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東盟地區高等農業教育:學術隔振外聯 農村居民 - 政大學術集成

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(1)  . 東盟地區高等農業教育:學術隔振外聯 農村居民 BEYOND HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN THE ASEAN REGION: FROM ACADEMIC ISOLATION TO THE OUTREACH OF RURAL DWELLERS By 麗雅 Silvia Medina THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS. 立. 政 in 治 大. ‧ 國. 學. 國際研究英語碩士學位學程 (IMPIS). INTERNATIONAL MASTER’S PROGRAM IN INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. ‧. 國立政治大學. National Chengchi University. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. 指導教授:  周祝瑛 Advisor: Chuing Prudence Chou,PhD.. 七月,2014 July 2014        .  . i n U. v.

(2)                    .          .       “For us humans, then, eating is never a ‘purely biological’ activity… the. 政 治 大. foods eaten have stories associated with the pasts of those who eat them; the. 立. techniques employed to find, process, prepare, serve and consume the foods. ‧ 國. 學. are all culturally variable, with histories of their own. Nor is the food simply eaten; its consumption is always conditioned by meaning. These meanings are. ‧. Nat. er. al. sit. (Mintz, 1996). n.  . io.                              . y. symbolic…they also have histories”.. Ch. engchi. 2  . i n U. v.

(3)  .                        . Abstract  .   The Association of South-East Asian Nations, although heterogeneous, is a community created in order to cultivate common goals that will strengthen the region to face a world that is getting more and more competitive by the day, and to improve its own capacities to reach a high economic, social and political development. Agriculture, is a vital part of the ASEAN economy, and is likely to remain so for the time being. That is why a change of higher agricultural education will play a critical role in the socio-economic development and stability of ASEAN. The researcher is particularly interested in enquiring if the changes that are taking place within the field of agriculture match the academic approaches of higher agricultural education. In doing so, a secondary approach has been utilized by examining existing agricultural policies, laws and agreements in the region, in combination of some existing programs within higher education institutions. In addition, an expert case study has been conducted to show case an in depth and practical analysis for this study. The study finds out that the current paradigm shift of higher agricultural education within ASEAN is not taking a uniform route, as it must spread to regional level, in order to reach development sustainability, economic growth and farmer empowerment.. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. er. io. sit. y. Nat. n. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Keywords: higher agricultural education, ASEAN, Agriculture knowledge system reform  .  .  . 3  .

(4)  .   Acknowledgements   First of all, I will thank Taiwan International Cooperation and Development Fund for providing me with a two- year scholarship package. This thesis is a product of that opportunity. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Professor Chuing Prudence Chou, my research supervisor, for her patience, guidance, enthusiastic encouragement and useful critiques for this research work. Her willingness to give her time so generously has been very much appreciated. My gratefulness is extended to my research committee members, Professor Wang and Professor Kuan Da Wei, you. 治 政 大to thank Professor Attachai have both been exceptionally inspirational. Also, I want 立. for accepting the interview. This interview, was possible thanks to the connection. ‧ 國. 學. made by Prof. Rome Chiranukrom, Associate Professor and Vice President for. ‧. International Relations and Alumni Relations in Chiang Mai University, while he was. y. Nat. attending a Meeting about Internationalization of Higher Education in National. er. io. sit. Chengchi University on May 16th, 2014. Finally, I wish to thank my family, parents and sisters, and my best friends for their support and encouragement throughout my. n. al. study.      . Ch. engchi.          .  . 4  . i n U. v.

(5)  . Table  of  Contents   Abstract  .................................................................................................................................  3   Acknowledgements  ....................................................................................................................  4   List  of  acronyms  .................................................................................................................  6   Chapter  1:  Introduction  ...................................................................................................  7   Background  ...................................................................................................................................  7   Research  motivation  ...............................................................................................................  12   Research  questions  .................................................................................................................  15   Methodology  ..............................................................................................................................  16   Operational  definition  ...........................................................................................................  17   Research  limitations  ...............................................................................................................  18   Chapter  2-­‐  Literature  review  ......................................................................................  19   Section  1:  A  changing  agriculture  with  an  out-­‐of-­‐date  higher  agricultural   education  ....................................................................................................................................  19   Agriculture  nowadays    ........................................................................................................................  19   Issues  on  higher  agricultural  education  ......................................................................................  32   Section  2:  A  required  adjustment  in  higher  agricultural  education  ......................  36   A  holistic  view  of  agricultural  education  (interdisciplinary)  .............................................  37   An  adoption  of  participatory  approach  methods  ....................................................................  39   An  emphasis  in  extension  education  ............................................................................................  40   Section  3:  A  prominent  role  and  linkage  with  the  society:  beyond  university  ...  42   A  “community-­‐based”  higher  agricultural  education  ............................................................  42   A  scientific  knowledge  complemented  by  indigenous  knowledge  ..................................  44   A  broader  partnership  environment  ............................................................................................  45  . 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. al. er. io. sit. y. Nat. Chapter  3:  Research  methodology  ............................................................................  47   Research  methods  for  data  collection  ..............................................................................  47   Interview’s  questions  justification  ................................................................................................  48   Interview  transcription  with  Dr  Attachai  Jintrawet,  CMU-­‐Thailand  ...............................  51   Research  findings  ....................................................................................................................  55   Thailand’s  context  .................................................................................................................................  55   Comparison  with  the  literature  review  assumptions  ............................................................  60  . Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Chapter  4:  Research  findings  and  discussion  ........................................................  66   Research  findings  ....................................................................................................................  66   Discussion  ..................................................................................................................................  69   Chapter  5:  Conclusion  ...................................................................................................  73   Summary  of  research  findings  ............................................................................................  73   Implications  of  this  research  ...............................................................................................  74   Recommendations  ...................................................................................................................  76   References  .........................................................................................................................  80        .  . 5  .

