泰雅族的自然農業:一條朝向保持生物多樣性及傳統文化道路 - 政大學術集成

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(1)International Master’s Program in Asia-Pacific Studies College of Social Sciences National Chengchi University. Master’s Thesis. 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學 ‧. Natural Cultivation among the Atayal: A way towards. er. io. sit. y. Nat. Biodiversity and Cultural Conservation. n. a l Student: Laura Meitz iv n Ch e nDr. h i UDa Wei g cKuan Advisor: 105 June 2016. 6.

(2) Natural Cultivation among the Atayal: A way towards Biodiversity and Cultural Conservation. 立. 政. Student: Laura Meitz Advisor: Dr. Kuan Da Wei 治. 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學 A Thesis. y. Nat. n. Pacific Studies. er. io. al. sit. Submitted to International Master’s Program in Asia-. v. i n National C Chengchi University U. hengchi. In partial fulfillment of the Requirement For the degree of International Master in Asia-Pacific Studies 105 June 2016. 6.

(3) 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v.

(4) . Acknowledgment I want to thank my advisor, Professor Daya, for his patience and guidance during this process. He is always there to answer my many questions and push me on the right track when I am unsure of what direction to take. I am tremendously grateful to the Lo family for their hospitality to me during my participatory research, especially during the busy Chinese New Year season. I want to thank them taking the time out of their busy schedules to sit with me and entertain my questions about the natural farm. This thesis would not have been possible without the help from all of them.. 政 治 大. I would also like to thank Professor Lin and Fredrik for allowing me the. 立. opportunity to travel with the INIEF workshop March of 2016. This experience allowed. ‧ 國. 學. me to gain new perspectives, not only about indigenous farmers in Taiwan, but all over the Asia Pacific region.. I want to thank Professor Ru and Professor Kao for agreeing to join my thesis. ‧. defense committee, and also Professor Blundell for agreeing to join my proposal defense. y. Nat. committee. The advice all of you have given me have been immensely helpful through. sit. this process. I would also like to thank my friends in Taiwan, especially Tsai Yi-Ching,. n. al. er. io. who helped me with small details of translation from Chinese to English.. Ch. engchi. i. i n U. v.

(5) . Abstract: This study analyzes how natural farming may be significant to biodiversity and cultural conservation among Taiwan’s Atayal people. This study utilizes qualitative methods, such as interviews and a participatory observation to collect data. The study looks at the Shi Lei natural farm as a case study. In order to depict the relationship between culture and biodiversity in the context of Atayal natural farming, the study investigates the Shi Lei farm’s transition from conventional to natural farming. This study also describes cultural and biodiversity differences between conventional and. 政 治 大. natural farming and analyze the significance of language, spirituality, community, and indigenous knowledge to natural farming among the Atayal people. Through this thesis it. 立. was discovered that biodiversity and culture do have some type of connection, and. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. natural farming may enhance this connection.. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. ii. i n U. v.

(6) . Table of Contents Page number Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Description of Background Research ....................................................................... 1 1.2 Key terms .................................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Motivation................................................................................................................. 4 1.4 Objective ................................................................................................................... 4 1.5 Case Study ................................................................................................................ 5 1.6 Literature review....................................................................................................... 7 1.7 Theoretical Framework........................................................................................... 14 1.8 Research questions.................................................................................................. 15 1.9 Methods and Methodology ..................................................................................... 18. 政 治 大. Chapter 2. History of Agriculture in Shilei Chapter Outline............................................................................................................. 23 2.1 Pre-colonial Agriculture.......................................................................................... 23 2.2 Japanese Colonial Farming ..................................................................................... 25 2.3 Conventional Farming ............................................................................................ 27 2.4 Transition to Natural Farming ................................................................................ 29. 立. ‧ 國. 學. ‧. Chapter 3. Participatory Research and Analysis of Literature Review Chapter Outline............................................................................................................. 33 3.1 Habitat/Land Preparation ........................................................................................ 33 3.2 Species Diversity .................................................................................................... 38 3.2.1 Crop, wild plant, and insect diversity .................................................................. 38 3.2.2 Fertilizer, Pest deterrent, and disease preventative.............................................. 42 3.3 Labor Force and Social relations ............................................................................ 47 3.4 Language................................................................................................................. 48 3.5 Spirituality............................................................................................................... 50 3.6 Chapter Summary ................................................................................................... 54. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Chapter 4. Analysis Chapter Outline............................................................................................................. 55 4.1 Conventional versus Natural farming ..................................................................... 55 4.1.1 Species biodiversity ............................................................................................. 55 4.1.2 Social Relations/Labor Force Division................................................................ 56 4.1.3 Spirituality............................................................................................................ 57 4.2 Relation between culture and Biodiversity ............................................................. 59 4.3 Conservation alternative ......................................................................................... 60 4.4 Chapter Summary ................................................................................................... 61 Chapter 5. Conclusion 5.1 Summary ................................................................................................................. 62 5.2 Dialogue with Theorists.......................................................................................... 62 5.3 Future Suggestions.................................................................................................. 65 5.4 Limitations .............................................................................................................. 66 Bibliography .................................................................................................................... 67. iii.

(7) List of Figures Page number. 1 Map of Shilei........................................................................................................................................ 6 2 Taru Behuy and Shilei Natural Farm........................................................................................ 7 3 Berkes Resource Management Figure ................................................................................... 10 4 Theoretical Framework .............................................................................................................. 14 5 Research questions ....................................................................................................................... 15 6 Author During Participatory Study........................................................................................ 22 7 Network of Fertilizer Materials ................................................................................................ 34. 政 治 大 9 Photo of Chinese Silver grass.................................................................................................... 41 立 10 Photo of Bamboo wall ................................................................................................................ 42. 8 Photos of Fertilizer Ingredients............................................................................................... 37. ‧ 國. 學. 11 Photo of Watermelon fertilizer ............................................................................................. 44 12 Photo of pests before being processed.............................................................................. 47. ‧. 13 Labor force Chart ....................................................................................................................... 48. y. Nat. List of tables. sit. 1-1 Methods .............................................................................................................................................. 19. er. io. 2-1 Comparison of Knowledge Systems Among Different Farming Systems............... 32. al. iv n C 3-2 Plant Species and Season Grown ............................................................................................. 39 hengchi U 3-3 Commonly used natural fertilizer ingredients .............................................................. 43 n. 3-1 Origin of Common Fertilizer Materials ............................................................................. 36. 3-4 Commonly used natural pest and disease deterrent ingredients.............................. 46 3-5 Significant Atayal Terms.............................................................................................................. 50 4-1 Comparison of Schedules During Different Periods of Farming ................................ 58 4-2 Conventional Versus Natural Farming .................................................................................. 59. iv.

