According to the administrative records, there are 7,449 Macao residents living in Zhuhai and the neighbouring areas who commute to Macao to study or work. Gender and age structure of the residents are as follows:
Age group Total Male Female
Total 7,449 4,933 2,516 0–4 284 150 134 5–9 335 166 169 10-14 323 170 153 15-19 335 173 162 20-24 291 186 105 25-29 420 271 149 30-34 509 312 197 35-39 749 427 322 40-44 816 502 314 45-49 914 683 231 50-54 884 740 144 55-59 739 565 174 60-64 468 342 126
Њ 382 246 136 65
In addition, there were 73,171 visitors staying in Macao at the census reference moment (3 a.m.
on 12 August 2011). Gender and age structure of the visitors are as follows:
Age group Total Male Female
Total 73,171 40,254 32,917
0–4 705 330 375
5–9 1,201 577 624 10-14 1,560 795 765 15-19 1,538 652 886
20-24 7,060 2,742 4,318
25-29 10,352 5,097 5,255
30-34 9,576 5,487 4,089
35-39 10,404 6,103 4,301
40-44 9,901 5,899 4,002
45-49 8,239 5,165 3,074
50-54 4,987 3,184 1,803
55-59 3,408 2,067 1,341
60-64 2,149 1,192 957
Њ65 2,091 964 1,127
Principal Demographic Characteristics and Changes
2001 2011 Characteristics
No. Structure (%) No. Structure (%)
Population Size 435,235 100.0 552,503 100.0
Male 208,865 48.0 265,144 48.0
Female 226,370 52.0 287,359 52.0
Gender ratio (no. of males per 100 females) 92.3 92.3 Age group
Youth population (aged 0-14) 94,221 21.6 65,870 11.9 Adult population (aged 15-64) 309,326 71.1 446,669 80.8 Elderly population (aged 65 and above) 31,688 7.3 39,964 7.2
Median age 33.3 37.0
Place of residence
Macao Peninsula 388,647 89.3 469,009 84.9
Taipa Island 41,786 9.6 78,497 14.2
Coloane Island 2,904 0.7 4,262 0.8
Marine population 1,898 0.4 735 0.1
Population density (per square kilometre)
Total 16,870 18,478
Macao Peninsula 45,723 50,323
Taipa Island 6,740 10,636
Coloane Island 262 323
Place of birth
Macao 191,139 43.9 226,127 40.9
Mainland China 206,384 47.4 255,186 46.2
Hong Kong 14,436 3.3 19,355 3.5
Portugal 1,616 0.4 1,835 0.3
Others 21,660 5.0 50,000 9.0
Total duration of living in Macao (year) excluding marine population
Less than 1 year 9,344 3.8 22,333 6.9
1-4 31,184 12.8 63,680 19.5
5-9 21,220 8.7 42,411 13.0
10-14 32,869 13.5 23,992 7.4
15-19 36,701 15.1 15,609 4.8
20-24 70,000 28.8 30,155 9.3
25 and above 41,508 17.1 127,712 39.2
2001 2011 Characteristics
No. Structure (%) No. Structure (%) Applicable to the population aged 3 and above 424,203 539,131
Chinese 411,482 97.0 506,993 94.0
Cantonese 372,697 87.9 449,274 83.3
Mandarin 6,660 1.6 27,129 5.0
Other Chinese dialects 32,125 7.6 30,590 5.7
Portuguese 2,813 0.7 4,022 0.7
English 2,792 0.7 12,155 2.3
Others 7,116 1.7 15,961 3.0
No schooling/pre-primary education 41,831 9.9 31,684 5.9 Primary education - incomplete 80,285 18.9 53,699 10.0 Primary education 109,561 25.8 99,122 18.4
Junior secondary education 94,491 22.3 123,106 22.8 Senior secondary education 66,250 15.6 140,913 26.1 Tertiary education 31,425 7.4 90,067 16.7
Special education 360 0.1 540 0.1
Applicable to the population aged 16 and above 332,696 480,073 Marital status
Never married 93,979 28.2 149,818 31.2
Married 215,661 64.8 300,892 62.7
Separated/divorced 7,147 2.1 12,919 2.7
Widowed 15,909 4.8 16,444 3.4
Economically active population 230,670 69.3 346,497 72.2 Economically inactive population 102,026 30.7 133,576 27.8 Employed population 214,577 337,716
Gaming, recreational, cultural & other services 24,895 11.6 86,533 25.6 Hotels, restaurants & similar activities 24,480 11.4 47,238 14.0 Wholesale & retail trade 32,397 15.1 42,050 12.5 By occupation:
Clerks 39,816 18.6 93,686 27.7
Service & sales workers 42,580 19.8 72,089 21.3 Unskilled workers 35,148 16.4 52,088 15.4 Median employment earnings of the employed
(MOP) 5,000 10,000
2001 2011 Characteristics
No. Structure (%) No. Structure (%) Household
Total no. of households 134,965 100.0 170,769 100.0
Average household size 3.14 3.08
Average no. of households per building unit 1.03 1.01 Monthly median employment earnings (MOP) 9,000 23,700 Monthly average employment earnings (MOP) .. 29,853 Housing
Tenure of residential unit 133,005 100.0 168,937 100.0
Owner-occupier 102,302 76.9 119,578 70.8
