七、閱讀選配主題: (每題2分,共 10分)

在文檔中 臺灣省及臺北市高中聯招英語科試題命題原則探析 (頁 43-49)

下面有十個標題及五篇短文,請依每篇短文之內容,選配最適當的 標題,並將其代號寫在答案卷上,否則不予計分。

146

A. A Friend That Doesn't Talk F. How to Catch Others

B. A Mistake G. Parks in the City

C. Back to the Future H. Save Our World D. Good Old Days I. The Longest Day E. Green World J. Too Many Pollutions

61. Today, many people think more carefully about what they throw away. They use things that can be saved and used again like glass bottles. They try to use only paper bags, not plastic products. In this way, less pollution will be made.

62. One day. an old woman forgot to bring her glasses with her.

After she waited a long time for the bus, she finally saw something coming. "I hope i t ' s mine

,"

she said loudly.

"Are you sure? But i t ' s a trash truck." said the boy next to her.

63. Being beautiful doesn't always make you happy. If you want to be popular,you don't have to care too much about how you look, but only try to be an interesting and honest person.

64. It is not easy to park in the city. I remember the time when we went shopping by bicycle. There were few cars on the roads. People never thought about the problem of parking today. I really like to go back to the past.

65. Plants need love as much as people do. The loved plants always grow bigger and more beautiful. So be careful.

when you are talking in front of your plants. They may be listening to you.

(北市 81年)

此例試題中提供了五段短文,並有十個詞語供學生選擇。由於每一段的閱讀後 主要的活動是選配該段的主題,可知各段的重點都是全面性(global) ,而非片段

性( local )的問題,所需要發揮的理解層次也比較高。以此例中的五段文字與其搭

配的主題詞語來看,幾乎很少能從文章的字面上判斷答案,而都需要對全文作徹底 的理解,所以不但對答題者,即使對命題者都是一大考驗。

g. 閱讀短文選配圖形

以數段短文供學生閱讀,再要求其從若干圖畫中選出適當的加以配合,以呈現 情境的「圖文配合」題,在台北市八十二年的試題中首次出現。

六、圖文配合: (每題一分,共五分)

下面有八幅圖片(代號A至 H) ,五段對話,請依據對話的情境選出最 能配合的圖片,並將其代號寫在答案卷上。

56. A:

B:

57. A:

B:

58. A:

B:

59. A:

B:

60. A:

B:

Hello? This is Jane. Is Joe there?

Hi, Jane. Wait a minute. Let me turn off the TV first.

Sorry, sir. You can't park here. But you can park on the other street.

No parking here? All right. officer. I ' l l leaveτight

away.

Joe, why didn't you come to my party last night? I was sitting there waiting for you all night!

Your party? Why should I go? You made me so angry yesterday.

Mom, when can I go out and play?

Take some cold medicine and hot soup. You may feel better.

Hello, my name is Rachel.

Hello, I am Peter. Nice to meet you.

(北市 82年)

此例的試題有五段對話,八幅圖畫。圖畫的內容是提供各段對話的可能情境。

以例中情形而言,第56 題是一段電話中的談話,因此最適宜表現此一情境的圖案是 B· 兩個人的電話交談。餘可類推。

此類試題的設計慨然然是以圖案表現對話的情境,則每段對話的情境必須能夠

明顯,圖畫也要能充分表現情境。在聯考的大規模命題過程中,參與人員多,可以 由專業美工人員依特定的情境繪圖,但是一般校內的考試,老師如果不具美工專長,

也可以設法先攪集各式圖案,再依圖案內容編寫對話。

答案:

(B) I would ask all teachers not to give so many exams.

(C) I am a junior high school student.

(D) If I were president of our country.

(1) ACBD (2) CADB (3) DBCA (4) CABD 2

He came home very hungry.

He almost forgot to wash his hands before eating.

He saw some cookes on the table.

He wanted to have one, but he stopped.

(1) BACD (2) ACDB (3) CBDA (4) ABDC

"Do I have to? It's not raining outside."

"I watched the TV news. It's going to rain."

"Mother, cam I go hiking with my classmates?"

"All right, but take an umbrella with you."

(1) ACBD (2) BCAD (3) CDAB (4) DABC

When he opened the door, he found his wife waiting for him.

He saw from outside the light was still on.

He came home very late last night.

He was glad that the front door was not locked.

(1) ABDC (2) ABCD (3) ACDB (4) BACD First she must work hard to make enough money.

She can then decide which places to visit.

She hopes to go to Americn for a visit next year.

She'll also have to read books about them.

(1) CABD (2) 的CD (3) ACDB (4) BACD Because I didn't do well in the last English test.

What would you do if you were I ? But there's a good TV program tonight.

I must study hard for the English test tomorrow.