(8) . Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Description of Background Research The United Nations Convention on Biodiversity assesses that there is a link between biological and cultural diversity. For example, biodiversity hotspots tend to be in areas with large indigenous populations, and indigenous knowledge is thought to have a connection with biodiversity. The term indigenous knowledge encompasses a broad spectrum of ideas including land management, spirituality, and social relations, which are. 政 治 大 knowledge is defined by Berkes in Sacred Ecology as “a cumulative body of knowledge, 立 practice, and belief, evolving by adaptive processes and handed down through not mutually exclusive from each other but instead interconnected. Indigenous. ‧ 國. 學. generations by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and with their environment” (Berkes 2008, 7). Although. ‧. humans are often viewed as threatening to biodiversity, it is problematic when institutions deal with issues of biodiversity and cultural diversity separately. Therefore it. sit. y. Nat. may be beneficial to examine the intersection of these two areas.. In the Atayal community, particularly in Shilei, indigenous knowledge plays a. io. er. key role in natural and organic farming techniques. Natural farming is a minimalist. al. n. iv n C believe in the use of any type ofh fertilizers, i Unatural farming techniques should e n g and c hstated approach to farming first established in Japan by Masanobu Fukuoka. Fukuoka did not mimic the surrounding land. More modern adaptations of the natural farming method, such as the Korean Hang Fang method teach the creation of homemade fertilizers by using surrounding native plant species (Yen et al. 2009, 18). The idea of creating homemade fertilizers has been adapted by the natural farm in Shilei, where farmers have been inspired by their indigenous knowledge to create their own versions of the natural fertilizers. Agriculture, while still culturally significant to the Atayal people, has changed dramatically since traditional times. The traditional form of agriculture among Taiwan’s mountain indigenous communities was swidden agriculture. Swidden agriculture is. 1.

(9) characterized by short cultivation followed by a long fallow period (ex: 1-2 years of cultivation followed by 15-20 years fallow period). Burning the field helps to “prepare a clean planting bed, release nutrients, reduce insects, and eliminate weeds” (Yumpu 2013, n.p.) In addition, during the time of swidden agriculture, traditional land resources were seen as belonging to the entire tribe (Lin and Tsai 2011, 6). During this time the community planted multiple crops on one section of land, including millet, taro, and vines such as pumpkins. However, the practice of swidden agriculture was mostly banned during Japanese colonization (1895-1945). Instead Taiwanese farmers were forced to switch to growing Japanese style rice and sugarcane, because these crops were seen as more profitable (Kingsbury 2009, 120).. 政 治 大 adopted roughly the same 立land boundaries the Japanese had previously established. In In 1945, after the Japanese colonization period, the KMT entered Taiwan and. the 1970s and 1980s the KMT began to maintain conventional agriculture due to the fact. ‧ 國. 學. that there was a disproportionate amount of rice farmers in Taiwan. During the transition from rice farming to diverse cash crops, farmers heavily increasing the amount of. ‧. chemical fertilizer and pesticide being used in order to produce a higher product output (Ru and Lo 2015, 80).. y. Nat. sit. Starting in the 1990’s, some Atayal communities began to take steps to move. er. io. away from conventional agriculture and towards organic farming. In 2007 a Korean preacher visited the Shilei community and influenced several farmers to attempt natural. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. farming. A group of farmers from Shilei traveled to Korea to learn the techniques It. engchi. should be noted that there are multiple motivations among indigenous communities for switching to organic/natural farming; these include environmental motives, economic motives, and cultural motives. These motives, which will be explored in later chapters, are not mutually exclusive, and communities may have several different motivations for switching to organic/natural farming.. 1.2 Key terms Biodiversity Biodiversity may be defined as a variety of plant and animal life. A high level of biodiversity is seen to be desirable in the ecosystem for several reasons, such as making. 2.

(10) crops less susceptible to disease, strengthening soil nutrients, and increasing recovery from unpredictable events (Pimentel et. al. 1997, 747, 752-753). Organic farming In the context of this thesis it is important to make a distinction between natural and organic farming, especially conventional-organic farming. At their core, organic and natural farming are similar, as both emphasize farming without the use of conventional fertilizers or pesticides. Furthermore, many natural and organic farms adopt similar techniques, such as crop rotation, planting seasonally, etc. One difference between organic and natural farms is the use of fertilizers. While natural farms abstain from the. 政 治 大 organic fertilizer. Unless 立stated otherwise, within the scope of this thesis, an organic farm use of fertilizers or make homemade fertilizers, many organic farms buy pre-made. will be defined as a farm making an effort to be sustainable in the long-term, taking a. ‧ 國. 學. holistic approach, which aims to enhance the local ecosystem health. Organic farmers adapt their techniques in order to take into account local conditions, such as biodiversity. ‧. and soil health (Goldberger 2011, 288).. y. Nat. sit. Conventional farming. er. (Chemical farming). Within the scope of this thesis, the term. al. n. pesticides is. io. The term used by farmers when speaking about agriculture that uses chemical. Ch. i n U. v. “conventional farming” is used to mean ‘farming with the use of synthetic chemical. engchi. fertilizers and pesticides,’ and is seen as synonymous with the term ‘chemical farming’ (. ).. Cultural conservation Within the scope of this thesis, the term cultural conservation is not meant to force indigenous people and their cultures to remain stagnant in their traditional ways without developing with the modern times. Instead, the term conservation encompasses the idea of protecting cultural heritage for future generations, and it may also include the act of blending new ideas with traditional knowledge. Indigenous culture is dynamic,. 3.

(11) constantly adapting, leaving room for new ideas and techniques, “if they fit into the complex fabric of existing traditional practices” (Berkes 2008, 4).. 1.3 Motivation My interest in the connections between organic farming and biodiversity ultimately stems from the four years I spent during my undergraduate education volunteering at the Southwestern University Community Garden. Through my experience I not only learned the more technical aspects of gardening, but also things such as biodiversity and food security. After coming to Taiwan for my graduate degree I took the. 政 治 大. course, “Indigenous Modernization and Society.” Through this course, I visited two organic farms run by indigenous communities. Both in class and on the field trips, we. 立. talked about the importance of land in indigenous society and the connections between. ‧ 國. 學. agriculture and culture. This experience inspired me to learn more about organic farming among Taiwan’s indigenous communities.. ‧. 1.4 Objective. y. Nat. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the connection between biodiversity and. sit. culture among Tayal natural farming. A connection between biodiversity and culture. al. er. io. could potentially mean that maintaining the Tayal culture also has positive implications. v. n. for the environment. Furthermore, due to the fact that natural farming among the Tayal. Ch. i n U. people is both primarily instigated and carried out by local people, these efforts may also. engchi. be seen as a participatory approach to cultural and biodiversity preservation. This idea of a participatory approach is important, for several reasons. First, several scholars, including Lin and Chang and Röth, have stated that when the community becomes involved in conservation efforts the chances for success of those conservation efforts increase. Secondly, the primary benefiters of these conservation efforts are all local people. The research intends to reveal relations between indigenous knowledge, culture, and biodiversity and may serve as a connection between indigenous practice and mainstream society.. 4.

(12) . 1.5 Case study The field site, Shilei1 [. ], located in Hsinchu’s Jianshi town ship, is the. location of the Shilei natural farm. The population of Shilei is roughly 100. In Shilei there are several sub-sections of organic farming. Some farmers are more focused on the market aspect while others see organic farming on a more spiritual level. The fieldwork was conducted on the Shilei Natural farm, which is run by the Lo family. The variety of farming practiced by the Lo family, natural farming, is a subsection of organic farming that is more focused on the spiritual aspect of farming, where the farmers view their farming as a duty they perform to God. It should be further noted that while other farms. 治 政 family’s natural farm, the Lo family’s farming style is大 considered to be unique and not 立 The interviewees for this study include the main organizers seen in other parts of Shilei. in the area are influenced by the natural farming techniques taking place at the Lo. ‧ 國. 學. of the farm and the current workers on the farm, which are all members of the Lo family. The scope of this study focuses on the time immediately prior to Shilei’s transition from conventional to organic farming until the present day, where the farmers practice natural. ‧. farming. A background history of this area is detailed in chapter 2.. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 1 The indigenous name of the village is Quri. This thesis uses pinyin romanization of. the Chinese name [ Shilei , because that the name the farmers used to refer to their village while the author was carrying out the participatory study. 5.

