewed express that the use of PDA made them more interested in science course. So it is

clear that applying mobile learning devices in teaching activity can upgrade students’ learning

interest and outcome. In the age of m-Learning, multiple ways are available for learning

through combination of mobile device and many practical new information products. Jung

(2002) divided fifth grade students into groups and had them observe the characteristics of

plants in the school. They used PDAs to browse the campus botanical website looking for the

names of unknown plants. The PDA provided instantaneous feedback to the students.

Furthermore, Chen (2003) took eight grade students as research object. He applied PDAs

into physics and chemistry teaching. The purposes of research were to upgrade learning

motivation and increasing information digital processing ability and learning outcome. Chen,

et al. (2003) used mobile learning devices to set up a Bird-Watching Learning (BWL) system.

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set up a database. The pictures and video files of birds were transferred to the students’ PDA

devices through a wireless network. The students were then able to look up information on

birds. This formed an outdoor ecological learning program. Lai (2007) utilized a smart cell

phone with GPS function in helping students to be familiar with campus environment and

danger areas in campus. The purposes were to effectively help the students to be familiar with

campus environment and to prevent any danger from happening through further

understanding of dangerous areas in campus.

2.2 Information Literacy

“Information literacy” was a term first introduced in 1974 by Paul Zurkouski, chairman of the American Library Association and the American Society for Information Science.

Zurkouski's definition for someone who, as information literate, was “anyone who had

learned to use a wide range of information sources in order to solve problems at work and in

his or her daily life” ( Pai, 2004). McClure (1994) thinks that information literacy is not only

a concept, but also a skill used to resolve an information problem. It combines traditional

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Figure 2-1 Information Literacy Analysis Diagram Data sources: McClure (1994)

Recently, with the rapid development in computer information and communications,

many scholars have successively brought forth their views on information literacy as well as

the definition of information literature. Liu (1998) thinks that information literacy is the

ability with which an individual deals effectively with information. Equipped with knowledge

about and skills in information and communications, one is able to examine, evaluate, and

make use of information and communications from a variety of information sources. Fang

(2005) believes that information literacy is a concept and an ability with which one solves

ability to resolve problems

tradition literacy computer literacy network literacy information literacy media literacy

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problems. It also refers to the ability to collect, obtain, determine, evaluate, and use

information and communications. Moreover, it is the key ability necessary for self-directed

training and lifelong learning. Pai (2004) points out that a teacher’s information literacy

enables them to apply IT to their teaching, with innovation, diagnosis, and remedial teaching,

to raise their teaching effectiveness. In turn, they can equip their students with the ability to

develop information literacy. To promote information education and to enrich teacher

information literacy, Taiwan’s Ministry of Education (1998) wants elementary school and

junior high school teachers to attain three information literacy benchmarks: professional

knowledge of the information and communications curriculum, knowledge of packaged

software and the operation of such software, and a general knowledge of how to use the

internet with various school subjects.

Research results reveals that Jiang (2004), Huang (2005), and Chen (2006) all share the

view that teachers’ information literacy is above average. The research conducted by Chien

(2003) and Lin (2005) point out that information literacy won’t be affected by “school size”

and “school location”. Jean (2003), Huang (2005) and Wu (2005) indicate in their studies that

gender, age, education level, years of teaching, as well as profession education background,

(29)

Table 2-4 Definitions of information literacy by scholars and their perspectives Researchers Definitions of information literacy

American Library Association (ALA) (1989)

Anyone who had learned to use a wide range of information sources in order to solve problems at work and in his or her daily life.

McClure(1994) Information literacy is not only a concept, but also a skill to resolve information problem. It is combined with traditional literacy, media literacy, computer literacy, and network literacy.

Liu(1998) Information literacy is the ability with which an individual deals effectively with information. Equipped with the knowledge about and skills in information and communications, one is able to look for them when one needs. In addition, one can examine, evaluate, and make use of the information and communications from a variety of information sources.

Pai(2004) Teachers’ information literacy is to build their acquaintance with the information technology and operation, so that they can apply IT to their teaching, and with innovation, diagnosis, and remedial teaching, to raise teaching effectiveness. In the meantime, they can equip students with the ability to develop information literacy.

