A. The Compulsory Part Reference Books
1. Bryant, R., and O’Hallaron, D. (2015). Computer systems: a programmer’s perspective (Third edition). USA: Prentice Hall.
2. Comer, D. (2014). Computer networks and internets (Sixth edition). USA: Prentice Hall.
3. Gralla, P. (2006). How the internet works (Eighth edition). USA: Que.
1. Bynum, T. (2008). Computer and Information Ethics. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/.
2. Moceyunas, A. (2002). On-line privacy: the push and pull of self-regulation and
law. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from
B. The Elective Option - Databases Reference Books
1. Auer, D. and Kroenke, D. (2013). Database processing (Thirteenth edition). USA:
2. Coronel, C, Morris, S. and Rob, P. (2012). Database systems: Design,
implementation and management (Tenth edition). USA: Course Technology.
1. Art Branch, Inc. (2004). SQL tutorial - Learn SQL. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from http://www.sql-tutorial.net.
2. Chapple, M. (2015). Database normalization basics. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from http://databases.about.com/od/specificproducts/a/normalization.htm.
C. The Elective Option - Data Communications and Networking Reference Books
1. Comer, D. (2014). Computer networks and internets (Sixth edition). USA: Prentice Hall.
1. Mikalsen, A., and Borgesen, P. (2002). Local Area Network management, design and security. U. K.: John Wiley & Sons.
1. Mitchell, B. (2015). Home network setup - Networking advisor. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from
2. Mitchell, B. (2015). VPN Tutorial - An introduction to VPN software, VPN hardware and protocol solutions. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from
D. The Elective Option - Multimedia Production and Web Site Development Reference Books
1. McGloughlin, S. (2003). Multimedia: Concepts and practice and student CD. USA:
1. Refsnes Data. (2015). HTML tutorial. w3schools. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from http://www.w3schools.com/html/default.asp.
E. The Elective Option - Software Development Reference Books
1. Laudon, K. and Laudon, J. (2015). Management information systems (Fourteenth edition). USA: Prentice Hall.
2. Schneider, D. (2013). An Introduction to programming using Visual Basic 2012 (Ninth edition). USA: Prentice Hall.
1. Brain, M. (no date). How C programming works. HowStuffWorks, Inc. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from http://www.howstuffworks.com/c.htm.
2. Microsoft Corporation. (2015). Visual Basic Resources. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/vstudio/hh388573.aspx.
3. Oracle Corporation. (2015). The Java tutorials. Retrieved 12 August, 2015 from http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/.
Applied Learning (ApL, formerly known as Career-oriented Studies)
Applied Learning (ApL, formerly known as Career-oriented Studies) is an essential component of the three-year senior secondary curriculum. ApL uses broad professional and vocational fields as the learning platform, developing students’
foundation skills, thinking skills, people skills, values and attitudes and career-related competencies, to prepare them for further studies and/or for work as well as lifelong learning. ApL courses complement 24 senior secondary subjects, diversifying the senior secondary curriculum.
Assessment objectives The outcomes of the curriculum to be assessed in the pubic assessment.
Co-construction Different from the direct instruction and construction approaches to learning and teaching, the co-construction approach emphasises the class as a community of learners who contribute collectively to the creation of knowledge and the building of criteria for judging such knowledge.
Core subjects Core subjects recommended to all students to take: Chinese Language, English Language, Mathematics and Liberal Studies Curriculum and
Assessment (C&A) Guide
A guide prepared by the CDC-HKEAA Committee. It comprises curriculum aims/objectives/contents and learning outcomes, and assessment guidelines.
Elective subjects A total of 20 subjects in the proposed new system from which students may choose according to their interests, abilities and aptitudes.
Generic skills Generic skills are skills, abilities and attributes which are fundamental in helping students to acquire, construct and apply knowledge. They are developed through the learning and teaching that take place in the different subjects or KLAs, and are transferable to different learning situations. Nine types of generic skills are identified in the Hong Kong school curriculum, i.e. collaboration skills, communication skills, creativity, critical thinking skills, IT skills, numeracy skills, problem-solving skills, self-management skills and study skills.
Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE)
The qualification to be awarded to students after completing the three-year senior secondary curriculum and taking the public assessment.
Internal assessment This refers to the assessment activities that are conducted regularly in school to assess students’ performance in learning.
Internal assessment is an inseparable part of the learning and teaching process, and it aims to make learning more effective.
With the information that internal assessment provides, teachers will be able to understand students’ progress in learning, provide them with appropriate feedback and make any adjustments to the learning objectives and teaching strategies they deem necessary.