(13) Figure 1. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. Jianshi Township in Hsinchu county. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. Shilei Village in Jianshi township. 6. i n U. v. Hsinchu County Taiwan.

(14) Figure 2. Shilei Natural Farm (10/2016) Location: Shilei (. 立. ) 治 政 大. ‧ 國. 學. 1.6 Literature review 1.6.1 Environmental Philosophy. ‧. The philosophy of deep ecology focuses on the ‘inherent worthiness’ of all life forms to exist on Earth. In 1984, Naess, seen as the forefather of Deep Ecology, surmised. y. Nat. 8 basic principles of deep ecology along with fellow deep ecologist Sessions. A. sit. significant theme of these principles includes the importance of ‘life diversity’. er. io. (biodiversity) and the idea that humans should try and coexist with nature, as “every. al. n. iv n C gains influence from earlier environmentalist h e n g cthinkers i Usuch as Rachel Carson. Carson’s h Silent Spring, seen as a keystone text in environmentalist movements, touches upon the living being is connected intimately” (Naess 1995, 22). The deep ecology movement. disastrous consequences of what happens when humans attempt to dominate nature. Carson emphasizes that relying to heavily on chemical pesticides “undoes the built in checks and balances by which nature holds the species within bounds” (Carson 1962, 10). Carson details on how intricately connected the earth’s ecosystem’s are, when she states that, by spreading pesticides in order to kill off harmful pests one could unintentionally harm many more organisms that feed off of those pests and their predators. What separates deep ecology from fundamental environmentalist thinkers is the philosophical component. In “Self Realization: An Ecological Approach to Being in the World,” Naess expresses the idea of the ‘ecological self.’ This concept of the ecological 7.

(15) self gives moral weight to all aspects of the environment. Deep ecologists take a nonanthropocentric stance, seeing all organisms interconnected and playing vital roles in the ecosystem, not only humans. Perhaps one of the earliest thinkers to develop the idea of environmental consciousness would be Muir. Muir was known as a ‘preservationist,’ and debated that humans are not the owners of the Earth, and do not have a right to take resources as they please. Muir encouraged the preservation of resources based off more than simple aesthetic appeal, but on a deeper more spiritual level (Devall 1982, 66).1.5.2 1.6.2 Organic Farming and Biodiversity Environmental thinkers depicted the importance of biodiversity in developing a well-rounded sustainable ecosystem. These ideas about biodiversity are further reflected. 政 治 大 ‘Organic Farming’ was立 first coined by Lord Northbourne in the book Look to the Land.. in organic farming philosophies laid out by Northborne, Hole, and Bengtsson. The term In Look to the Land, Northbourne questions modern farming practices, seeing the land. ‧ 國. 學. not simply as a commodity, but as a “living entity” (Northbourne 6, 49, 1942). In “Does Organic Farming Benefit Biodiversity,” Hole et. al. depicts that, besides the fact that. ‧. organic farming does not use commercial pesticides or fertilizers, organic farmers often also utilize other techniques not seen in conventional farming. For example, while. y. Nat. sit. conventional farmers rely on mono-cropping, organic farmers often plant multiple. er. io. species of crops, practice crop-rotation, pay attention to soil health, etc. Hole notes that these practices do not only increase plant diversity within the farm, but also may have a. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. positive impact on insect diversity, wild plant diversity, bird diversity, and other wildlife. engchi. diversity (Hole 2005, 114). Using pesticides does not only harm pests who may potentially damage crops, but also non-harmful insects, birds who may feed on those insects, and potentially other wildlife. In “The Effects of Organic Agriculture on Biodiversity and Abundance: a Meta-analysis,” Bengtsson et al. depict that by not using harsh pesticides, plants growing at the organic farm are less harmful to surrounding wildlife, improving the health of the overall ecosystem (Bengtsson et al 2005, 262). 1.6.3. Biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples a. Indigenous Knowledge and Agriculture Similar to organic farming, many traditional indigenous forms of agriculture are seen to be conducive to biodiversity. It has been well noted that many indigenous. 8.

(16) communities also tend to be biodiversity hotspots, however the exact reason for this is still unclear. In “Directions for Long-term Research in Traditional Systems of Micronesia and the Pacific Islands”, Manner depicts that many indigenous forms of agriculture do little to disrupt the natural ecosystems, as they “mimic the structure and function” of the surrounding environment (Manner 2008, 63). In this sense, indigenous agriculture may not only be helping to maintain biodiversity, but may also be part of the reason such biodiversity exists in the first place (Manner 2008, 63-64). Traditionally Hawaiians also practiced a sustainable system of resource management called Ahupua’a. Ahupua’a boundaries were placed along “culturally appropriate, ecologically aligned, and place specific units with access to diverse resources” (Gonschor and Beamer 2014, 71) In most. 政 治 大 2014, 74). Sustainability立 in the Ahupua’a was maintained by priests or Konohiki. cases these factors allowed an Ahupua’a to be self-sustaining (Gonschor and Beamer (Ahupua’a 2001,n.p). In, Sacred Ecology, Berkes depicts that, in order to maintain their. ‧ 國. 學. cultural livelihoods, many indigenous communities rely on “a portfolio of resources” as opposed to only one or two cash crops (Berkes 2008, 42). In order to prepare certain. ‧. traditional foods or partake in certain ceremonies indigenous people need to keep growing a variety of local resources. Furthermore, being reliant on local resources means. y. Nat. sit. spending time assessing the “health and integrity” of the environment (Berkes 2008, 42-. er. io. 43). Therefore, many indigenous populations have accumulated a vast amount of indigenous knowledge concerning local resources and the environment.. n. al. Ch. b. Language and Biodiversity. engchi. i n U. v. Several scholars including Maffi, Berkes, and Langton and Rhea assess the correlation between language and biodiversity. In “Linguistic, Cultural and Biological Diversity,” Maffi depicts that local languages are “molded by” and adapt based on the surrounding environments (Maffi 2005, 605). In “Traditional Indigenous Biodiversity Related Knowledge,” Langton and Rhea analyze how the linguistic environment plays a large role in the maintenance of indigenous knowledge due to the fact that much indigenous knowledge is “transmitted orally rather than written down” (Langton and Rhea 2005, 55). There are many words in indigenous languages used to describe parts of culture, such as indigenous plants or aspects of land preparation that may be difficult to. 9.

(17) translate. Furthermore, when a language is lost in a community, words and knowledge associated with that language may also be lost. c. Indigenous Knowledge and Resource Management Indigenous knowledge is also a significant part of resource management for many communities. In Sacred Ecology, Berkes defines four levels of analysis for traditional knowledge and management systems.. 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學. Figure 3. (Berkes 2008, 17). ‧. The first level of analysis includes local knowledge, which is comprised of things such as species identification, taxonomy, etc. The second level of knowledge is the. y. Nat. resource management system, which uses the local knowledge from the first level of. sit. analysis combined with “an appropriate set of practices, tools, and techniques” to manage. er. io. resources. The third level of analysis looks at social institutions, rules and norms. For. al. n. iv n C institutions acting as a type of guidance, facilitating “coordination, cooperation, and ruleheng i U h c making” (Berkes 2008, 18). The fourth level of analysis is worldview. Worldview land management practices to be successfully carried out, there must be norms or social. contains aspects such as “religion, ethics, and more generally, belief systems” (Berkes 2008, 18). As seen in the chart, these four systems of analysis are not distinctly separate from each other. Berkes identifies that they are sometimes overlapping and it may become difficult to neatly categorize which level of analysis certain forms of indigenous knowledge fit into. d. Biodiversity and Sacredness Connections between indigenous populations and biodiversity are found in many different areas of the world, and for many of these indigenous communities, indigenous knowledge, nature, spirituality, and conceptions of morals are all intertwined. Harmon’s. 10.