Fang(2005) Information literacy is a concept and ability with which one solves problems. It also refers to the ability to collect, obtain, determine, evaluate, and use information and communications. Moreover, it is the key ability necessary for self-directed training and lifelong learning.

2.3 Computer self-efficacy

2.3.1 Self-efficacy

According to Bandura’s self-efficacy theory, self-efficacy refers to individual’s personal

(30)

self-regulatory mechanisms which influence behavior (Bandura, 1997). Bandura (1986)

defines self-efficacy as an assessment of the organization and capabilities which individuals

need to perform designated tasks. He divides self-efficacy into outcome expectations and

efficacy expectations. Outcome expectations refer to a fact that an individual’s assessment

will lead to certain outcomes; efficacy expectations refer to whether or not an individual’s

assessment can successfully perform a behavior to achieve certain outcomes. Both Delcourt

and Kinzie (1993) think the self-efficacy observed by an individual will reflect the behavior

of self-confidence.

2.3.2 Computer self-efficacy

Ever since Bandura (1977) brought up the concept of self-efficacy, together with the

development of information technology, researchers continued to understand the relationship

between computer self-efficacy and users' behaviors. Murphy (1989) defines computer

self-efficacy as individual’s cognition about his or her knowledge about and skills at

computers. Compeau and Higgins (1995) define computer self-efficacy as one’s judgment

about his or her capacity to use computers. They emphasize that computer self-efficacy

reflects an individual’s consciousness about his or her ability to use computers to complete

tasks. Instead of the operational skills like hard disk format or the use of software, it is one’s

(31)

Compeau and Higgins (1995) take the view that the main sources that affect computer

self-efficacy are (1) guided mastery, the most influential source of self-efficacy, (2) imitation

behavior, learning through observing what others do can enhance computer self-efficacy, (3)

social persuasion, helping learners build self-confidence by assuring them that they are

capable of learning computer technology and using computers successfully, (4) physiological

state, when people use computers feeling anxious, their self-efficacy is likely to lessen.

Delcourt and Kinzie(1993)hold the view that the self-efficacy observed by an individual

will reflect the behavior of using computers and behavioral confidence. Levine(1997) points

out that faith affects decisively to behavior. The learning mental and physical efforts that

learner invests are greatly affected by computer confidence. The feeling of efficacy from

practical operation will affect the future interest of usage or in depth understanding and usage.

If personal computer self-efficacy is low, resistance of using computer and computer anxiety

might occur. In the learning environment of campus, teacher with positive attitude and

efficacy to computer is a good demonstration to student. Student will have positive attitude

towards computer technology (Delcourt & Kinzie, 1993).

At present, there are many measurement scales available. For example, Vasil, Hesketh,

and Podd (1987) invented a computer self-efficacy measurement scale with nine items.

(32)

computer self-efficacy. By referring to the viewpoints of Compeau and Higgins (1995), Wong

(2000), a scholar in Taiwan, developed thirteen items to measure test takers regarding their

confidence in the ability to learn computers or the confidence in using computers. College

students were aimed, with Cronbach α coefficient.91; Hsieh (2001) aimed at high school and

elementary school teachers, obtaining Cronbach α coefficient.95. Shen (2002) designed a

computer self-efficacy scale for assessing elementary school teachers, and its content included

three aspects: self-efficacy in basic operation, self-efficacy in software use, and self-efficacy

in teaching application, respectively (Fan, 2005).

2.3.3 Related studies on research variables and computer self-efficacy

In their research, Murphy, Coover, and Owen (1989) indicate that some part of advanced

computer skills do show gender differences. Male’s computer self-efficacy is higher that

female’s. Young (2000) aimed at high and elementary school students finds that boy students

are more confident about the computer technology than girl students are. Also, some other

self-efficacy-related researches show that computer self-efficacy or confidence will vary

according to gender. Males are always higher than females (Shih, 2000; Wei, 2000; Hsieh,

2001). Shen (2002) confirms in her study aimed at elementary school teachers that male

teachers’ computer self-efficacy is, on average, obviously higher than female teachers’.

(33)

terms of gender (Peng, 2006; Wu, 2007) .