(6)  .   List  of  acronyms     ADB: Asian Development Bank ASCC: ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community AoA: Agreement on Agriculture ASEAN: Association of South- East Asia Nations CGIAR: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research HAI: Higher Agricultural Institutes. 政 治 大. HAE: Higher Agricultural Education. 立. HEI: Higher Education Institutes. ‧ 國. 學. IRRI: International Rice Research Institute. ‧. NRM: Natural Resources Management. OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. y. Nat. io. sit. R&D: Research and Development. n. al. er. TNC’s: Trans-National Companies. Ch. i n U. v. UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization WTO: World Trade Organization. engchi. WWII: World War II  .        .  . 6  .

(7)  . Chapter  1:  Introduction   Background  . The Association of South-East Asia Nations is a regional organization of countries with ten members: Brunei, Myanmar, Singapore, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Although heterogeneous, this community was created in order to cultivate common goals that will strengthen the region to face a world that is getting more and more competitive by the day, and to. 政 治 大. improve its own capacities to reach a high economic, social and political development (ASEAN, 2009).. 立. ‧ 國. 學. In the recent past years, growth in the ASEAN region has been stable at high levels. For instance, for the period between 1984 and 2007, the average of growth for. ‧. nine of the countries has been 5.93%, whilst the average growth for most members of. Nat. sit. y. the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), was only. n. al. er. io. 2.77% (Siddique, 2011). Between 2011 and 2015, the OECD predicts an average. i n U. v. growth of 6.1% taking into account the positive performance of six countries such as:. Ch. engchi. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam (OECD, 2010). Still, the Association of South-East Asia Nations ASEAN remains largely an agrarian region with 40-70% of its labor force engaged in agriculture with many of its regions still under-developed in aspects of infrastructure, services (health care and education), science and technology (ASEAN, 2009). In fact, while the percentage of rural Asians who are poor has decreased substantially during the last decades, more than one third of rural population still lives in extreme poverty (Asian Development.  . 7  .

(8)   Bank, 2011). Agriculture is therefore a vital part of the ASEAN economy, and is likely to remain so for the time being. Its ongoing viability however depends on having a wellqualified workforce at all levels of the agricultural cycle. It is no doubt that agricultural knowledge systems play a central role in this development because it increases economic opportunities for farmers, food security for the general population and contributes generously to environmental sustainability (ASEAN, 2009). However, for many years, the conventional approach to agriculture contributed to a negative. 政 治 大. image and created the perception that a career in agriculture is not attractive. This is. 立. now changing because even commercial agricultural sectors have an entrusted interest. ‧ 國. 學. in promoting careers in the field in order to address the constraint of low work force (Patley, Quarter 2008), and at the same time drives a new path enabling an agriculture. ‧. responding to a sustainable development.. y. Nat. er. io. sit. From this perspective, the researcher relies on the definition established by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for. n. al. “sustainable agriculture”:. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. [A]n integrated system of plant and animal production practices having sitespecific application that will over the long-term: Satisfy human food and fiber needs. Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends. Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls. Sustain the economic viability of farm operations. Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole. Source: Farm Bill 1990 (Title XVI, Subtitle A, Sec. 1603) (UNESCO, 2010).  . 8  .

(9)   The world community is finally recognizing the meaning of the emerging bioeconomy for world food and energy security, and how this development in our agricultural system can be achieved more sustainably. It is not an exaggeration to observe that the world’s stability depends on reliable supplies and stable prices for food and bio-energy, on the preservation of natural resources strengthening all economic activities, and on a radical change of the current model of way of life contributing to rural development, in the long term (Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2009).. 政 治 大. On the search of a new path for improvement, the Asian Development Bank. 立. notes that there are three important goals- growth, poverty reduction and. ‧ 國. 學. environmental sustainability that are now part of government policies and strategies in the region (ADB, 2000). In the specific case of the ASEAN, the ASEAN Socio-. ‧. Cultural Community (ASCC) aims to focus on the following commitments: “(a). Nat. sit. y. Human Development; (b) Social Welfare and Protection; (c) Social Justice and. n. al. er. io. Rights; (d) Ensuring Environmental Sustainability (e) Building the ASEAN Identity;. i n U. v. and (f) Narrowing the Development Gap” (ASEAN, 2009, p. 15). Therefore, this. Ch. engchi. research will focus on two of the goals of ASCC, which are ‘human development through education’ and ‘ensuring environmental sustainability’. Moreover, in addition to multilateral commitments such as the Millennium Development Goals, there is also an ASEAN contribution to the implementation of the UN Decade on Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014. ASEAN promotes “sustainable development through environmental education and public participation” it has a strategic objective of “establishing with the rhythm and harmony of nature, with citizens who are environmentally literate, imbued with the environmental ethic, and willing and.  . 9  .