(18) “Biodiversity and the Sacred: some Insights for Preserving Cultural Diversity and Heritage,” gives a well-rounded analysis of the philosophical connotations behind the relationship between biodiversity and culture. According to Harmon, humans feel a psychological connection to areas of biological diversity and the loss of biological diversity, similar to cultural heritage (Harmon 2003, 64-65). Harmon even argues that the concept of biodiversity itself may be seen as a form of cultural heritage to some populations (Harmon 2003, 68). Berkes illustrates that “in many traditional cultures, nature is imbued with sacredness” (Berkes 2008, 11). For example, in China’s Xishuangbanna, the Dai people have both Polytheistic and Buddhist beliefs, which are linked to preservation of plant. 政 治 大 traditionally it was important 立 not to disturb the plants and animals that lived there (Lin et species. According to the Dai people’s polytheistic beliefs, gods live in the forest, so. al. 2000, 707). Furthermore, according to the Dai people’s Buddhist traditions, temples. ‧ 國. 學. had gardens with a variety of different plant species. Liu illustrates how by restoring these forests and temple gardens the people living in Xishuangbanna both preserve 1.6.4 Tayal, Gaga, and Christianity. Nat. y. ‧. biodiversity and their cultural traditions (Lin et al. 2000, 711).. sit. In the case of the Tayal community, a key aspect of traditional culture is the. er. io. concept of Gaga. Gaga is a shared belief system of rules, norms or principles for everyone participating in that particular group to follow. During the time of swidden. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. agriculture, land was not privatized and there were no concrete boundaries on land. engchi. territory (Lin and Tsai 2011, 6). Instead, the tribes relied on a set of rules and norms delegated by the Gaga on how to manage their land (Tang and Tang 2010, 105). Yet, since the Japanese occupation and introduction of land privatization in the 1920s, the community resource pool has been declining from a tribal to family based system (Lin and Tsai 2011, 8). Furthermore, in the 1950s, many Atayal people began to convert to Christianity. Lin and Tsai express that Christianity replaced many of the beliefs of Gaga, however it did not necessarily undermine the ideas of community or a common resource pool found in earlier beliefs. In some cases, the ideas of Christianity and Gaga have merged together to form new traditions (Lin and Tsai 2011, 8). Many members do not see these the ideas of Christianity and Gaga as conflicting, but instead as working. 11.

(19) together in harmony. Hsiao depicts how the Maqaw group in Cinsbu, all of which are Presbyterians, has taken the main leadership position in many conservation projects among the community. The church has also been a main force in promoting cooperation among members of the Smagus and Smangus Atayal tribes (Tang and Tang 2010, 107). This concept extends to the case of organic farming where church leaders are often main instigators and organizers of farming projects. The significance of spirituality to Shilei natural farming is detailed in Ru and Lo’s “The Local Moral World and Agricultural Activities of the Committed Organic Farmer: A Case Study from and Atayal Community in Shilei, Jianshi Township, Xinzhu,” and also Lo’s PhD thesis. Due to this topic’s narrow perspective, there are few literary. 政 治 大 heavily. Lo En Jia is one 立of the members of the farm, and his thesis dissertation is a. sources to review that are specific to this case, and as a result Lo’s PhD thesis is relied on valuable resource in providing primary accounts of the farmer’s experience. Lo’s thesis. ‧ 國. 學. gives not only current accounts of the natural farming systems, but also a historical background of the different systems of farming the Shilei area has transitioned through.. ‧. However, the thesis has faced criticism from scholars, because Lo does not step out of his insider perspective to give a more objective stance on how Spirituality has affected. y. Nat. sit. natural farming. One of the things this thesis can add is to give the perspective of an. al. n. 1.6.5 Reflections:. er. io. outsider on topics such as spirituality to natural farming in Shilei.. Ch. i n U. v. A number of the authors have pointed out a possible link between cultural. engchi. diversity and biodiversity. In order to better understand this relationship, it is important to look at what factors influence both biodiversity and cultural diversity. Several aspects may be used to measure biodiversity, including species variety, habitat, and species relations. There are several different factors influencing cultural diversity including social relations, linguistic factors, and spirituality. In many indigenous communities the aspects of spirituality, language, and social relations are not mutually exclusive and may be linked under the broad umbrella term of indigenous knowledge. Natural farming may be seen as a connecting bridge between these aspects of biodiversity and cultural diversity. The relations between organic farming and biodiversity have been thoroughly studied. For example, instead of focusing on only one. 12.

(20) or two cash crops, such as in conventional farms, organic farms tend to focus on a wider range of crop varieties. Crop variety is not the only type of biodiversity present within organic farms. By not using conventional pesticides, organic farms have a wider variety of insects and weeds and therefore have a wider variety of species that rely on those insects (for example, birds). On the contrary, the connections between organic farming, cultural diversity, and biodiversity are not as obvious. Language serves as one example of the connection between biodiversity and cultural diversity. Preservation of language among indigenous groups also works to preserve knowledge of different species and their relations. In addition, preservation of biodiversity works to increase language knowledge as people. 政 治 大 a Tayal organic farmer 立 in Cinsibu, the Tayal language is important when thinking about. learn about new words for species and relations between species. According to Yapit Tali, the land, farming processes, and learning about different species and their relations.. ‧ 國. 學. Spirituality among indigenous people operates as another example of a connecting factor between biodiversity and cultural diversity. Among the Tayal people,. ‧. the traditional Gaga is no longer functioning, yet some communities have combined ideas of Christianity with traditional ideas of Gaga. Similar to how the Gaga played an. y. Nat. sit. important role in delegating divisions of labor in pre-colonial times, Christian churches. er. al. n. farming projects.. io. often play important roles in maintaining community cohesion and organizing organic. Ch. i n U. v. Additionally, social relations serve as another example of a connecting factor. engchi. between biodiversity and cultural diversity. In the case of organic farming, indigenous knowledge plays a large role in community organization and delegation of the labor force. In many societies, the ecology influences this organization of the community. The foods people eat, which types of foods are grown, and delegation of the labor force is influenced by the natural ecology. At the same time, it can also be said that the natural ecology is influenced by the organization of the community. People grow the types of foods they wish to eat, which can have a substantial impact on the local ecology. Furthermore, in many societies food has cultural connotations, and by continuing to grow and eat these types of foods people not only maintain their culture, but also impact local ecology.. 13.

(21) . 1.7 Theoretical Framework This framework is based on the literature review in section 1.5. In order to assess how natural farming may work to promote biodiversity and cultural diversity, biodiversity and cultural diversity have been broken down into more measureable pieces. Biodiversity, which has been defined as a variety of plant and animal life in a certain area, looks at the species, species relations, and habitat. These three terms in particular where chosen, because when defining biodiversity it is important not only to look at the type and number of species, but also at the habitats the species come from and the relations among the different species in the area studied. Furthermore, in the literature review it. 政 治 大. was determined that language, spirituality, and social relations are all important measures of cultural diversity. These also serve as connecting links between cultural diversity and. 立. biodiversity. This thesis aims to determine what role natural farming plays in promoting. ‧ 國. 學. language, spirituality, and social relations on the farm, and from this determine the extent that natural farming works to promote cultural diversity on the farm. Figure 4. ‧. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. 14. i n U. v.