Martocchio (1994) conducted an experiment on college campus where 76 college

personal and administrative staff was involved as subjects. According to the research results,

computer self-efficacy was negatively connected with age. Kuo (2000) finds out that the

computer confidence of police officers aged between 20-29 and 30-39 are strikingly higher

than those of aged between 40-49 and 50-59. However, some research takes different views.

Liou (2002) finds out that gender and age show no striking difference in terms of computer

self-efficacy. In their research, Thatcher and Perrewe (2002) point out trait anxiety and

computer anxiety have a direct positive correlation.

Wu (2007) discovers that the information literacy of junior high school teachers on

outlying island is positively linked to the computer self-efficacy, meaning that their ability to

complete jobs with computers is stronger. Scholars who do research on the relationship

between information literacy and computer self-efficacy are few. Most researches are centered

on the correlation between computer attitude, computer experience or time spent on the

computer as well as computer self-efficacy. Igbaria and livari (1995) did a research and the

subjects were 450 microcomputer users. The result indicated that an individual’s past

computer experience had a positively significant impact on self-efficacy, namely, the more

(34)

Harrison (1997) did a research aimed at 776 college staff as subjects, and the result

showed that there was a positive relation existing between computer self-efficacy and

frequency of computer use. Higgins (1995) also obtained the same result. According to the

Faseyitan and Hirschbuhl’s research (1992), whether college instructors are willing to make

use of computers to the work of teaching will be affected by their own computer self-efficacy,

the technology training received, views on computer usefulness, as well as computer attitude.

Vijayasarathy (2004) discovers more and more experience reveals that computer self-efficacy

has a very positive and significant influence on the intention of users of information system.

Hasan (2006) finds out computer self-efficacy will significantly affect the intention of those

who use information system. However, some scholars take the opposite views. Igbaria and

Iivari (1995) shows that through the cognition of computer perceived usefulness and

perceived ease of use, computer self-efficacy will have an influence on individual’s use of a

(35)

Table 2-5 Computer self-efficacy related research

Researchers Research topics Research conclusion. Murphy,

Coover & Owen (1989)

Development and validation of the computer self-efficacy scale.

Some part of advanced computer skills do show gender differences. Male’s computer self-efficacy is higher that female’s.

Faseyitan & Hirschbuhl (1992)

Computers in university instruction: What are the significant variables that influence adoption

Whether college instructors are willing to make use of computers to the work of teaching will be affected by their own computer self-efficacy, the technology training received, views on computer usefulness, as well as computer attitude.

Martocchio (1994)

Effects of conceptions of ability on anxiety, self-efficacy, and learning in training

Conducted an experiment on college campus where 76 college personal and administrative staff were involved as subjects. According to the research results, computer self-efficacy was negatively connected with age.

Igbaria & Iivari (1995)

The effects of self-efficacy on computer usage

The subjects were 450

microcomputer users. The result indicated that an individual’s past computer experience had a positively significant impact on self-efficacy, namely, the more past computer experience, the higher the computer self-efficacy.

(36)

Table 2-5 Computer self-efficacy related research (cont.)

Researchers Research topics Research conclusion. Harrison et al. (1997) Testing the self-efficacy-performance linkage of social-cognitive theory.

776 college staff as subjects, and the result showed that there is a positive relation existing between computer self-efficacy and frequency of computer use. Kuo (2000) A study of computer attitude

and computer literacy on policeman.

The computer confidence of police officers aged between 20-29 and 30-39 are strikingly higher than those of aged between 40-49 and 50-59.

Young (2000) Gender differences in student attitudes toward computers.

High and elementary school

students finds that boy students are more confident about the computer technology than girl students are. Shih (2000) A study on relevant factors of

computer learning achievement of junior high school students

Computer self-efficacy or

confidence will vary according to gender. Males are always higher than females.

Shen (2002) The Investigation of computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety for the elementary teachers

At elementary school teachers that male teachers’ computer

self-efficacy is, on average, obviously higher than female teachers’.

Vijayasarathy (2004)

Predicting consumer intentions to use on-line shopping:the case for an augmented technology acceptance model

More and more experience reveals that computer self-efficacy has a very positive and significant influence on the intention of users of information system.