(10)   capable to ensure the sustainable development of the region through environmental education” (ASEAN, 2009, p. 17) Therefore, it is essential to link human resources capacity building and environment sustainability, which also impacts food security, food safety, the general fight against poverty, and integrate the review and improvement of traditional agriculture methods, research on new technologies and building human resource capacity through formal or non-formal education (Villareal, 2002). First, as established Deborah Eade in 1997, human resource as a form of. 政 治 大. capital is not new, but it has only recently been incorporated into the stream of. 立. economic and development thought. She further emphasizes that the main component. ‧ 國. 學. of overall development efforts must be capacity building, particularly investments in. ‧. human capital (Eade, 1997). In line with this paper, this refers to the building of capacities of people who actually depend on, as well as drive the agriculture sector.. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. io. Secondly, living through a world of globalization, agricultural crisis and other. v. failures nowadays, are considered as not problems of an individual country, rather. Ch. engchi. i n U. these are considered as regional- globalized problems. The role of agricultural universities and institutes is therefore very important and goes beyond solving the problems faced by the people engaged in agricultural activities. Suitable and necessary modifications in the course curriculum, research programming and extension activities related to agricultural education should be made to address these globalized problems (Chakrabati, 2010)..  . 10  .

(11)   Furthermore, as basic education, higher education is also important in order to specialize. As Hoffman once mentioned: [T]here are few countries in the world that can afford the establishment and maintenance of specialized educational and research centers covering the entire range of disciplines directly and indirectly concerned with agricultural and rural development. Poorer countries and those with varied ecological conditions have to depend to a large extent on opportunities for specializing training abroad (IRRI,. 1985, p. 5). 政 治 大. For example, the first of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural. 立. Research (CGIAR) center was the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the. ‧ 國. 學. Philippines. The goal of the IRRI is to improve the well being of present and future generations of rice farmers and consumers, particularly those with low incomes, by. ‧. generating and disseminating rice-related knowledge and technology. It is important. y. Nat. sit. to remind that Member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. n. al. er. io. (ASEAN) play a major role in the global rice market. Over the next decade, the. i n U. v. ASEAN region is projected to account for 53% of net exports, 14% of net imports,. Ch. engchi. 29% of harvested area, 25% of total production, and 22% of total rice consumption (Wailes & Chavez, 2012). Rice is the major food staple in ASEAN countries and thus plays a significant role in the food security concerns of the region. Moreover, with an expected increase in population in the next 20 years, rice production must be increased to 690 million tons (Van Nguyen, 2008). IRRI's contributions to the development and implementation of hybrid rice, a new rice plant type, perennial upland rice, sharing of rice genetic resources, training farmers to save seed, and many.  . 11  .

(12)   other activities will go a long way in reaching the goal of having sufficient rice in Asia for the future (Whigham, 2003). Additionally, on the continent, the contribution the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) and other institutions in fostering postgraduate and special training programs open to students from various countries has been outstanding, and the trend to broaden the institutional base by making use of first-class facilities in a large range of universities and colleges in the region is to be encouraged (IRRI, 1985). Specifically, the Southeast Asian. 政 治 大. Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), an. 立. intergovernmental organization under the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education. ‧ 國. 學. Organization (SEAMEO), has been supporting the development of capabilities of institutions for sustainable and inclusive agriculture and rural development in. ‧. Southeast Agricultural education and can be said is at the crossroads in the world and. Nat. sit. y. in Asia (Patley, Quarter 2008). Even though, SEARCA is not a formal higher-. n. al. er. io. education institution, it plays the role of advisor of different universities’ agriculture. i n U. v. programs in the region and contributes through trainings and providing extension. Ch. engchi. programs to professionals in order to spread an up-to-date knowledge in tone with the current needs of Society.. Research  motivation      . The motivation of this study is based upon several reasons as it is intended to work on the linkage between higher- education, agriculture and global issues. First, the recent farmer’s protests movement in Colombia was the starting point of selecting this research topic within others. Colombia, a developing country like many others in.  . 12  .