(22) . 1.8 Research Questions: Main research question: To what extent may natural farming be seen as a means of cultural and biodiversity preservation among aboriginal groups? In addition to the main research question, there are four subsections of research questions detailed below: Figure 5: Subsections of main research question. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. The first subsection of research questions looks into the historical aspect of natural farming, aims to understand Shilei’s agricultural transition process, and also understand how any challenges the farmer’s faced were overcome. The focus of this subsection is to gain a background understanding of agriculture in Shilei, and to understand the farmer’s motives for transition to natural farming.. 15.

(23) . 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學 y. Nat. sit. The second subsection of research questions looks at comparing the processes of natural. al. er. io. and conventional farming. The knowledge gained from this comparison is later used in. v. n. Chapter 4’s analysis to draw conclusions on whether or not natural farming promotes any. Ch. i n U. unique processes of biodiversity or cultural diversity conservation not present in conventional farming.. engchi. 16.

(24) . 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. io. sit. y. Nat. er. The third subsection of research questions aims to assess the cultural diversity of the area. al. n. iv n C section are based on the key elements diversity defined in the literature review h e nof gcultural chi U and how natural farming intersects with this cultural diversity. The questions in this and framework.. 17.

(25) . 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學. The fourth subsection of research questions asks what the potential relations between culture and biodiversity is. This is a general analysis question which takes the. ‧. information gained from the previous sections in order to draw conclusion about the. io. sit. Nat. may play in maintaining and promoting these two elements.. y. relationship between culture and biodiversity on the farm and the role natural farming. er. 1.9 Methodology and Methods. al. n. iv n C U is important especially for h e The observation, and in depth interviews. n gliterature c h i review. The primary methods used in this study were an in depth literature review, participatory understanding the historical background of the case site and the transition between. different farming eras. As this is an ethnographical study, the participatory observation and in depth interviews were important for gaining an understanding of the complex cultural meaning embedded in natural farming, which could not be accomplished through literature review alone.. 18.

(26) Table 1-1. Research Methods. Research questions What was the transition. Information. Information. Source of. collection. analysis. information. Literature Review. Content analysis. Background. process?. Research through books, journals,. Crop methods before. etc.. transition Challenges faced during transition?. ‧ 國. 學. How were these. 立. 政 治 大. challenges overcome?. What are the processes. Literature Review. Content analysis. ‧. Nat. plant species, insect. observation. n. species, etc.?. al. er. Interview/participatory. io. How many varieties of. Ch. n engchi U. What are the relations between the different. Interview/participatory. species?. observation. Type of fertilizer? Interview/participatory Method of land. observation. preparation? Interview/participatory. sit. farming. Research books, journals, etc.. y. of natural /conventional. Background. 19. iv. Speaking with leaders and current workers on the Shilei natural farm.

(27) How is the labor force. observation/Literature. organized?. Review Interview/participatory observation. What is the significance. Interview/participatory Content analysis. Participatory. of family/community to. observation. observation at the. natural farming?. Shi Lei organic farm. What is the significance. 政 治 大. of language to natural. 立. farming?. ‧ 國. What is the significance. leaders and current. 學. Interview/participatory. Speaking with. observation. workers on the Shilei natural farm. of spirituality to natural. observation/Literature. to natural farming?. Review. al. n. indigenous knowledge. er. of other types of. io. Interview/participatory. sit. Nat. What is the significance. y. ‧. farming?. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Interview/participatory observation What is the relation. Participatory. By analyzing the. Participatory. between culture and. observation. answers of the. observation on the. above questions, a. Shilei natural Farm. biodiversity?. conclusion may be What is meant by. made on these two. cultural preservation?. questions. 20.

(28) Description of Participatory study I visited the natural farm in Shilei for participatory observation during the months of February and April. During this time the author had the opportunity to converse and work with all members of the farm and attend the local church service. Attending the church service is significant to this research, not only because it is an important part of the farmer’s weekly routine, but also because it gives a window into how tight knit the church community is. Furthermore, I had the opportunity to sit in on several classes taught by Watan Taru. People from inside and outside the community come to Shilei to learn about natural farming from Watan Taru and Taru Behuy. Local farmers from Shilei and neighboring communities in Jianshi come to learn more in depth concepts, such as. 政 治 大 For people traveling 立 from outside the community, classes are held on basic. market place constructs and try and solve current issues community members.. aspects of the farm, such as preparation of fertilizer. While many of these visitors are. ‧ 國. 學. Taiwanese, in some cases visitors come from outside Taiwan to learn about natural farming in Shilei. This was the case during the INIEF (International Network of. ‧. Indigenous Ecological Farmers) workshop held in March 2016, where indigenous ecological farmers traveled from across the Asia Pacific region to share experiences and. y. Nat. sit. learn about different farming styles among Taiwanese indigenous farmers. During this. er. io. time the author had the opportunity to meet and speak with indigenous ecological farmers from across the Asia Pacific region and visit a number of different organic and natural. n. al. Ch. farms in the Jianshi Township area.. engchi. 21. i n U. v.

(29) Figure 6 Author During Participatory Study Shilei Farm. INIEF Workshop. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. 22. i n U. v.

(30) . Chapter 2 History of Agriculture in Shilei Outline This section details the history of different agricultural styles in Shilei from the pre-colonial agricultural era through the present day natural farming era. More specifically this section will describe pre-colonial farming, Japanese colonial farming, conventional farming, organic farming, and natural farming in Shilei. It is important to explore the history of agriculture in the Shilei area and the transitions the farmers have experienced in order to better understand the historical and cultural connotations behind modern farming methods.. 立. 政 治 大. 2.1 Pre Colonial Agriculture. ‧ 國. 學. Prior to Japanese colonization the Atayal people practiced swidden agriculture. Each community had their own conceptions of traditional agriculture, and for Shilei this. ‧. traditional agricultural knowledge is referred to as Qmazayah. Qmazayah is much deeper. y. Nat. than just the farming field itself. Qmazayah may also reference fishing grounds, hunting. sit. grounds and also includes the relationship among people, the land, Utux, and Gaga (Lo. al. er. io. 2016, 40). According to traditional agricultural knowledge, there is a triangular. n. relationship among Utux, land, and the people, and as this section further evaluates the. Ch. i n U. v. processes of traditional farming, this complex relationship will be further assessed.. engchi. Traditional agriculture did not use chemical pesticides, instead, the people relied on the land’s own nutrient resources and followed the norms of Gaga to ensure a good harvest. Therefore, according to Nbin Hola in Lo2’s PhD thesis, traditional agriculture may be considered a natural method of farming. “Qmazayah is our [traditional] agriculture, it does not use chemical pesticides, [and] importantly uses the land’s nutrition to grow crops… farm progress is all in accordance with Gaga, and one must follow community norms” (Lo 2016, 48 Translation by the author). Additionally, connections and working together as a mutual family unit were important concepts during this time (Lo 2016, 42, 48). All of the land within a 2 Lo En Chia ( , Watan Taru) is one of the farmers in Shilei. 23.