(37)

Table 2-5 Computer self-efficacy related research (cont.)

Researchers Research topics Research conclusion. Hasan (2006) The influence of specific

computer experiences on computer self-efficacy beliefs

Computer self-efficacy will

significantly affect the intention of those who use information system Peng (2006) The influence of personal traits,

mobile computer self-efficacy and mobile computer anxiety to use mobile computers.

Here is no striking difference in computer self-efficacy in terms of gender

Wu (2007) The innovativeness, information literacy, computer anxiety, and computer self-efficacy of remote islands’ junior high school teachers.

The information literacy of junior school teachers on outlying island is positively linked to the computer self-efficacy, meaning that their ability to complete jobs with computers is stronger.

2.4 Computer Anxiety

2.4.1The meaning of computer anxiety

Anxiety is a process in which a person shows a series of emotional responses when he

or she is stimulated or stressed out. Spielberger divides anxiety into state anxiety and trait

anxiety. Trait anxiety is the anxiety tendency generated when one notices threatening scenario.

Everyone has different personality trait anxiety. People with high trait anxiety will notice

(38)

1997). Computer anxiety is a kind of anxiety, meaning a sense of anxiety is created when a

person is using or facing computers. From the researches related to the development of

computers, people may have a negative psychological reaction to the computer technology,

with some physiological changes (Rosen & Weil, 1995a).

Many scholars use such terms as computer aversion, computer resistance, computer

anxiety, and computer phobia to express their negative, emotional response to computers. Of

these terms, computer anxiety is most widely used (Mclnerney, Mclnerney & Sinclair, 1994).

Loyd and Gressard(1984) believe that computer anxiety is the psychological feelings of

fearing computer, resisting computer technology, generating hostile or unfriendly thoughts.

Peng (2006) defines computer anxiety as follows. When using mobile computer, one sees a

mobile computer as a threatening object and generates negative emotional responses as

evasion, discomfort, fear, hostility, and repugnance. This makes one resist or fear mobile

computer and even affects learning outcome and use intention.

2.4.2The computer anxiety scale

Computer anxiety is hard to observe from individuals; therefore a scale has become a

very important research tool in the study of computer anxiety. Many kinds of scales have been

(39)

Table 2-6 A list of Computer Anxiety Scale both at home and abroad

Years Researchers The types of the scale 1984 Loyd & Gressard Computer Anxiety Sub-scale of

Computer Attitude Scale 1987 Simonson, Matt & Maurer Computer Anxiety Index

1987 Heinssen, Glass& Knight Computer Anxiety Rating Scale 1987 Heller & Martin Computer Anxiety Rating Scale

1989 Marcoulides Computer Anxiety Scale

1990 Kernan &Howard Computer Anxiety Scale

1994 Mclnerney,Mclnerney &Sinclair

Computer Anxiety Rating Scale

1995 Marcoulides,Mayers &Wiseman

Computer Anxiety Scale(CAS)

1995b Rosen & Weil Computer Anxiety Rating

1995 Chuang Computer Anxiety Scale(CAS)

1997 Wu Computer Anxiety Scale(CAS)

1998 Chen Computer Anxiety Scale(CAS)

2000 Wei Teacher Computer Anxiety Scale

2002 Shen Teacher Computer Anxiety Scale

(40)

2.4.3 Related studies on research variables and computer anxiety

There are many scholars examining the correlation between gender and computer

anxiety. Some studies indicate males have more positive attitude than females; females have

more computer anxiety than males (Wu, 1997; Chuang, 1993; Wei, 2000;Hsieh, 2001; Huang,

2003). In her research, Shen (2002) indicates that the overall computer anxiety among

elementary school teachers of different genders reaches a level that shows striking differences.

The overall computer anxiety of female teachers is, on average, higher than that of the male

teachers. There are also studies revealing that the computer anxiety does not vary with

different genders (Maurer, 1994; Wu, 2000; North & Noyes, 2002). Part of the studies reveals

that the older, the higher the computer anxiety (Kuo, 2000; Wei, 2000; Tang, 2004; Hsiao,

2005). However, some studies do point out that the computer anxiety will not change with age

difference, like Massoud (1991), Wei (2000), Chen (2000).