(13)   Southeast Asia, has its farmers as some of the most vulnerable members of society for decades. This group of people is paying the consequences for the country’s fastchanging economy. In Colombia, sixty percent of rural people live in extreme poverty and are now directly affected by seventeen free- trade agreements signed with foreign countries or regions. For instance, the most controversial are being the ones signed with the European Union (EU) and most recently with the United- States (US). The EU and the US, with capabilities such as extension techniques, technological advancement and production performance, possess almost unrivaled agricultural sectors. These free trade arrangements are making it almost impossible to compete. 治 政 大 as global specialists on with cheaper imports from these developed regions erected 立 agriculture (Joseph, 2013).. ‧ 國. 學. Secondly, the researcher is interested in analyzing the different notions of. ‧. “development”, with one focused on production performance following neoliberal. Nat. sit. y. policies; and the other, related with social development (fairness and wellness for. n. al. er. io. rural sector) from the sustainable agricultural perspective. Farmer’s movements in. i n U. v. Colombia are related with international issues, as agriculture is directly affected by. Ch. engchi. the current neoliberal policy agenda, which includes the reduction of trade barriers and deregulate national economies, resulting to a more complex and globalized agrofood system, and promoting the involvement of transnational corporations in the sector, competing with middle-small land farmers in the global sphere (Tonts & Siddique, 2011). Moreover, despite certain different heritages and cultures, Latin American and South-East Asian agrarian structures have lot of similarities, like the basic objective of peasants in these countries is: survival. Here the farmer cultivates a small piece of land which is either his own, rented from land- lord or money- lender,.  . 13  .

(14)   to meet his and his family's minimal needs (Economics Concepts, 2012). Again, in these countries farmers get nominal and sub-standard wages by working as tenants. Such peasants can hardly aspire for profits, which depend upon climatic conditions or market conditions. Opposite to Europe and US farmers, who are totally integrated in the agriculture production-supply chain and having high earnings through extensive agriculture, the farmers in South- East Asian countries and most of the countries in Latin America are born in debt, grow in debt and die in debt. This is the most. 政 治 大. common and natural destiny of the farmers. These poor tillers depend in most cases,. 立. upon animal and human power, rather than tools and machinery. They use excrement. ‧ 國. 學. rather than chemical fertilizers. They are bound to use the traditional seeds and crops rather than experimental cultivations. Here the farmers do not have any insurance. ‧. laws, unemployment allowances or social security measures. In Latin America, in. Nat. sit. y. South-East Asia and Africa, agrarian structures are not only part of production system. n. al. er. io. but also a basic feature of the entire economic social and political organization of. i n U. v. rural life (Economics Concepts, 2012). That is why this research, even if focused on. Ch. engchi. ASEAN region, would also inspire and contribute to Latin- American development improvements in this important field. Finally, the field of agriculture in higher- education is as well connected with the former position of the researcher in the second biggest public university of Colombia- Universidad de Antioquia, at the International Affairs Office. There, the researcher had the opportunity to participate in the initiation of a PhD program in Agro-ecology in partnership with the Latin-American Scientific Society of Agro-.  . 14  .

(15)   ecology (SOCLA) and the University of Berkeley in California, USA. This was a pioneer program on sustainable agriculture in the Latin-American region, with an interdisciplinary curriculum and four departments of the university contributing to it with scholars from different disciplines. It was a real challenge within the university as it was created against all the strict structures separating disciplines, and firm opposition from some of the scholars within the Agricultural Sciences Department itself. The students were also from different professional backgrounds and some of them received scholarships by SOCLA. SOCLA was born out of the “growing awareness of a group of professionals involved in research, education and extension. 治 政 大 the environment, preserves about the need to design a new agriculture that enhances 立. local structures and associated biodiversity, promotes food sovereignty and the. ‧ 國. 學. multiple functions of small farm agriculture” (Altieri, 2008, p. 2). ‧ sit. Nat.   The project objectives aim to answer the following questions. y. Research  questions  . n. al. er. io. 1) Are current agriculture higher-education institutions in ASEAN region preparing professionals responding to the current problems?. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 2) What are the current changes in agriculture pressuring higher- education institutions to adapt in order to prepare appropriated professionals? 3) How should agricultural education be improved to meet the current and future challenges so as to be responsive to individual and national needs? What are the changes agriculture’s higher education institutes have to make? What type of agricultural education does ASEAN need to meet current and future challenges? 4) How well equipped are present today HAE entities to shape programs for the professional and technical cadres that will lead the process of rural development?.  . 15  .

(16)    . Methodology    . This study will have a qualitative approach based on a primary research and literature from different sources from the academia, national policies, and those provided by ASEAN, and other multilateral development institutions. First, institutional resources of international organizations working in the field of highereducation and sustainable agriculture will be analyzed. Information will be driven from academic resources such as articles or books concerning this topic. Secondly, an interview to Prof. Attachai from Chiang Mai University in Thailand will provide. 治 政 大 (HAE) institutions in the information concerning how higher agricultural education 立 region are adapting to new challenges of the field of agriculture from a conventional ‧ 國. 學. agriculture to a sustainable one.. ‧. Therefore, the paper is organized as follows: chapter 1 consists of the. sit. y. Nat. introduction, justification and objectives. Chapter 2 is a detailed literature review of. n. al. er. io. the transversal topics of the issue, and will have three sections: section one will. i n U. v. concern a changing agriculture with an out-of-date higher agricultural education and. Ch. engchi. section two will concern a required adjustment in higher agricultural education. Finally, Section three will concern a prominent role and linkage with the society: beyond university. Chapter 3 presents the data and the findings following an interview made to a professional and current Professor of agriculture in Chiang Mai University, relating it to the documental analysis of the Farmer’s School in the region of ASEAN. Chapter 4 consists of research findings and recommendation on the subject. In chapter 5, the conclusion is presented and the research’s implications and limitations will also be discussed..  . 16  .