(31) community was connected through a large network, and everyone from the same family linage was in charge of cultivating their own share of land. There was “not only [a] need to work [together] as a collective with family, there was also a need for abundant ecological knowledge in order for land preparation to go smoothly” (Lo 2016, 56 Translation by the author). Elders were placed in charge of choosing which land to cultivate for their community. They chose this land based off of land they had envisioned through dreams (Spi), and their local land knowledge (Rhyal). According to this land knowledge (Rhyal) there are three main factors to determine a suitable spot for cultivating crops. The first method is based on color, where darker colored soil is usually more fertile. The second way is based on moisture, where damp soil is more suitable for. 政 治 大 terrain, where loose soil立 is considered to be the most suitable terrain for growing crops. growing crops and dry soil is not considered to be fertile. The final way is based on. After determining a place to grow crops, it was time to sow the seeds. Some of the. ‧ 國. 學. crops grown during this time include: millet, taro, corn, sweet potato, pumpkin, squash ( ). white gourd, green bean, pearl onion, fresh ginger, chili pepper, and daikon. ‧. radish. Before sowing seeds there was often a ceremony to ensure a good harvest for the. y. Nat. following season. This type of ceremony includes putting a small piece of millet cake in. sit. to the field before sowing, which is thought to allow crops to grow well (Lo 2016, 64).. al. er. io. After the seeds have been sowed the farmers must manage the fields through. n. activities such as weeding, pest control, and fertilizing the fields when needed. Weeding. Ch. i n U. v. was quite labor intensive, because unlike the fields in modern times, fields in during. engchi. traditional agriculture were quite large and all of the weeding was done by hand. Without the use of chemical pesticides during this time, fields were susceptible to damage from insects and rodents, such as mice, squirrel, and brown country rats (Lo 2016, 71). (However, it should be noted that Lo mentions that pest preventatives are rarely needed when growing indigenous crops, due to the fact that native species are less susceptible to pests in the area). Certain plants were grown, such as almond trees, to deter insect pests from damaging crops, and larger rodents and birds were trapped by using bird and mouse traps. Moreover, when farmers felt the field lacked in nutrition they would add either ash from burned trees or fallen leaves. If the field still failed to provide a good harvest after. 24.

(32) adding this fertilizer, they would usually take it as a sign to move to a new location (Lo 2016, 70-71).. 2.2 Japanese Colonial Farming The Japanese colonized Taiwan from 1895-1945, however it was not until the 1930s that Japanese style paddy rice farming was implemented in Shilei, rice farming continued in some areas until the 1990s (Lo 2016, 84). Japanese colonists viewed much of indigenous traditional culture, such as swidden agriculture and forest hunting practices, as uncivilized. Japanese colonists entered the mountains with the intention of. 政 治 大. promoting what they viewed as more modern practices in indigenous areas and as a result, many cultural and farming practices were lost during this time (Lo 2016, 88).. 立. In order to promote rice farming, (and also possibly due to misunderstanding of. ‧ 國. 學. traditional indigenous agricultural practice) the Japanese claimed there were many problems associated with swidden agriculture (Chen 1998, 3). For example, colonists claimed swidden agriculture was the cause of deforestation, erosion, and flooding in the. ‧. area. However, Chen points out that the forest was viewed as both an important spiritual. y. Nat. and material resource for the Atayal people. The forest provided material building. sit. material, a place for gathering certain plants such as mushrooms, and was the source of. al. er. io. hunting game (Chen 1998, 3-4).. n. With the introduction of paddy rice farming, rice quickly rose to the number one. Ch. i n U. v. crop grown in Taiwan. Yet, rice is not a traditional staple crop for indigenous people. The. engchi. transition to growing rice created both cultural and economic problems for Taiwan’s mountain indigenous people. Increased rice farming disrupted the Utux, which is closely linked to the growing of millet (Lo 2016, 94). Unlike millet, rice was not inducted as an important part of culture. As more rice was grown the amount of millet and other traditional crops decreased. For the Japanese colonists it was vital that the Taiwanese produce as much rice as possible, because the Japanese needed Taiwanese rice imports to supplement their food supply back home. Besides disrupting indigenous culture, such as the Utux and Gaga there were multiple economic and environmental problems associated with planting rice in the high mountain climate. In Lo’s PhD thesis Shilei community member Suqiy Hayum describes. 25.

(33) how “…the elevation was so high rice could only be harvested once a year, in August. If there was a typhoon that year they would have to work at neighboring farms, otherwise they would have nothing to eat” (translated and paraphrased from Lo 2016, 90). Chen further describes how sloped terrain, cold mountain water, along with sandy-gravely terrain made it more difficult to cultivate rice when compared to Taiwan’s plains areas. Furthermore, the indigenous people were not as well connected to the main market and not as easily able to receive new tools or fertilizers as plains people. As a result of these factors, the mountain indigenous peoples faced lower harvest rates than those in plains areas (Chen 1998, 2). Around the 1980s the paddy rice fields started to disappear. Some small stores. 政 治 大 time, the government began 立 to encourage farmers to stop growing rice and start growing began to appear making it more convenient and cheaper to buy produce. At the same. more varieties of crops. Remnants of the terraced fields may be seen, which served as a. ‧ 國. 學. base for growing cash crops in later years (Lo 2016, 91).. Japanese colonist’s introduction of paddy rice farming brought a host of new. ‧. changes for Taiwanese indigenous groups. Although this period was not the first time Taiwan had been colonized, it was a comparatively heavy-handed approach, especially in. y. Nat. sit. mountainous indigenous areas, which had been left mostly untouched by previous. er. io. colonizers. Without the influence of imported technologies and agricultural processes Taiwanese indigenous people solely relied on local knowledge for survival. However,. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. when Japanese colonists entered indigenous territories, they rejected old knowledge. engchi. patterns moving to establish their own agricultural and political knowledge systems. Unlike the culturally and geographically specific traditional agriculture, paddy rice farming imported techniques, not only from outside mountain areas, but also from outside Taiwan itself. Oftentimes these techniques were unsuitable for the geographic mountain climate. Moreover, Japanese colonists introduced new knowledge concepts, such as capitalism and land privatization. However, mountain indigenous people still played a relatively small part in the greater capitalist market system, mainly due to their isolation from main roads.. 26.

(34) . 2.3 Conventional Farming Conventional farming took place in Shilei from 1978-1988. Although farming had always been an important mode of life, it was not until conventional farming that the focus of agriculture shifted towards economic viability (Lo 2016, 103). Lo describes Taru Behuy as being one of the first Atayal people in Shi Lei to engage successfully in conventional agriculture. He describes how growing green peppers changed his livelihood and allowed for a huge increase in profit (Lo 2016, 111). After Taru Behuy’s success more community members began to follow his lead and start conventional farming practices (Lo 2016, 112).. 政 治 大. During the time of conventional farming, people became more focused on crops as a commodity. It was necessary to work with the Farmer’s Cooperative (. 立. ) in. order to sell produce. The farmer’s cooperative was an important step, because it allowed. ‧ 國. 學. people to have the opportunity to sell produce on the larger market scale. Yet, people had to go through a complicated procedure in order to sell cabbage and green peppers, the main cash crops of the time, on the market. However, these cash crops yielded a large. ‧. profit for the farmers, so many felt it was worth the trouble. The conventional farming. y. Nat. system also required farmers to hire outside labor, especially during the harvest time,. sit. however it should be noted that this outside labor was all indigenous and mainly kept. al. er. io. within the same community. According to Taru Behuy’s experience “it was necessary to. v. n. invite women from across the community to come to his farm during the harvest season”. Ch. (Lo 2016, 126 Translation by the author).. engchi. i n U. Amuy Pasang states that the profit he gained from working together with the Farmer’s Cooperative was low and rather than sell produce together with the cooperative he chose to sell directly to his connections, such as his boss (Lo 2016, 127). Low profits gained from the cooperative was not a problem unique for Amuy Pasang, but something many faced. However, not everyone was lucky enough to have connections to sell produce to, or simply selling produce to connections was did not warrant a large enough profit for people’s living. Yet, it was nearly impossible for farmers to enter the larger market without joining the Farmer’s Cooperative. Plus, the Farmer’s Cooperative had strict regulations on their marketing procedures, which prevented single persons from selling produce on the market. In order to enter the market, persons should join as a. 27.