Thatcher and Perrewe (2002) point out that trait anxiety and computer anxiety have a

direct, positive link. In his research on computer self-efficacy and computer

anxiety--exploring and discussing from the perspective of a professional manger, Lee (2005)

discovers that computer anxiety will be influenced in a positive way by individual trait

anxiety and negative emotion. Chuang (1993) explores the computer anxiety found in junior

(41)

who have never touched a computer tend to have computer anxiety the most ,and they have

the most negative attitude towards computer accordingly. Chen’s (1998) survey which is

aimed at vocational high school students reveals that the more experience of computers, the

lower the computer anxiety. Hoenyman and White’s study (1987) aimed at teachers and

administrative staff finds that previous computer experience and time spent on computers can

lessen the extent of users’ computer anxiety. However, the research result of Rosen (1987)

shows that the experience of interaction with computers does not necessarily reduce subjects’

computer anxiety. Chen (2000) points out that the computer anxiety of teachers who have

learned computers more than 24 hours is lower than that of those with 1-8 hours. Wei (2000)

finds that those people with more computer-related credits tend to have less computer anxiety.

In their research, Compeau and Higgins (1995) indicate that individual computer

efficacy has significant effect on the use of computer and computer anxiety, the relationship

with computer anxiety being negative. That is to say, when computer self-efficacy increases,

the computer anxiety will decrease. The relationship between them is complementary, which

can be confirmed by many studies, including those of Igbaria & livari (1995), Coffin &

(42)

Table 2-7 Computer anxiety related research

Researchers Research topics Research conclusion Hoenyman&

White (1987)

Computer anxiety in educators learning to use the computer

At teachers and administrative staff finds that previous computer experience and time spent on computers can lessen the extent of users’ computer anxiety. Rosen, Sears &

Weil (1987)

Computerphobia. behavior research methods

The experience of interaction with computers does not necessarily reduce subjects’ computer anxiety.

Chuang (1993) A study of computer anxiety in Taiwanese students.

The computer anxiety is found in junior and senior high school students as well as college students, and she discovers those students who have never touched a computer tend to have computer anxiety the most, and they have the most negative attitude towards computer accordingly. Chen, L. L.(1998) Computer anxiety and

its related variables of the vocational high school students

At vocational high school students reveals that the more experience of computers, the lower the computer anxiety.

Compeau & Higgins (1995)

Computer self-efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test

Individual computer efficacy has

significant effect on the use of computer and computer anxiety, the relationship with computer anxiety being negative.

Chen (2000) Research on the attitude toward

computer of senior high school teachers in Kaohsiung City.

The computer anxiety of teachers who have learned computers more than 24 hours is lower than those with 1-8 hours.

(43)

Table 2-7 Computer anxiety related research (cont.)

Researchers Research topics Research conclusion Wei (2000) A study of computer

attitude and computer literacy on education course student.

Those people with more computer-related credits tend to have less computer anxiety.

Thatcher & Perrewe (2002) An empirical examination of individual raits as antecedents to

computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy

Trait anxiety and computer anxiety have a direct positive link.

Shen (2002) The Investigation of computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety for the elementary teachers

The overall computer anxiety of female teachers is, on average, higher than that of the male teachers.

North & Noyes (2002)

Gender influences on children’s computer attitudes and cognitions

The computer anxiety does not vary with different genders

Huang (2003) Computer attitude and computer anxiety: Relationships with computer experience, computer self-efficacy, and others’ support.

Years of teaching and computer anxiety have a direct negative correlation.

(44)

Table 2-7 Computer anxiety related research (cont.)

Researchers Research topics Research conclusion Tang (2004) A Study on the

relationship with information

incorporation teaching, teaching efficacy and computer anxiety of teachers at elementary schools.

The older, the higher the computer anxiety. The instruction effect, the computer

anxiety, and the use intention of integrating information technology have significant correlations.

Lee (2005) An examination to computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety - based on the view of IT managers.

In his research on computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety--exploring and discussing from the perspective of a

professional manger, computer anxiety will be influenced in a positive way by

individual trait anxiety and negative emotion.