(17)  . Operational  definition    . It is necessary to clarify some terms that will be relevant to this research. First, Cambridge Dictionary defines “higher education ̈ as: “education at a college or university where subjects are studied at an advanced level ̈. In this study, higher education would be used to distinguish the scope from basic and middle education, as the study’s main interest is in the advanced level of studies. Additionally, highereducation would be related to formal education, which is defined by Sarah E. Eaton in her Wordpress.com website as:. 政 治 大. [o]rganized, guided by a formal curriculum, leads to a formally recognized credential. 立. such as a high school completion diploma or a degree, and is often guided and. ‧ 國. 學. recognized by government at some level (Eaton, 2013, p. 1).. ‧. Secondly, “agricultural education” is a term possessing a variety of meanings. According to scholar Craig Anderson (1984), most of the times, agricultural education. y. Nat. io. sit. is synonymous to agricultural extension. This can include programs for training. n. al. er. extension workers or, most commonly, field programs directed at small farmers.. Ch. i n U. v. However, as many definitions can be given to this concept, the researcher will go. engchi. through it based on the definition: “it consists of any and all organized programs whose purpose is education or training in agricultural subjects” (Anderson, 1984, p. 34) Finally, the term of “sustainable agriculture” will be used in this analysis as the opposite of “extension agriculture”. The latter is having the goal of increasing profits without environmental and social concern. “Sustainable agriculture refers to the ability of farms to produce nutritious food without damaging soils, ecosystems or.  . 17  .

(18)   human capital, and that reduces (or eliminates) reliance on external inputs such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides ̈ (Curtis, 2012, p. 2). To UNESCO, sustainable agriculture means to “sustain the economic viability of farm operations, enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.” (UNESCO, 2010, p. 1). Research  limitations    . Firstly, this project has a short time period to meet the researcher’s graduate work schedule. Secondly, this study is focused on ASEAN region, however as mentioned at the beginning, this geographical area is very diverse, and this research. 政 治 大. will not be able to capture all the constant changes in agriculture higher-education in. 立. all the member countries. This is because there are countries at different stages of. ‧ 國. 學. development and so is agricultural higher- education in each of them. Thirdly, the researcher intended to make a field- trip to gather primary data from The Southeast. ‧. Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) in. Nat. sit. y. the Philippines. Unfortunately, this was not possible, due to the lack of interest of the. n. al. er. io. host organization. Consequently, the researcher had to create an alternative approach. i n U. v. within a short-time span, to be able to analyze and prove the assumptions issued from. Ch. engchi. the theory. Therefore, focus on a regional higher-education center, was replaced by a national higher-education institution. In other words, the researcher replaced SEARCA with Chiang Mai University (Thailand) as a case for this research.  .  . 18  .

(19)  .   Chapter  2-­‐  Literature  review     The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of higher agricultural education as one component to face current international needs in this field and also contributing to countries’ development. In ASEAN countries, most of them are located within the so-called “developing” phase. Still, the complexity of agriculture requires an addition of inputs1, all of which are important to support the agricultural development process (Anderson, 1984).. 政 治 大 Section  1:  A  changing  agriculture  with  an  out-­‐of-­‐date  higher  agricultural   立 education  . ‧ 國. 學 ‧. Agriculture  nowadays         The condition of agriculture is closely related with the choices of economic. y. Nat. sit. development in our present-day societies. The perceptions of the relative roles of. n. al. er. io. agriculture and industry in economic development were strongly influenced by a. i n U. v. number of theoretical and empirical contributions to the economic analysis of. Ch. engchi. development. The existence of "surplus labor" in agriculture was well accepted during the 1950s. The presumed existence of surplus labor in agriculture meant that labor could be attracted from agriculture to industry without loss of agricultural production. The resulting profits in the capitalist industrial sector could be reinvested to increase capital and promote growth (Ayoola, 1996)                                                                                                                   1. Inputs are of two types: institutional support inputs are policies, procedures, and mechanisms, which are conductive to agricultural growth (extension education, adequate market channels, favorable pricing mechanisms). Production-oriented inputs are resources and practices contributing to production enhancement (water management).  .  . 19  .