Tenant 25,243 19.0 41,376 24.5
Employer provided 2,786 2.1 2,303 1.4
Others 2,674 2.0 5,680 3.4
Median monthly rent payment (MOP) 800 3,204 Average monthly rent payment (MOP) .. 4,169 Median monthly mortgage payment (MOP) 2,800 5,390 Average monthly mortgage payment (MOP) .. 7,173 Average no. of bedrooms per residential unit .. 2.2
Macao has conducted 14 population censuses. The 1991 Census is the last population census prior to the Handover of Macao and the 2001 Census is the first census operation after commencement of the 21st Century and the Handover. Population census aims to have a better comprehension on the population size and detailed demographic characteristics, namely age, gender, educational attainment, economic activity status, housing characteristics, etc. Census data are essential reference to the Government in the formulation of policy on education, housing, transportation, health, social services, etc., that are also important to private enterprises in planning of business strategies and to academic institutions in research studies.
Following the social and economic development in the past ten years, the population structure, composition, distribution, and even housing characteristics have undergone considerable changes;
therefore, the 2011 Population Census is most appropriate to reflect the latest situation on the demographic structure and the socio-economic characteristics of the Macao population
Coverage and Scope
2011 Population Census is the 15th Population Census and the 5th Housing Census of Macao.
Coverage of the 2011 Population Census included all units of the Macao Special Administration Region that were used for housing, commercial or other purposes; the observation unit was the individuals living or staying in these units, excluding military personnel and facilities of the People’s Liberation Army of the People’s Republic of China stationed in Macao.
Population of Macao composes of the land-based population and the marine population. Hence, coverage of the 2011 Population Census also included vessels berthed in the customary water of Macao.
Census Reference Moment
For the land-based population, the census reference moment when the data collected should take reference to, was 3 a.m. on 12 August 2011. Data collection of the marine population was carried out from 1-6 July, taking advantage of the fishing moratorium period, and in order to stay near with the data collection period of the land-based population.
The 15-day data collection of the 2011 Population Census started 12-26 August 2011.
Population census was the largest statistical operation and required an enormous group of staff; as a result, 14 Census Stations were set up in different areas, recruiting more than 2,700 students of
Two types of questionnaires were used in the 2011 Population Census, viz. the Short-form and the Long-form. The Short-form aimed to gather data on basic characteristics such as gender, month and year of birth, etc. Moreover, one-seventh of the building units were selected by random sampling and enumerated with the Long-form to gather detailed information on ethnicity, nationality, place of previous residence, educational attainment, employment, employment earnings, etc. of the respondents.
To cope with the latest development of the society and growing concern of the public, content of the 2011 Census questionnaires was adjusted to collect, from the non-Macao born population, additional information on the purpose of coming, housing, etc. in order to understand better the characteristics and latest situation of different population groups, for example, non-resident workers and foreign students living in Macao. The data enabled conduct of independent analysis on the trend of ageing and gender structure of the local population after the exclusion of non-resident workers and foreign students. Given the importance of comprehensive data on human resources to the social and economic development of Macao; detailed information on degree courses, multi-degree holders, field of education, etc. were collected from respondents who had completed tertiary education.