(45)

Chapter 3 Research method

3.1 Research framework and hypotheses

The research framework is shown in Figure3-1. The hypotheses of this research are as

follows:

H1: The effects of external variables on “mobile computer self-efficacy” are significantly different.

H1a: The effect of elementary school teacher's personality trait anxiety on “mobile computer self-efficacy” is significant negative correlation.

H1b: The effect of elementary school teacher's information literacy on “mobile computer self-efficacy” is significant positive correlation. .

H2: The effects of external variables on “mobile computer anxiety” are significantly different.

H2a: The effects of elementary school teacher's personality trait anxiety on “mobile computer anxiety” are significant positive correlation.

H2b: The effects of elementary school teacher's information literacy on “mobile computer anxiety” are significant negative correlation.

H3: The consciousness of mobile computer self-efficacy will negatively affect the consciousness of mobile computer anxiety for elementary school teachers.

H4a: “mobile computer self-efficacy” generates positive effect on “use intention of applying mobile computer in teaching”.

H4b: “mobile computer anxiety” generates negative effect on “use intention of applying mobile computer in teaching”.

(46)

Figure 3-1 Research framework and hypotheses

3.2 Research Process

This research mainly consists of seven steps as shown in the Figure 3-2. The following

is a brief explanation:

(1)Formulate a research project

Read related literature. First, determine the research topic and define the scope and the

nature of questions. Then formulate the research project and schedule, as well as write the

research outline.

(2)Examine related literature

Gather and read related literature and determine the content of the research, which serves

as a conceptual framework and a reference for making a survey questionnaire. (3)Consult the views of scholars and experts.

(47)

During the course of examining the literature collected, keep on consulting scholars and

experts to help clarify and establish viewpoints. In the meanwhile, consult them for their

valuable opinions to make research more comprehensive.

(4)Develop the questionnaire and conduct an early test of the survey

Make a pre-test questionnaire, conduct an early test, as well as make analysis and

revision after compiling experts’ questionnaires and having a discussion with major professor.

With Professor’s consent, determine the format and content of the questionnaire and print it. (5)Conduct the survey

Distribute the questionnaire to each elementary school using the school exchange

mailbox.

(6)Collect data, collate, and analyze

Collate questionnaires returned and do statistical analysis by using computers. (7)Write research papers

According to the results of data analysis, make conclusion and suggestions through

(48)

Figure 3-2 Research process

3.3 Questionnaire design and data collection

3.3.1 Questionnaire design

The first draft of this research questionnaire is made according to the information

obtained from the above-mentioned literature including “ information literacy”, “Personality Formulate a research project

Examine related literature

Consult the views of scholars and experts

Develop the questionnaire and conduct an early test of the survey

Conduct the survey

Collect data, collate, and analyze

(49)

trait anxiety”, “Mobile computer anxiety”, “Use intention of mobile computer in teaching”, “Mobile computer self-efficacy”. (see Table3-1)

3.3.1A Information literacy scale

The part “Information Literacy” is made based on the teacher basic information literacy

indicator for junior high school and elementary school teachers announced by the Ministry of

Education as well as on the teacher information literacy scale made by Pai (2004) and Lin

(2007), in addition to the views from scholars both at home and abroad. This scale consists of

five aspects: information awareness, ability to operate hardware and software, ability to make

use of the Internet network, the combination of information technology and teaching, and

information communication. The items are based on Likert seven-point scale. The format of

the response consists of seven levels, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. As

each item on the response scale is circled, the score will be calculated from1-7. The higher the

score is, the higher a teacher’s information literacy is, and vice versa. There are a total of eight

items.

3.3.1B Personality trait anxiety inventory

This study is complied by referring to Chung and Long’s(1984) State-Trait Anxiety

Inventory, a revised form of Spielberger’s (1983).The items are based on Likert seven-point

(50)

“strongly agree”. As each item on the response scale is circled, the score will be calculated from1-7. The higher the score is, the higher a teacher’s trait anxiety is, and vice versa. There

are a total of six items.