(20)     1. Global policies shaping agriculture field (the World Trade Organization Agreement of Agriculture)   The emergence of the neoliberal policy agenda in the 80’s and the following moves to reduce trade barriers and deregulate national economies are claimed to have facilitated the expansion of a more complex, globalized agro-food system (Tonts & Siddique, 2011). Both Mendras (1970) and Weis (2007) emphasized Eric Hobsbawm’ s argument that the “death of the peasantry was the most dramatic and far reaching social change” of the twentieth century, cutting “ us off forever from the world of the. 治 政 past”, as the “ peasantry, which had formed the majority 大of the human race throughout 立 recorded history, had been redundant by agricultural revolution” (Weis, 2007, p. 124). ‧ 國. 學. However, panoramas were different in industrialized countries and less- industrialized. ‧. countries. While in the first ones, neoliberal policy reforms aimed to increase the. y. Nat. farmer’s level of exposure to competitive global forces for stimulating innovation to. er. io. sit. compete, and protective measures were gradually reduced; in the second ones, lessindustrialized, neoliberal policy reforms were applied in responding to international. al. n. v i n C h was made onUtransforming a locally oriented aid and credit agencies. Policy emphasis engchi agriculture to one that was “ more globalized oriented” stimulating exports and attracting foreign capital (Tonts & Siddique, 2011). Even if it is difficult to debate the intentions at the beginning, on the pathway the distortions caused by rich-country surpluses and subsidies, the declining earnings of farmers within commodity chains, the instabilities associated with rising imports dependence, the tropical commodities disaster and the bilateral policy restructuring of structural adjustment are affecting most developing countries today. Therefore, as.  . 20  .

(21)   author Van der Ploeg mentions, the “imperial food regime” making reference to an unbalanced relationship of power (Van der Ploeg, 2008), emerged through “The WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)” which came into effect in 1995 and constitutes a major landmark in the development of the global food economy as it sets in place, for the first time, multilateral rules restricting the sovereignty of governments to establish “a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system”, even though the WTO website’s slogan proudly announces : “fairer markets for farmers” (Weis, 2007).. 政 治 大. For example, a study conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 立. on the impact of AoA in fourteen developing countries in 2001 revealed that AoA’s. ‧ 國. 學. liberalization policy considerably increased food importation in these countries, with many registering sudden increases in the value of their food imports in the years. ‧. following their accession to the AoA. The food import bill more than doubled in. Nat. sit. y. countries that are significant food producers and exporters such as Brazil and India,. n. al. er. io. and imports of food increased of about 50-100% in countries like Bangladesh,. i n U. v. Pakistan and Thailand. In fact, many agricultural exporting countries in the 70’s and. Ch. engchi. 80’s like the Philippines, have been transformed into net food importers, and increased then their trade deficit, as a result of import liberalization under AoA (Glipo, 2003). If those countries are affected by a state’s capacity and local government’s constrain (Weis, 2007), then, who benefits from such agreement? This agreement in fact broadens the legal rights of agro- TNC’s. The WTO is essentially a set of shared rules about the degree to which governments can protect and subsidize domestic.  . 21  .

(22)   economic activity, a judiciary to enforce commitments and a forum to periodically draw countries together to rework these rules. The rules are negotiated by sector and hence contain different specific commitments, but they are guided by common principles that essentially fall under one absolute objective: to launch and increase the rights of transnational capital in trade and investment by reducing some “unnecessary barriers to trade” and “discriminatory” trade practices of governments (Weis, 2007, p. 129) Even if at the beginning, developing countries were protected by the “special and differential treatment” (SDT), giving them particular rights in trade agreements, it was progressively attenuated in the WTO. These policies follow the “trickle-down. 治 政 大of development: considering theory”, one of the bases of the ‘conventional’ model 立. that a concentration of capital in private entrepreneurs, can spread the growth to all. ‧ 國. 學. the levels of society, and show the perspective of WTO regarding “economic. ‧. development” promotion through a liberalization of agriculture. This implies a big. sit. y. Nat. shift on how trade is understood, as it is no more related with something that needs to. io. er. be managed to serve as developmental role, but has a view where liberalizing trade is in itself portrayed as development policy (Weis, 2007). Additionally, today despite. al. n. v i n the export- biased interests thatCdeveloping bring to the negotiating table, h e n g countries chi U the North-South power imbalance is such, that little attention is given to the developing countries claims, for example, the selective protectionism of rich countries against processed and semi-processed goods. All of these raise some questions about the effects of globalization in the agriculture’s transformation. In industrialized countries, farmers are directly implied with corporate actors, these farmers have profoundly invested in technological advancements to improve the levels of productivity and efficiency (Tonts & Siddique,.  . 22  .