(35) member of the farmer’s cooperative and only after gaining a serial number could they participate in selling produce on the market (Lo 2016, 128). By this time, growing produce had slowly transformed to an important means of livelihood for many mountain indigenous people (Lo 2016, 128). After the people were given a means to connect to the market, conventional agriculture was able to bring in a lot of profit to indigenous communities. The methods conventional farming used, such as heavy machinery and chemical fertilizers and pesticides, further diverged from traditional agricultural practices (Lo 2016, 114). For example, weeding is greatly different when comparing conventional and traditional methods. As explained in section 2.1, weeds were first controlled when the segments of land were burned to create new fields.. 政 治 大 manual weeding was a laborious 立 task. In contrast, weeding technology and pesticides. However manual weeding was still necessary to maintain upkeep of the fields, and this used in conventional agriculture were able to greatly reduce this burden and help with the. ‧ 國. 學. productivity of farming (Lo 2016, 116). Additionally, traditional practice only employed the use of a simple hoe for tilling the soil, while conventional practice introduced a host. ‧. of new machinery, further increasing the productivity of farming (Lo 2016, 117). People also began to rely heavily on stores for all of their farming materials, including fertilizers,. y. Nat. sit. pesticides and seeds. While this was an added convenience for farmers it impacted. er. io. culture and biodiversity, by reducing indigenous ecological knowledge on aspects such as seed saving (Lo 2016, 120).. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. Many farmers view and continue to view chemical pesticides and fertilizers as a. engchi. kind of panacea, because these methods have allowed them to alleviate many of their agricultural problems and have allowed them to gain large farming profits. In Lo’s PhD thesis Amuy Pasang describes using chemical fertilizers as “practical” when compared with natural farming methods, stating that faith has (Lo 2016, 129). However, as problems, mainly health and environmental, became more apparent some farmers felt that conventional farming methods created a disconnect between their farming practices and spirituality. This disconnect spurred a number of farmers to transition to organic agriculture and later to natural farming. Approaches used during Japanese rice colonization and implementation of conventional farming have several similarities. Similar to Japanese colonists during the. 28.

(36) paddy rice farming period, the KMT during the martial law period3 was in control of Taiwanese agricultural systems. This control may be seen when the KMT directed Taiwanese people to switch to conventional farming. Also similar to paddy rice farming, conventional farming imports a broad range of techniques from outside indigenous communities, and is not made to incorporate local knowledge and techniques. What makes the conventional farming approach stand out from paddy rice farming is the fact the capitalist market system played an important role for indigenous farmers. Roads were improved to allow farmers an easier access to the market, and for the first time the main focus of agriculture for indigenous farmers was shifted towards monetary viability.. 政 治 大. 2.4 Transition to Natural Farming. 立. Taru Behuy, along with the other Shilei farmers, spent a number of years doing. ‧ 國. 學. conventional farming. He states that pesticides were effective in making him a successful farmer, however they also killed a lot of other organisms and are responsible for his wife’s cancer (Lo and Ru 2015, 101). The continual spraying of pesticides caused health. ‧. issues among the community members, including Taru Behuy’s wife. In 1988 Taru. y. Nat. Behuy’s wife was diagnosed with three types of cancer. Although the prognosis was that. sit. she only had 3-6 months to live, Taru Behuy was determined to not give up hope. He. al. n. According to his son, Watan Taru (Lo En Chia/. Ch. er. io. returned to the mountains and prayed everyday asking what he should do to heal her. ), God answered Taru Behuy’s. i n U. prayers through a dream and told him to use Taxol (gamin,. v. ) as a medicine (INIEF. e n g c h iknowledge and faith in his religion he workshop 03/15/2016). Through local ecological. was able to miraculously cure his wife (Yen et al. 2009, 10). From this experience, Taru Behuy had the idea to try and incorporate Taxol into his agricultural practices. If it had the ability to heal his wife’s cancer, perhaps it would also have positive effects on his farming practice. However, it was not until ten years later, when Taru Behuy traveled to Korea, that he was inspired to use taxol in his agricultural practice (INIEF workshop 03/15/2016).. 3 1949-1987. 29.

(37) Through this experience, Taru realized the harmful effects of pesticides on the human body. In addition, other community members had similar experiences with their health after using conventional pesticides, so Taru recognized that his wife’s case was not unique. As a result, Taru took up organic farming and encouraged his neighbors to follow his lead (Yen et al. 2009, 11). Besides spirituality, Taru was also equipped with basic knowledge of Atayal cultivation methods, which he calls the “elder’s knowledge.” For example, he made his own fertilizer by using grass and cow dung (Lo and Ru 2015, 104105). Yet, it was difficult to convince his neighbors to transition to organic farming. This difficulty was partially due to the fact that they viewed him as someone with little. 政 治 大 the conveniences of conventional 立 farming practice. Despite the fact that neighboring. experience on the matter and partially due to the fact that many were unwilling to give up farmers chided him for practicing organic farming, he never stopped promoting the. ‧ 國. 學. benefits of organic farming. “Neighbors laughed at him, but he never stopped his promotional work. He acted as a guide for others to begin growing their own produce”. ‧. (Yen et al. 2009, 11).. There are several situations, which depict the blending of Taru Behuy’s devotion. y. Nat. sit. of his faith and organic farming. Both Taru Behuy and Watan Taru state that according to. er. io. their faith it is vital for them to not only practice organic farming, but also share that knowledge with others. The first example of this is, in 1998 Taru Behuy went to Tayax,. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. another Atayal community, where he discovered many of the community member’s jobs. engchi. were unstable. In Tayax, Taru Behuy taught organic farming to community members. Community members then sent their produce to the Life and Consumption Cooperation of Homemakers Union and Foundation by using Taru Behuy’s name, and shared the profits (Yen et al. 2009, 11). The second example is, after Typhoon Ele, many Shi Lei community members were left unemployed (Yen et al. 2009, 9). In order to help the unemployment situation, Taru Behuy decided to teach residents organic farming methods. These organic farming methods would both provide employment opportunities for residents and improve the health of the river (by not using pesticides). In 2005, Taru Behuy applied with World Vision Taiwan to establish the Quri Community Organic farm. In the beginning everyone worked together through the norms of Gaga. However,. 30.

