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# WTG 充電系統之設計

## 第三章 小型風力發電機充電器之研製

### 3.3 WTG 充電系統之設計

` PMSG

WTG

Ig

Vg

+

-Vb

Ib RL

Drive

current controller voltage

controller

Limiter 2 Limiter 1

+ +

+ -charging PI

controller MPPT controller

*

Is

Is

*

Ib

Ib

Ig

Vg

Vb

*

Vb

SEPIC converter

Vg

*

Vg

Vg

Vg

Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Load power

Battery discharging power

Battery charging power

(equal to the max. charge power) (a)

(b)

(c)

Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Load power

Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Load power

WTG power

Battery charging power

(equal to the max. charge power) Battery charging power

(equal to the max. charge power) (a)

(b)

(c)

P

P

WTG power

WTG power

Vg

Vg

Vg

Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Load power

Battery discharging power

Battery charging power

(equal to the max. charge power) (a)

(b)

(c)

Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Load power

Battery charging power

(Less than the max. charge power) Load power

WTG power

Battery charging power

(equal to the max. charge power) Battery charging power

(equal to the max. charge power) (a)

(b)

(c)

P

P

WTG power

WTG power

Vg

### 3.4 風力充電系統之模擬及實作

3.4.1 實驗系統之模擬

R=1.2m，在 12m/s可以產生最大 Pm約為80W 發電機部份

ω =30

/1000

s =7.5

### R

s =0.3Ω 圖3.14之模擬電路圖中，風車之特性乃以前面(3.1)至(3.8)式所建 立，其經過一控制至電力轉換及一與風車機械系統等效之電路後得到 一風車之輸出轉矩(Tm)，此轉矩帶動發電機並經整流子後得到 SEPIC 之輸入電壓。圖3.14亦包含一保護電路，其目的在風速過高使 SEPIC 之輸入電壓過高時將輸入電壓短路，亦即相當於將發電機輸出予以短 路，用以保護風車及發電機損壞。

，確實達到最大功率點，電池電流(Ib)為放電以補足負載之用電需求，

SEPIC 轉換器

MPPT控制器

MPPT

Tm Te

### 3.4.2 實驗系統之製作與驗證

(1)WTG之模擬系統

) / 2 ( ,V* V div Vg g

×10

) / 20 ( W div P

) / 10 ( A div Ib

2 2

2

2 n n

n

s s

### ω

+

+

(3.16) 此響應之參數可依據不同風車之特性來做改變使本模擬系統更接近 實際風車系統。

(2)WTG充電系統

3.18所示為在MATLAB Real-time control上之 WTG及MPPT 控制器之連接方塊。其他硬體電路均與 PV 系統相同。圖 3.19 為 WTG 之啟動過程所量測之波形，用以驗證 MPPT 之追蹤響應，圖 3.20為達MPPT點時之觀察結果；圖 3.21及3.22為對應前述模擬之 功率平衡驗證所量測到之波形響應，這此數據均與模擬相符再次印 證所提各式控制電路之有效性圖 3.23為 WTG 模擬器之響應，所模 擬風車之狀態可由此量測數據中清楚得知，以上實驗結果雖不使用 實際風車響應之特性，但從模擬及實作的結果可看出確實與實際風 車所量測到的數據類似，驗證了此模擬器確實可以達到在無實際風 車或無風天氣的情況下做實驗的便利性。

Analog

input Z

1 Z 1

Z 1

Z 1

+ + + + +

4 4 6 6 4 4 Z 1

Z 1

Z 1

Z 1

+ + + + +

4 4 6 6 4 4

Z 1 Z 1

k

k +

+ kk

3

Analog output

-+

-+ +

+

Gain

Gain Gain

Gain

Gain Gain

Gain

memory Gain

unit delay

unit delay

unit delay

unit delay unit

delay unit delay

unit delay

unit delay

unit delay

unit delay

zero-order hold zero-order

hold

product

constant

saturation saturation

P

V DC

power supply

synchronous buck converter

SEPIC Electronic

Vg

Vg Ig

A/D

MPPT controller

D/A D/A

*

Vg

Vconp

WTG Emulator controller

PC Matlab real-time control WTG Emulator

DC power supply

synchronous buck converter

SEPIC Electronic

Vg

Vg Ig

A/D

MPPT controller

D/A D/A

*

Vg

Vconp

WTG Emulator controller

PC Matlab real-time control WTG Emulator

+

-+ +

Gain Gain

D/A converter

A/D converter

P

characteristic ω

P

Mechanic Dynamic Vg

Ig

Vg

Ig

Pg

(5V/div)

(10W/div)

(1A/div)

0 5 10 15 20

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Vg

P

Vp(10V/div)

Ip(2A/div)

IL(2A/div)

IB (2A/div)

10µs/div Vg(10V/div)

Ig(2A/div)

IL(2A/div)

IB (2A/div)

10µs/div Vp(10V/div)

Ip(2A/div)

IL(2A/div)

IB (2A/div)

10µs/div Vg(10V/div)

Ig(2A/div)

IL(2A/div)

IB (2A/div)

10µs/div Vg(10V/div)

Ig(2A/div)

IL(2A/div) (2A/div)

Ib

10µs/div 10µs/div

P

Vp

Io

*

Io

Vg

(a)

(b)

(c)

Outline