(1) BACD (2) ADCB (3) CBDA (4) DACB

(台省 76年) 傳統的英語考試中常有一些重組試題,要學生將某些單字或片語組合成為合於

文法的單旬:本例中的題目則是要求學生將單旬組合為語意連貫通順的段落。前者 的測試重點在於旬子的旬法結構,後者的重點則在於整段文字的前後銜接連貫。前

文中曾經討論到有關整段文字的寫作能力表現,認為「選旬填空」的題型可以間接 地評量整段文字寫作中掌握主題重點的能力。事實上,這裡的「段落重組」試題也 有異曲同工之妙。它雖然在表面上進行的是閱讀的活動,但是卻能評量學生對前後 文意貫通連接的能力,只要題目內容設計得當,是可以達成寫作測驗的部份功能。

可惜的是,此一題型自民國七十六年出現一次後即未再出現。特別在此提出,

希望能供命題者及一般學校老師們參考。

i. 整段閱讀再回答

以整段文章供學生閱讀後再以問答題供其作答的試題,自八十一年起的台省聯 招連續出現了兩次。

B. 閱讀下列短文後,每題用一個完整的旬子回答,簡答酌于扣分。(10%) Students who use their free time well are always healthy and happy. My friend. John. is one of them. He loves doing many activities which can help him develop a healthy body and a strong mind. He especially loves swimming and reading.

Summer vacation is coming and he will have a lot of free time.

He has made plans for his long vacation. He is a good swimmer.

but he wants to become a better one. So he is going to swim every morning. He will also visit his pen pal for three weeks. They will practice English every day. He hopes that he can swim and speak English better after the vacation.

51. Is John always happy and healthy?

52. When will John have a lot of free time?

53. What does" a better one" in that sentence mean?

54. What kind of sport is John most interested in?

55. What does John hope to do better after the vacation?

(此題需用'''not on1y"'but also'"的旬型回答)

(台省 81年)

本題型的特色是將閱讀與寫作兩項活動在同一試題上進行,好處是融合了兩種 語言技能於一起,發揮了不同語言技能間的整合作用,缺點則是測驗的多重目標可 能會使得學生真正的表現不易確定。例如學生可能已經看懂了文章,也知道問題的 重點是什麼,卻因為旬型的不熟悉而無法正確作答,對於標示為「閱讀測驗」的本

150

題而言,似乎不是很公平的作法。

伍、結論

考試制度是我國數千年文化傳統的一部份,直到現在,一年一度的大學以及高 中(職)五專聯考仍然左右著無數青年學子的前途,也導引著整個教育體系的走向。

在這個制度沒有更好的辦法加以取代之前,要如何提昇試題的品質,一方面提高試 卷的公平性,一方面導引學校教學的正常化是許多教育工作者共同追求的目標。

本研究分析了近年來台灣省及台北市兩地區的高中聯考英語試題共計十八份後,

發現兩個地區的命題者有一致追求的目標,也有見仁見智的不同作法。在一致的追 求上,命題者都極為強調對整體性文意的重視。這是語言教學者現在公認語言學習 的主要目標:在充份的情境中理解並表達文意。此外,客觀評分試題一向在全部試

題中佔較大的比例,這也是在考生人數眾多的情況下,命題形式的必然趨勢。而在 較有差異的作法上,台灣省的試題比較側重在語旬以及整體文意的理解部份,但對 評量基礎知識的單項式試題較為保留;相形之下,台北市近年的題目一方面將最大 重點放在整體文意的理解上,一方面也對單項知識的評量頗為重視,至於單獨語旬 文意的試題,則相對減少。此外,對主觀式評分的試題的採用比重,台北市也比台

灣省略少。

另外,值得注意的是,台灣省及台北市兩區的命題者在試題形式的採用上也是 有所變、有所不變。選擇式的克漏字綜合測驗以及選擇式的整段閱讀測驗是每年都 出現的試題形態:但其他的試題則比較沒有固定出現的規則。例如單項知識性試題 中的辨音,在台北市聯考的六年資料中間隔出現了三次;而單項知識性試題從七十

五年起在台灣省聯考試題中消失以來,在去年的試卷上又出其不意地出現。這些都

是難以掌握或推測的現象,也可以看作是命題者有意常以題形的變化來杜絕考生只 重答題技巧,忽略實質語文能力的偏差現象。

至於在各類型試題的內容分析上,也可以看出三大類的試題由於各有不同的測 驗層次,命題的重點也就在這不同的層次上各有所發揮。在單項知識性的試題方面,

主要出現的是單字片語以及文法選擇兩類題目,當然顯示了這兩方面的知識在語文 的各種技能表現上都是最基礎的要素。這些基礎知識都是課本中有明白出現過的重

點,絕沒有超過教材範圍的現象。它們在考試中以單項式的題型出現主要是要評量

學生的最基礎知識,因為不具有這些基礎的知識,即使能夠勉強與人溝通,所使用 的語言也一定是破綻百出,難有水準可言。

第二類的語旬文意類試題,將語言的層次從片斷的基礎知識提高到旬子的範圈。

其中包括理解性的閱讀,選配對話,也有表達性的問答、翻譯等。其中又以「單旬

閱讀釋義」、「看圖回答問題」、以及「單旬翻譯 J (包括所謂連貫翻譯)等出現

在文檔中 臺灣省及臺北市高中聯招英語科試題命題原則探析 (頁 43-49)