(23)   2011) (Mendras, 1970). While in less-industrialized countries, there was a shift from consumption of local products to export oriented crops involving a reduction of agriculture diversity, and a focus of intensification and improved productivity depending on fertilizers, new seed varieties and innovative land management in order to “improve farmer’s income” (Tonts & Siddique, 2011, p. 103). However, these agriculture instruments depend on a production chain lead by transnational corporations, and under complex contracting arrangements, most of the time challenging the goal of improving farmer’s income.. 政 治 大. The common point on these countries is that, there was an increase of involvement. 立. by transnational companies in the sector and the emergence of a vertically organized. ‧ 國. 學. network: called a “food- supply chain” for production and consumption. On the bottom of this chain, are those in charge of producing food while distribution and sale. ‧. are found in the hands of transnational corporations (TNC’s) and supermarkets. Nat. sit. y. (Marsden, Banks, & Bristow, 2000). Furthermore, these authors emphasize that, this. n. al. er. io. are the current complex and rationally organized industrial chains within which,. i n U. v. primary producers capture a decreasing proportion of total added value in food production.. Ch. engchi. For the ASEAN region, Siddique (2011) reports that, the ten member’s countries can be organized as follows: Singapore has an insignificant agricultural sector, data on indicators for Brunei and Myanmar are mainly missing. So the rest of the 7 members (henceforth “ASEAN 7”) are new industrializing countries, which tend to have an initial comparative advantage in the agricultural industry because of availability of low- skilled and cheap labor force. From 1984 to 2007 period, the.  . 23  .

(24)   absolute share of agriculture to GDP increased by approximately 50% for the seven countries. While agriculture is progressing as an industry, it may be looked upon lowly or neglected by governments, as it is perceived to have less importance in terms of contribution to growth and wealth than the industrial sector. Thus, many governments chose to develop other industries instead of agricultural sector. Yet, some recent studies show that for developing countries in ASEAN, the agricultural sector development plays an important role, as it could increase both income and wealth for its people who may be less skilled, when compared to citizens in industrialized countries (Siddique, 2011).. 立. 政 治 大. In the case of countries as Vietnam and Thailand having most of their population. ‧ 國. 學. working in the agriculture sector, it is encouraged to improve it with government efforts, so that they can improve the living standards of the majority of their people. ‧. (Siddique, 2011). In comparison to the global level, in “ASEAN 7”, productivity in. y. Nat. sit. the sector has increased. This effect could be due to the dispersion of the Green. n. al. er. io. Revolution across these countries and the increase of technology improvements. As a. i n U. v. result of technology transfer, many of them have benefited from importing Green 2. Ch. engchi. Revolution technologies (Siddique, 2011). For instance the Cambodian Agricultural Research Institute has instituted reforms, central to Cambodia’s Green Revolution, using the technologies developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines (Siddique, 2011). This included the usage of high proportions of fertilizers, new rice varieties and enhanced irrigation. Hence Cambodia’s partnership with the Philippines portrays increased globalization through cooperation at a national                                                                                                                 2  Green Revolution: the application of this general package of enhanced seeds for high-input monocultures to the developing world was known as the “Green Revolution”  .  . 24  .

(25)   level for the rapid diffusion of technology in the agriculture sector. The result was an increase in productivity and lowering of the prices in general. On the one hand, while this translates to a lower GDP contribution, it does not reduce its importance, as lower prices contribute to worse poverty -levels in developing countries. On the other hand, an important productivity increase can also be seen in agricultural exports from the seven countries. Through Green Revolution, these countries could increase productivity, export production and sustain themselves without relying too much on imports, which means more effective earnings to the country. In this panorama, the immediate benefits aim to accrue the small- holders. 治 政 access to capital, adopt new technologies and reduce 大 prices, but in a large period of 立 relationship with unfair benefit’s distribution (Shaw, 2011).. 學. ‧ 國. time, there are several negative consequences resulting in an unequal power. ‧ er. io. sit. y. Nat. 2. Agricultural production- distribution: dysfunction in ASEAN region This section seeks to provide an overview and introduction to relevant issues. al. n. v i n C h analyzing the U related with agriculture in the region, spatial complexity and different engchi. experiences of globalization within the ASEAN. Globalization is defined from an economic point of view, referring to its association with “internationalization”, defined here as the “ large and growing flows of trade and capital investment between countries” (Hirst&Thompson, 1996, p. 198) and “liberalization” or the removal of government tax-restrictions on trade to create an open world economy, through the AoA, already discussed. Jointly with technological advances, particularly in relation.  . 25  .

(26)   to biotechnology, the globalization of agriculture describes processes of integration, linking suppliers and consumers within the agricultural sector around the world. This creation of a global food production system facilitated by major transnational corporations, can be broadly characterized as the production of highvalue goods such as fruit and horticultural produce for export from developing countries, with a return flow of low value products such as grains from the developed world, weakening like this the local food production and benefiting capital-intensive production systems (Robinson, 2004). Whilst this may describe the prevailing trends in developed countries during the ‘productivist’ phase of agriculture since the Second. 治 政 大 state support and the rise World War, factors including the reduction in protectionist 立. of agro-environmental policies, along with burgeoning interest in organic produce and. ‧ 國. 學. consumer safety, have led to the recognition of a ‘post-productivist’ phase in. ‧. agriculture since the 1990s (Wilson, 2001). This concept of distinct ‘food regimes’. sit. y. Nat. can serve as a framework to describe changing trends in food production, but has been. io. er. criticized for its overly structuralist approach, failing to recognize the complexity of factors affecting agricultural policy at the individual nation level and the processes by. al. n. v i n which individual farmers adapt C to new constraints and opportunities. h eeconomic ngchi U. The introduction of private land ownership combined with commercial and plantation farming for external markets, transformed South East Asian rural livelihoods about a century ago. Today, similar forces of change with equally critical consequences are recognized. The presence of large-scale and vertically integrated food production or agribusiness has relegated the individual small-farmer at the end of the agro-food chain (Shaw, 2011). Shaw added that this kind of commodity chains extends beyond national borders and most of the time provides powerful transnational corporations.  . 26  .