(38) due to management and monetary problems the Quri Community Organic farm was unsuccessful (Yen et al. 2009, 12-17). In 2007 a Korean preacher visited the Shi Lei community and encouraged Taru Behuy to transition from organic farming to natural farming. Afterwards, Taru Behuy traveled to Korea to study Natural Farming, and learned the Hang Fang fertilizer method. Upon returning to Shilei, he quickly made changes to his farming regimen. However, he realized that the exact same method he learned in Korea would not work on his farm because of the environmental differences, so through trial and error he developed a similar method by using ecological knowledge of the forest. In 2008 Taru Behuy returned to Korea to learn natural chicken breeding, and also brought this technique back to his. 政 治 大 Transition to natural 立 and organic farming methods has only become possible due. farm in Shilei (Yen et al. 2009, 18).. to a shift in the function of state power in Taiwan. The government has begun to allow. ‧ 國. 學. farmers more flexibility on what types of farming methods they pursue. On the contrary, during both the paddy rice farming and conventional farming periods the government. ‧. clearly dictated which methods citizens should practice. It should be noted that, the government is not completely absent from current agricultural practices. For example the. y. Nat. sit. government still enforces specific standards on what qualifies as organic produce, and. er. io. farmers must meet standards in order to sell produce on a wider market scale. While natural farming, similar to paddy rice farming and conventional farming, is. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. a technique that did not originate in Taiwan, what differentiates natural farming from. engchi. these previous farming methods is natural farming also makes room to incorporate local knowledge in the area. It is part of the natural farming philosophy that farming should imitate existing land structures, which usually means incorporating local species and knowledge into the process. Yet, although natural farming incorporates indigenous ecological knowledge concepts, it also makes use of contemporary knowledge. For example, previous farming methods, particularly conventional farming, introduced the capitalist market concept. Although this wider market concept was absent during traditional agriculture, rather than disengage with the market system, natural farmers still make room to be involved in the market space without compromising their values. The term ‘value’ in this context refers to a combination of the farmer’s spiritual and. 31.

(39) environmental values. During the time of conventional agriculture some farmers begun to feel that by treating the land solely as a commodity, they were disrespecting the land God had given them. Furthermore, the farmers saw adverse health consequences as a result of conventional chemical overuse as another sign there was a problem with the current farming method, and looked to God for answers on how they should resolve these problems. Currently, while the farmer’s remain active members of the market sphere, their views on spirituality highly influence their lifestyle and lead lead them to cherish and respect the land. Table 2-1 below gives a visual depiction of how these different knowledge. 政 治 大. systems have changed throughout Shilei’s various farming periods.. 立. ‧ 國. Comparison of knowledge systems among different farming systems. Agriculture. Knowledge. Power. Traditional. Local Knowledge. No state power. Rejection of local. Dictate which. knowledge,. farming system to. io. farming. imported knowledge follow. n. al. Ch. n engchi U. from outside Conventional. Market. y. No market concept. sit. Japanese rice. Relation to the. ‧. Function of State. Nat. Paradigm of. er. Type of. 學. Table 2-1. iv. Broad based system. Dictate which. of knowledge,. farming system to. imported from. follow. Little to no involvement, beginning conceptions of the market Involved in market. outside, Natural Farming. Blending of local. Somewhat involved,. Involved in market,. and new technology. farmers are given. but it is not the main. more flexibility with focus of farming farming methods. 32.

(40) . Chapter 3 Participatory Research and Analysis of Literature Review Outline The author stayed and worked on the Lo family’s natural farm several times for participatory study. Through working, eating, and living with the Lo family the deep connections among farmers, land, and religion became apparent. Species relations, biodiversity, human relations, and spirituality are all part of this relationship network and will be explored in the context of the Shilei farm in this section. This chapter is broken into 5 main sections: land/habitat, species relations, social relations, language, and. 治 政 大on species variety gives further among different species on the farm. The second section 立 in the farm and methodology of fertilizers used. The third details on the high biodiversity spirituality. The first section on land/habitat works to describe the species relations. ‧ 國. 學. section on social relations describes the labor force and how this remains an important part of the farmer’s culture. The fourth section describes how the local language may be. ‧. influenced by elements of farming. The final section on spirituality explains how Christianity, and also spirituality in a broad sense, is a vital part of the farm life and. sit. y. Nat. culture.. er. io. 3.1 Habitat/Land preparation. al. n. iv n C surrounding land, including the h forest, i U plant and animal life that e nriver, g candh surrounding. Habitat does not only refer to the fields themselves, but also describes all of the. are in connection with the farm. There are many factors in analyzing what make up this habitat on the Shilei farm, from the minute microorganisms in the soil to the variety of materials brought in from the forest. It is also important to define farming methods, such as land preparation techniques and material origins, as these may give important indicators to both the farm’s habitat and species variety. In turn, both this habitat and species variety have influence over the species relations in the farm network. For example, Watan Taru describes the farm’s use of rotational farming. Unlike the monocropping system used in conventional agriculture, use of rotational farming allows. 33.

(41) an increase in crop variety by switching out the crops used every season. Watan Taru depicts that there are no designated fields assigned for specific crops as: “Every field can grow every variety of crop. The key is that the same field must not continuously grow the same type of crop. For example, cabbage should not be grown in the same field twice [consecutively]. Otherwise the crops are more susceptible to disease…. after larger crops are harvested, [they are] exchanged with smaller crops. (If a crop can be harvested within a month or so it is a small crop and over two months it is considered a large crop). After a field has been used for 4 consecutive times we will let it rest for half a year. Furthermore every year we let the fields rest for three months – half a year in order to increase soil. 政 治 大. fertility and replenish nutrients. “ (Watan Taru 04/24/2016). 立. In the Shilei community the Shilei Natural farm is famous for their natural. ‧ 國. 學. fertilizer, which was inspired by Taru Behuy’s faith, indigenous ecological knowledge and time spent in Korea. The fertilizer materials come from diverse areas, which is one of. ‧. the key aspects separating natural farming from conventional agriculture. Figure 7 below displays this diverse network of fertilizer materials.. Network of Fertilizer Materials. n. al. er. io. sit. y. Nat. Figure 7. Ch. engchi. 34. i n U. v.

(42) Table 3-1 on the following page portrays more specifically some of the fertilizer material origins. The origin of many of the materials, including yellow cypress, taxol, and mountain cinnamon come from the indigenous community’s mountain territory, and their use is inspired by indigenous ecological knowledge. Additionally, ginger, bamboo shoots, grass, and fresh water comes from or around the farm.. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. 35. i n U. v.

(43) Table 3-1 Origin of Common Fertilizer Materials Species Name. Origin. Notes. Cork Tree bark/. Comes from the forest, picked at an elevation of 1200-2100 m.. Tree bark is used in natural. Gathered from forest, picked at an elevation of 1700-2100 m. found on steep over hangings Comes from the forest, picked at an. Bark and leaves are used in. elevation of 1600 m.. germicide and fertilizer. Comes from traditional Chinese medicine shop in Zhudong ( ). Used in natural germicide. Comes from traditional Chinese medicine shop in Zhudong ( ) Comes from traditional Chinese medicine shop in Zhudong ( ) Grown on the farm at an elevation of. Used in natural germicide. Yellow Cypress Taxol Mountain Cinnamon (Chinese) Licorice Root Garlic Bulb. ‧ 國. al. n. farm (which comes from the. Ch. engchi. Comes from Su’ao, Yilan. Used in natural fertilizer. er. io. Use the water which comes from the. Used in natural fertilizer. sit. The grass that grows next to the crops. y. Used in natural fertilizer. next to the farm. mountains) Sea water. Used in natural germicide. ‧. Comes from a bamboo shoot patch. Nat. Fresh water. Used in natural germicide. 700 m.. Bamboo shoots Grass. Tree bark is used in natural. 學. Ginger. natural germicide. 政 治 大. 立. Chinese Angelica. germicide. i n U. (. v. Used in natural fertilizer and also to control weeds. ) Mackerel Fish. Comes from Su’ao, Yilan. Papaya. Comes a farm on Taoyuan (. Used in natural fertilizer ). Used in natural fertilizer. countryside where Gao Yicun ( ) grows natural Papaya Banana. Comes from the same farm as the papaya. 36. Used in natural fertilizer.

(44) Figure 8 Pictures of Fertilizer Ingredients . 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. 37. i n U. v.

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