3.3.1C Mobile computer anxiety scale

This scale consists of three aspects: computer learning anxiety, anxiety about facing the

Information Age, and anxiety about applying computers to instruction. It is made according to

the Computer Anxiety Sub-scale of Computer Attitude Scale made by Loyd and Gressard

(1984) and to Shen’s (2002) the Computer Anxiety Scale for Teachers. The items are based on

Likert seven-point scale. The format of the response consists of seven levels, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. As each item on the response scale is circled, the score will be calculated from1-7. The higher the score is, the higher a teacher’s computer

anxiety is, and vice versa. There are a total of six items.

3.3.1D Use intension of mobile computer in teaching scale

This scale is made based on the perspectives of Ajzen (1991), Venkatesh and Davis

(1996), scholars of theory of rational behavior. The items are based on Likert seven-point

scale. The format of the response consists of seven levels, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. As each item on the response scale is circled, the score will be calculated from1-7. The higher the score is, the higher a teacher’s intention of using mobile computer in

(51)

teaching is, and vice versa. There are a total of five items.

3.3.1E Mobile computer self-efficacy scale

This scale is compiled by referring to Computer Self-efficacy Scale Wong’s (2000),

which is made according to the viewpoints of Compeau and Higgins (1995), as well as to

Hsieh’s ( 2001) Computer Self-efficacy Scale of Teachers. The items are based on Likert

seven-point scale. The format of the response consists of seven levels, ranging from “very

little confident” to “ quite a lot of confident”. The higher the score is, the higher a teacher’s

mobile computer self-efficacy is, and vice versa. There are a total of six items.

3.3.1F Basic personal data

(1)Sexuality: Male and Female

(2)Age: Under 30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, over 51 years

(3)Educational background: Normal university, Ordinary university Graduate school, others (4)Teaching experience: Less than 5 years, 6–10 years,11–15 years, 16–20 years, more than

21 years

(5)Working position: Teacher with concurrent administrative duty, class teacher, subject teacher

(52)

Table 3-1 Questionnaire design questionnaire section questionnaire item scale reference Information literacy question 1-8 Likert-type seven point scale

Pai (2004) Lin (2007) Personality trait anxiety question 9-14 Likert-type seven point scale

Chung & Long (1984) State-Trait Anxiety

Inventory, a revised form of Spielberger (1983) Mobile computer anxiety question 15-20 Likert-type seven point scale

Loyd & Gressard(1984) Shen (2002) Use intention of mobile computer in teaching question 21-25 Likert-type seven point scale

Ajzen(1991) Venkatesh & Davis(1996)

Mobile computer self-efficacy

question 26-31

Likert-type seven point scale

Compeau & Higgins(1995) Wong (2000)

Hsieh (2002)

3.3.2 Sampling methods and data collection

This study aims to understand the intention of elementary school teachers to use mobile

computers for teaching, and the target population is the public elementary school teachers in

Taichung. Stratified random sampling is used to select sample. The sample survey is

conducted, with a sample of 114 people being taken as a pretest sample, and about 392 people

(53)

Table 3-2 Sampling methods school size Number of schools number of schools pretest sample number of teachers of pretest sample number of schools of formal sample number of teachers of formal sample less than 24 classes 7 1 10 3 27 25-48 classes 26 3 35 11 155 more than 49 classes 27 4 69 11 210 total 60 8 114 25 392

3.4 Data analysis

SPSS 12 software is used as statistical method to perform descriptive statistical analysis,

item analysis, reliability and validity analysis, factor analysis. Stepwise regression analysis is

also performed.

3.4.1 The descriptive statistical analysis

The descriptive statistical analysis is getting initial understanding of research object's

basic data. The Likert seven-point scale is used for agreement level and for description of the

mean value, frequency distribution, standard deviation, and skewness of different variables.

(54)

3.4.2 Factor Analysis

The main purpose of factor analysis is data simplification. Many original variables are

simplified to few factors, yet most information of the original data is still kept. The Bartlett's

Test of Sphericity and KMO sample adequacy measurement are used in this research for

testing. When the KMO measurement is higher, the outcome of factor analysis is better and

there are more common factors between variables. If the chi-square value of the Bartlett's Test

of Sphericity is significant, there are common factors between the relative matrices of the

parent group and is suitable for factor analysis. For the factor extraction, only the factors with

eigenvalue greater than 1 are selected. Furthermore, the factor loading of items of the selected

factors are checked if it is higher than 0.5 according to the relative facet of the factor.