Encouraged by the growing popularity and rapid advancement of Information Technology (IT), the Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) maximized the application of IT in data collection and data processing of the 2011 Census, to enhance the efficiency of work and quality of data, to minimize errors and omissions, etc. In particular, capacity and functions of the Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) system was expanded to handle more calls, enquiries and appointments simultaneously. To cater for the different work schedules of the respondents, apart from the traditional mode of paper and pen recording, DSEC introduced the e-reporting system of the Short-form that enabled respondents to complete the Short-form at their convenience. To enhance work efficiency and reduce re-visits of households, the Long-form census officers were equipped with tablet computer to collect, record, store and operate validation check of the information gathered directly from the households.
In respect of statistical confidentiality and protection of personal data, DSEC accords top priority to comply with the stipulations of the Dispatch 242/GM/99 in collecting and processing of personal data gathered in the 2011 Population Census. Information collected is used solely for statistical purposes; results will be disseminated in aggregated manner to ensure no individual data is disclosed. To ensure conformity to safeguard statistical confidentiality, participating staff is required to sign a compliance declaration in this regard, and the offender is subject to bear the legal
responsibilities that may follow.
Applicability of Principal Characteristics
In view of the differences of various population groups, some principal characteristics are applicable only to specific groups of the population, as follows:
Principal Characteristics Applicable to Population Group Place of previous residence; Total duration
of living in Macao Non-Macao born land-based population Educational attainment; Language ability Population aged 3 and above
Attending school Land-based population aged 3 and above Migratory flow Land-based population aged 5 and above Literacy rate; Illiteracy rate Population aged 15 and above
Marital status; Economic activity status Population aged 16 and above Possession of motor vehicle; Tenure of
residential unit; Rent/mortgage payment;
Página vazia Blank page
For sampling purposes, the whole of Macao was subdivided into 23 statistical areas and the marine population. To ensure precision of sampling and extrapolation of results, the marine population and the sparsely populated areas were required to complete the Long-form. For the rest of the statistical areas, one-seventh of the building units were selected and the individuals living in those units were required to answer the Long-form. Meanwhile, to minimize the biases caused by the coincidence between the sampling intervals and location of the building units, five random starts were used in the sample selection process.
To avoid the inconsistency between the extrapolated estimates of the Long-form and full enumerated data of the Short-form, census results would be used as the control total in the adjustment of sample data. The formula is given below:
i k i
i i n
y N Y
Yˆ ˆ *
Ni- Population size of a specific age and gender group (i) in selected area
ni- Sample population of a specific age and gender group (i) in selected area
yi- Sample population having certain characteristic(s), of a specific age and gender group (i) in selected area
Yˆi- Estimated population size having certain characteristic(s), of a specific age and gender group (i) in selected area
Yˆ- Estimate of total population having certain characteristic(s).
The applicants qualified to attend the Census training were selected, from about 8,000 applications, after analysis of curriculum vitae, written test and interview. To ensure the participating staff would complete the data collection process in line with the procedures prescribed, suitable applicants to various job positions were selected according to the performance in the training course, exercise and examination results.
For quality assurance, data collected were required to pass through a series of vigorous logical validation and processing. The Short-forms collected by the census officers would be checked manually and then scanned at the Census Station for computer validation to rectify error or omission
as soon as possible. Tablet computers of the Long-form census officers were equipped with simultaneous logical validation and correction functions. Similarly, data submitted online via the e-questionnaire were subject to immediate validation and re-verification of basic data of households by the census staff.
Upon conclusion of the data collection of the 2011 Census, a nine-day Post Enumeration Survey (PES) was carried out from 1-9 September 2011; about 3,000 households would be selected from all completed cases for re-interview to evaluate quality of the Census data by comparing the information of the questionnaires. Results of the PES indicated that data quality of the 2011 Population Census measures up to international standard; data omission rate stood at 0.1%, far lower than the 3% or less as international standard required.