Key Learning Areas (KLA)
Organisation of the school curriculum structured around fundamental concepts of major knowledge domains. It aims at providing a broad, balanced and coherent curriculum for all students in the essential learning experiences. The Hong Kong curriculum has eight KLAs, namely, Chinese Language Education, English Language Education, Mathematics Education, Personal, Social and Humanities Education, Science Education, Technology Education, Arts Education and Physical Education Learner diversity Learners are individuals with varied family, social, economic and
cultural backgrounds and learning experience and have different talents, personalities, intelligence and interests. Their learning abilities, interests and styles are, therefore, diverse.
Learning community A learning community refers to a group of people who have shared values and goals, and who work closely together to generate knowledge and create new ways of learning through active participation, collaboration and reflection. Such a learning community involves not only students and teachers, but also parents and other parties in the community.
Learning outcomes Learning outcomes refer to what learners should be able to do by the end of a particular key stage of learning. Learning outcomes are developed based on the learning targets and objectives of the curriculum for the purpose of evaluating learning effectiveness.
Learning outcomes also describe the levels of performance that learners should attain after completing a particular key stage of learning and serve as a tool for promoting learning and teaching.
Learning targets and Learning objectives
Learning targets set out broadly the knowledge/concepts, skills, values and attitudes that students need to learn and develop.
Learning objectives define specifically what students should know, value and be able to do in each strand of the subject in accordance with the broad subject targets at each key stage of schooling. They are to be used by teachers as a source list for curriculum, lesson and activity planning.
Level descriptors A set of written descriptions that describes what the typical candidates performing a certain level is able to do in public assessments.
Public assessment The associated assessment and examination system for the HKDSE.
SBA moderation mechanism
The mechanism adopted by HKEAA to adjust SBA marks submitted by schools to iron out possible differences across schools in marking standards and without affecting the rank order determined by the school.
School-based Assessment (SBA)
Assessments administered in schools as part of the teaching and learning process, with students being assessed by their subject teachers. Marks awarded will count towards students’ public assessment results.
School-based curriculum Schools and teachers are encouraged to adapt the central curriculum to develop their school-based curriculum to help their students achieve the subject targets and overall aims of education.
Measures may include readjusting the learning targets, varying the organisation of contents, adding optional studies and adapting learning, teaching and assessment strategies. A school-based curriculum is therefore the outcome of a balance between official recommendations and the autonomy of the schools and teachers.
Candidates’ performance in public assessment is reported in terms of levels of performance matched against a set of standards.
Student learning profile Its purpose is to provide supplementary information on the secondary school leavers’ participation and specialities during senior secondary years, in addition to their academic performance as reported in the HKDSE, including the assessment results for ApL courses, thus giving a fuller picture of their whole-person development.
Values and attitudes Values constitute the foundation of the attitudes and beliefs that influence one’s behaviour and way of life. They help form the principles underlying human conduct and critical judgment, and are qualities that learners should develop. Some examples of values are rights and responsibilities, commitment, honesty and national identity. Closely associated with values are attitudes.
The latter supports motivation and cognitive functioning, and affects one’s way of reacting to events or situations. Since both values and attitudes significantly affect the way a student learns, they form an important part of the school curriculum.
Alexander, R. (2006). Towards dialogic teaching: Rethinking classroom talk (Third edition).
Black, P., and William, D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5 (1), 7-74.
Black, P., and William, D. (1998b). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, October, 139-148.
Curriculum Development Council. (2002). Basic education curriculum guide (Primary 1 to Secondary 3). Hong Kong: The Printing Department, HKSAR Government.
Curriculum Development Council. (2001). Learning to learn – The way forward in curriculum development. Hong Kong: The Printing Department, HKSAR Government.
Curriculum Development Council. (2009). Senior secondary curriculum guide. Hong Kong:
The Government Logistics Department, HKSAR Government.
Curriculum Development Council. (2002). Technology education key learning area curriculum guide (Primary 1 to Secondary 3). Hong Kong: The Printing Department, HKSAR Government.
Education Department. (2000). Information technology learning target: A guideline for schools to organize teaching and learning activities to develop our students’ capability in using IT. Hong Kong: The Printing Department, HKSAR Government.
Education and Manpower Bureau. (2005). The new academic structure for senior secondary education and higher education – Action plan for investing in the future of Hong Kong.
Hong Kong: The Government Logistics Department, HKSAR Government.
Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. (2001). Hong Kong Advanced Supplementary Level Computer Applications examination paper. Hong Kong: The Printing Department, HKSAR Government.
Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. (2004). Hong Kong Advanced Supplementary Level Computer Applications examination paper. Hong Kong: The Government Logistics Department, HKSAR Government.
Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. (2005). Hong Kong certificate of education Computer and Information Technology examination paper. Hong Kong: The Government Logistics Department, HKSAR Government.
Stiggins, R. (2004). New assessment beliefs for a new school mission. Phi Delta Kappan, 86 (1), 22-27.
Watkins, C. (2005). Classrooms as learning communities. What is it for schools? London and New York: Routledge.