3.4.2 Reliability

The Cronbach's α coefficient, the most used reliability coefficient in social science, is

used to estimate internal consistency. The consistency is good and the scale is stable when the

reliability coefficient is higher than 0.7. If it gets lower than 0.35, the outcome is poor (Yang,

數據

Table 2-1 Comparison of wireless network technology  section  band  range  transmission  distance  transmission speed(Mbps)  suitable range  type

Table 2-1

Comparison of wireless network technology section band range transmission distance transmission speed(Mbps) suitable range type p.21
Table 2-2 Comparison between cable network and wireless network

Table 2-2

Comparison between cable network and wireless network p.21
Table 2-3 Double networks integration project

Table 2-3

Double networks integration project p.23
Figure 2-1 Information Literacy Analysis Diagram  Data sources: McClure (1994)

Figure 2-1

Information Literacy Analysis Diagram Data sources: McClure (1994) p.27
Table 2-5 Computer self-efficacy related research (cont.)

Table 2-5

Computer self-efficacy related research (cont.) p.37
Table 2-6 A list of Computer Anxiety Scale both at home and abroad

Table 2-6

A list of Computer Anxiety Scale both at home and abroad p.39
Table 2-7 Computer anxiety related research

Table 2-7

Computer anxiety related research p.42
Table 2-7 Computer anxiety related research (cont.)

Table 2-7

Computer anxiety related research (cont.) p.43
Table 2-7 Computer anxiety related research (cont.)

Table 2-7

Computer anxiety related research (cont.) p.44
Figure 3-1 Research framework and hypotheses

Figure 3-1

Research framework and hypotheses p.46
Figure 3-2 Research process

Figure 3-2

Research process p.48
Table 3-1 Questionnaire design questionnaire  section  questionnaire item  scale  reference  Information  literacy  question      1-8  Likert-type  seven point scale

Table 3-1

Questionnaire design questionnaire section questionnaire item scale reference Information literacy question 1-8 Likert-type seven point scale p.52
Table 3-2 Sampling methods    school  size  Number of  schools  number of   schools    pretest sample  number of  teachers of  pretest sample  number of   schools of formal  sample  number of  teachers of formal sample  less than  24 classes  7  1  10  3

Table 3-2

Sampling methods school size Number of schools number of schools pretest sample number of teachers of pretest sample number of schools of formal sample number of teachers of formal sample less than 24 classes 7 1 10 3 p.53
Table 4-1 Statistical description of elementary school teachers

Table 4-1

Statistical description of elementary school teachers p.57
Table 4-2 Summary of item analysis (cont.)

Table 4-2

Summary of item analysis (cont.) p.59
Table 4-4 Reliability and factor analysis (cont.)

Table 4-4

Reliability and factor analysis (cont.) p.63
Table 4-4 Reliability and factor analysis (cont.)

Table 4-4

Reliability and factor analysis (cont.) p.64
Table 4-7 Summary of multiple regression model

Table 4-7

Summary of multiple regression model p.66
Table 4-9 Coefficients Summary

Table 4-9

Coefficients Summary p.67
Table 4-8 ANOVA Summary

Table 4-8

ANOVA Summary p.67
Table 4-12 Coefficients Summary

Table 4-12

Coefficients Summary p.69
Table 4-11 ANOVA Summary

Table 4-11

ANOVA Summary p.69
Table 4-14 ANOVA Summary

Table 4-14

ANOVA Summary p.70
Table 4-15 Coefficients Summary

Table 4-15

Coefficients Summary p.71
Table 4-18 Coefficients Summary

Table 4-18

Coefficients Summary p.73
Table 4-19 Regression analysis of predicted path relationships  Hypothesis  Dependent  variable  Independent variable  β  R 2  Change  t value  p  Result  H1a  Personality  trait anxiety  -0.107  0.011        3.001  0.003  support  H1b  Mobile  computer  s

Table 4-19

Regression analysis of predicted path relationships Hypothesis Dependent variable Independent variable β R 2 Change t value p Result H1a Personality trait anxiety -0.107 0.011 3.001 0.003 support H1b Mobile computer s p.74

參考文獻