Standard error of principal demographic characteristics
1/2 Characteristics Sample
estimation Standard error Coefficient of variation (%) Place of birth
Macao 226,127 1,950 0.86
Mainland China 255,186 1,899 0.74
Hong Kong 19,355 579 2.99
Portugal 1,835 115 6.27
Total duration of living in Macao (year)
Less than 1 year 22,333 896 4.01
1-4 63,680 638 1.00
5-9 42,411 677 1.60
10-14 23,992 330 1.38
15-19 15,609 534 3.42
20-24 30,155 254 0.84
25 and above 127,712 905 0.71
Cantonese 449,274 691 0.15
Mandarin 27,129 349 1.29
Other Chinese dialects 30,590 495 1.62
Portuguese 4,022 152 3.78
English 12,155 520 4.28
No schooling/pre-primary education 31,684 298 0.94 Primary education - incomplete 53,699 871 1.62
Primary education 99,122 930 0.94
Junior secondary education 123,106 586 0.48
2/2 Characteristics Sample
estimation Standard error Coefficient of variation (%) Senior secondary education 140,913 1,180 0.84
Tertiary education 90,067 511 0.57
Special education 540 54 10.00
Never married 149,818 517 0.35
Married 300,892 700 0.23
Separated/divorced 12,919 240 1.86
Widowed 16,444 386 2.35
Population with disability 11,141 371 3.33
Employed population 337,716 1,068 0.32
Unemployed population 8,781 442 5.03
Status in employment
Employer 14,076 382 2.71
Self-employed 15,640 210 1.34
Employee 306,305 1,307 0.43
Unpaid family worker 1,695 24 1.42
Employed population By industry:
Recreational, cultural, gaming & other services 86,533 956 1.10 Hotels, restaurants & similar activities 47,238 477 1.01 Wholesale & retail trade 42,050 525 1.25 By occupation:
Clerks 93,686 856 0.91
Service & sales workers 72,089 360 0.50
Unskilled workers 52,088 231 0.44
Median employment earnings of the employed (MOP) 10,000 116 1.16 Median employment earnings of households (MOP) 23,700 87 0.37 Tenure of residential units 168,937 28 0.02
Owner-occupier 119,578 596 0.50
Tenant 41,376 544 1.31
Employer provided 2,303 127 5.51
Others 5,680 162 2.85
Median monthly rent payment (MOP) 3,204 23 0.72 Median monthly mortgage payment (MOP) 5,390 40 0.74
At the census reference moment, the number of complete years an individual has passed since birth.
The percentage share of the elderly population (aged 65 and above) to the youth population (aged 14 and below).
Individuals aged 3 and above receiving regular education in educational institutions.
Collective living quarter
Unit(s) managed by specific institution or entity that is engaged in provision of accommodation or arrangement for living to certain population group. Collective living quarter includes:
- Hotels and similar establishments - Institutions or infirmaries - Staff quarters
- Other collective living quarters
For congenital or acquired reasons, the physical, intellectual, mental or psychiatric conditions of an individual are affected; even with auxiliary equipment, the individual still has difficulty in carrying out daily activities and assistance is needed; the difficulty has lasted or is expected to last for six months and more.
Economic activity status
It refers to the characteristics of an individual’s participation in economic activities. The population can be divided into the economically active population and the economically inactive population.
Economically active population
Individuals aged 16 and above who are available to participate in the production of goods and/or services during the reference period. It comprises the employed and the unemployed.
Economically inactive population
Individuals who are not considered as employed or unemployed during the reference period, e.g. those who have not worked because of schooling, housework, retirement, sickness, etc. and have not sought work during the last 30 days.
The highest level of education an individual successfully completed. “Primary education” refers to completion of grade six; those who fail to complete grade six are considered as “Primary education-incomplete”.
Elderly dependency ratio
The percentage share of the elderly population (aged 65 and above) to the adult population (aged 15-64).
Individuals aged 16 and above who work for pay, profit or family gain for at least 1 hour during the reference period. Including employees who are absent from work but have formal job attachment to employer, as well as company owners or shareholders who are temporary away from work because of particular reason.
For the employees, it is the working income received; for the employers and the self-employed, it is the difference between the value of production less cost of production and depreciation of assets.
Consanguinity or blood relation formed and determined naturally by birth.
A nuclear family is composed by two or more household members who are related by blood, marriage or adoption. Family nucleus can be composed of:
- A couple
- A couple and unmarried child(ren) - Single parent and unmarried child(ren)
Number of males per hundred females.
Individuals living together and make common provision for food or other essentials for living. Members of the household need not be related; an individual living alone is also considered as a household.
It is derived from the information on family nucleus and the relationship among household members, comprising:
- One-person household - Nuclear household - No nuclear household
An individual aged 16 and above who is acknowledged by other member(s) as representative of the household.
