Chapter 3. Participatory Research and Analysis of Literature Review

3.1 Habitat/Land Preparation

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Chapter 3

Participatory Research and Analysis of Literature Review Outline

The author stayed and worked on the Lo family’s natural farm several times for participatory study. Through working, eating, and living with the Lo family the deep connections among farmers, land, and religion became apparent. Species relations, biodiversity, human relations, and spirituality are all part of this relationship network and will be explored in the context of the Shilei farm in this section. This chapter is broken into 5 main sections: land/habitat, species relations, social relations, language, and spirituality. The first section on land/habitat works to describe the species relations among different species on the farm. The second section on species variety gives further details on the high biodiversity in the farm and methodology of fertilizers used. The third section on social relations describes the labor force and how this remains an important part of the farmer’s culture. The fourth section describes how the local language may be influenced by elements of farming. The final section on spirituality explains how Christianity, and also spirituality in a broad sense, is a vital part of the farm life and culture.

3.1 Habitat/Land preparation

Habitat does not only refer to the fields themselves, but also describes all of the surrounding land, including the forest, river, and surrounding plant and animal life that are in connection with the farm. There are many factors in analyzing what make up this habitat on the Shilei farm, from the minute microorganisms in the soil to the variety of materials brought in from the forest. It is also important to define farming methods, such as land preparation techniques and material origins, as these may give important

indicators to both the farm’s habitat and species variety. In turn, both this habitat and species variety have influence over the species relations in the farm network. For example, Watan Taru describes the farm’s use of rotational farming. Unlike the

monocropping system used in conventional agriculture, use of rotational farming allows

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an increase in crop variety by switching out the crops used every season. Watan Taru depicts that there are no designated fields assigned for specific crops as:

“Every field can grow every variety of crop. The key is that the same field must not continuously grow the same type of crop. For example, cabbage should not be grown in the same field twice [consecutively]. Otherwise the crops are more susceptible to disease…. after larger crops are harvested, [they are] exchanged with smaller crops. (If a crop can be harvested within a month or so it is a small crop and over two months it is considered a large crop). After a field has been used for 4 consecutive times we will let it rest for half a year. Furthermore every year we let the fields rest for three months – half a year in order to increase soil fertility and replenish nutrients. “ (Watan Taru 04/24/2016)

In the Shilei community the Shilei Natural farm is famous for their natural fertilizer, which was inspired by Taru Behuy’s faith, indigenous ecological knowledge and time spent in Korea. The fertilizer materials come from diverse areas, which is one of the key aspects separating natural farming from conventional agriculture. Figure 7 below displays this diverse network of fertilizer materials.

Figure 7 Network of Fertilizer Materials

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Table 3-1 on the following page portrays more specifically some of the fertilizer material origins. The origin of many of the materials, including yellow cypress, taxol, and

mountain cinnamon come from the indigenous community’s mountain territory, and their use is inspired by indigenous ecological knowledge. Additionally, ginger, bamboo shoots, grass, and fresh water comes from or around the farm.

Table 3-1 Origin of Common Fertilizer Materials

Species Name Origin Notes

Cork Tree bark/

Yellow Cypress

Comes from the forest, picked at an elevation of 1200-2100 m.

Tree bark is used in natural germicide

Taxol Gathered from forest, picked at an elevation of 1700-2100 m. found on steep over hangings

Bark and leaves are used in natural germicide

Mountain Cinnamon Comes from the forest, picked at an elevation of 1600 m.

Tree bark is used in natural germicide and fertilizer (Chinese) Licorice

Root

Comes from traditional Chinese medicine shop in Zhudong ( )

Used in natural germicide

Garlic Bulb Comes from traditional Chinese medicine shop in Zhudong ( )

Used in natural germicide Chinese Angelica Comes from traditional Chinese

medicine shop in Zhudong ( )

Used in natural germicide Ginger Grown on the farm at an elevation of

700 m.

Used in natural germicide

Bamboo shoots Comes from a bamboo shoot patch next to the farm

Used in natural fertilizer

Grass The grass that grows next to the crops Used in natural fertilizer Fresh water Use the water which comes from the

farm (which comes from the mountains)

Used in natural fertilizer

Sea water Comes from Su’ao, Yilan ( )

Used in natural fertilizer and also to control weeds Mackerel Fish Comes from Su’ao, Yilan Used in natural fertilizer

Papaya Comes a farm on Taoyuan ( )

countryside where Gao Yicun ( ) grows natural Papaya

Used in natural fertilizer

Banana Comes from the same farm as the papaya

Used in natural fertilizer

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Figure 8 Pictures of Fertilizer Ingredients

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When collecting material for the fertilizer, it is crucial to understand the role each species plays in connection with each other and the forest. Taking a species without clear understanding of the role it has in the environment may cause a disruption in the balance of the ecosystem, so it is important to carefully learn about the functions of the entire forest before gathering materials for the fertilizer. Understanding these functions is highly dependent on indigenous ecological knowledge. Loyi (Taru Behuy’s 4th son) gives the example of the fir tree [ ]. Before going to collect the fir tree from the mountain, Loyi thought the fir tree was just used as decoration or for building material. However, after gaining experience gathering the material in the forest and learning about indigenous knowledge connected with the fir tree, Loyi explains that now he realizes the fir tree also plays an important role in helping the forest maintain balance and stabilize the forest soil (Loyi 02/10/2016).

在文檔中 泰雅族的自然農業:一條朝向保持生物多樣性及傳統文化道路 - 政大學術集成 (頁 40-45)