Main economic activity engaged by an individual or enterprise during the reference period.
Labour force participation rate
The percentage share of economically active population (labour force) to the population aged 16 and above.
The percentage share of the population aged 15 and above who can comprehend to read and write simple notes of everyday life.
It refers to the status of an individual in respect of the law on marriage or customs of the country or territory.
To eliminate the impact caused by the difference in age-gender structure, respective data for 2001 have been re-compiled according to the standardized age-gender structure of the 2011 Population Census, which will enable direct comparison of the standardized data and the changes between two censuses.
Individuals who had stayed in Macao for at least one month but less than three months during the six months before the census reference moment or for at lease one month but less than three months during the six months after the census reference moment.
The amount paid by owner-occupier or household to the bank, as repayment of the loan on mortgage of the residential unit.
It refers to the status of being a national of a country.
The set of tasks or duties an individual has undertaken during the reference period.
Overall dependency ratio
The percentage share of the youth and the elderly populations to the adult population aged 15-64.
Place of previous residence
It refers to the country or territory where an individual had lived for at least six months before making Macao as the place of usual residence.
Place of usual residence
It refers to the place where an individual usually lived during the reference period. If an individual stayed mostly in Macao during the six months before or after the census reference moment, his/her place of usual residence was Macao; otherwise, it would be of other country/territory.
The provision of systematic curriculum organized principally for children and youngsters, from pre-primary education to university education.
Relationship to household head
It refers to the relationship of the household head and household members determined by blood relation, marriage, adoption, etc.
The amount paid by a household for leasing the residential unit occupied.
Building unit with the end-use intended for residential purposes.
Singulate mean age at marriage
It refers to the average number of years of single life of the individuals married before 50 years of age.
Status in employment
It refers to the status of the employed who had engaged in an economic activity during the reference period.
Classified as follows:
- Employer - Self-employed - Employee
- Unpaid family worker
It refers to the unit in informal building being used for residential purposes, e.g. huts.
Tenure of residential unit
It refers to the arrangement or form of occupying a residential unit. Classified as follows:
- Owner-occupier - Employer provided - Tenant
Total duration of living in Macao
The number of complete years since an individual has established his/her usual residence in Macao, deducting the period(s) that an individual has left Macao continuously for six months or more.
It refers to the sum of usual population and mobile population.
Type of housing
Classification of type of housing comprises private housing, social housing and economic housing. Economic housing sold is classified as private housing.
Individuals aged 16 and above who do not have a job or formal job attachment, are available to work for pay or to start own business, and have sought work during the last 30 days.
The language an individual mostly used at home.
Individuals who had stayed in Macao for at least three months during the six months before the census reference moment or for at lease three months during the six months after the census reference moment.
Youth dependency ratio
The percentage share of the youth population (aged 14 and below) to the adult population (aged 15-64).
- Absolute value equals zero .. Not applicable
0# Magnitude less than half of the unit employed
# Confidential data
’000 Thousand MOP Macao Pataca
Due to rounding, sum of the percentages may not correspond to the total.
1 Total population by gender, age group and parish 57 2 Population by gender and age group, in Santo António Parish, São Lázaro Parish
and São Lourenço Parish 58
3 Population by gender and age group, in Sé Parish and Nossa Senhora de Fátima 59 4 Population by gender and age group, in the Islands 60
OTHER DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
5 Population by gender, age group and place of birth 61 6 Population by gender, age group and nationality 62 7 Population by gender, age group and ethnicity 63 8 Population by gender, age group and educational attainment 64 9 Population by gender, age group and usual language 65 10 Population by gender, age group and language ability 66 11 Land-based school attending population by age group and educational attainment 67 12 Migratory flow of the land-based population by gender 68 13 Population by gender, age group and marital status 69 14 Population by gender, age group and the ability to read and write 70 15 Population attaining tertiary education by field of education and degree conferred 71 16 Population attaining degree course of tertiary education by gender and age group 72
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY STATUS
17 Economically active population and economically inactive population by gender and age group 73 18 Economically active population and economically inactive population by Marital status 74 19 Economically active population and economically inactive population by educational attainment 75 20 Employed population by gender, age group and status in employment 76 21 Employed population by age group and industry 77 22 Employed population by age group and occupation 78 23 Employed population by educational attainment and industry 79 24 Employed population by educational attainment and occupation 80