(27)   with access to national land, cheap labor under the support of governments in developing countries (Shaw, 2011). Agribusiness has the power to squeeze smaller growers through a gradual reduction of farm-gate prices, whilst at the same time raising product standards and overpricing its own corporate services. From a broad point of view, this corporate shift has moved from former ‘superficial’ trade-based linkages between countries, towards ‘deep’ international production-based intra-firm linkages (Goodman, 1997). During the 80’s and 90’s, leading European and USregistered TNC’s operating in Asia, such as Carrefour, Royal Ahold and Wal-Mart, accelerated their planned investments in the region, often increasing their shares in. 治 政 大 Other such as Delhaize, existing joint-ventures or buying out their Asian partners. 立. Auchan and Tesco established their presence within the region’s rapidly modernizing. ‧ 國. 學. system of agro-food processing and distribution (Shaw, 2011). The onset of the Asian. ‧. economic crisis 1997-98 found such companies well placed to take advantage of. sit. y. Nat. major asset depreciation and operational cost reductions, resulting in a near doubling. io. er. of their operational presence in Asia between 1995 and 2001. In addition, Asia registered highly vertically integrated, agro-food giants such as Charoen Pokphand. al. n. v i n Group (CP Group) of Thailand,Cthe conglomerate of the Philippines and h San e nMiguel gchi U the Salim Group of Indonesia are also major players within Southeast Asia, supplying both domestic and overseas markets. From the discussion above, the conclusion that there is an uncertain future for agriculture within Southeast Asia is easily reached. Within the wider context, the challenges of continued population growth, increasing and evolving consumer demand for food supplies, and the prospect of severe and ongoing changes in world climates makes the position of agriculture even more critical, rather than presently.  . 27  .

(28)   localized famines to be avoided. An analysis of the processes and impacts of an increasingly globalized economy with regard to agriculture, development and environment in the ASEAN is inevitably complicated by numerous factors, including the varied history, politics, societies and cultures of the region’s states, their often unique. environmental. conditions. and. the. vastly. differing. socio-economic. circumstances which affect populations and ethnic minorities within each country (Callow & Clifton, 2011). However, the study of the environmental impacts of globalization in the context of agriculture is relevant, and is the focus of the next section.. 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學. 3. Changing Agricultural Technology Beside an Increasing Rural Environmental Awareness. ‧. An increasingly globalized agriculture sector as mentioned in the last section, is hugely affecting developing countries in ASEAN region, currently in the transition. y. Nat. er. io. sit. between subsistence- oriented agriculture to a commercially- oriented one (Callow & Clifton, 2011). Even though the consequences of land degradation effects of. al. n. v i n Crates commercial agriculture: increase clearance, resulting in a cycle of soil h eofnforest h gc i U degradation, erosion and increasingly marginal agriculture environments, differ from. one country to the other, the challenges are evident among the members of the ASEAN. Also, excessive use of irrigation water in areas of poor drainage induces to soil salinity, to the detriment of both crop productivity and, eventually, the suitability of the land for continued agriculture. Environmental degradation is caused by an interaction between human maneuvering and natural processes, but it is often the thoughtless result of human attempts to modify and control the environment, which.  . 28  .

(29)   enhances the scale of degradation beyond the “normal” degree, associated with natural events. Moreover, the negative impacts on biodiversity are exacerbated by the use of herbicides and pesticides: technological answers allowing capital-driven practices to dominate ecosystem in expansive industrial farming. Additionally, another key piece in the revolutionary transformation of agriculture is the most elemental input: the seed (Weis, 2007) which is why Shiva (1993) relates the commodification of the seed to a “final enclosure of the intellectual commons” (Shiva, 1993). From the mid-twentieth century, the development of enhanced seeds brought major yield gain, depending on heavy use of fertilizer,. 治 政 chemicals and irrigation. Modern seed enhancement 大 at first resembled the greatest 立 innovation of millennia to achieve the traditional objectives pursued by farmers:. ‧ 國. 學. improvements in yields and nutrient content, hardiness, appearance and flavor, with. ‧. yield being the primary focus (Weis, 2007). But as large TNC’s came to dominate the. sit. y. Nat. process of seed development and patenting, innovations including changing the. io. er. genetic foundation of seeds were increasingly pursued with the aim of more completely transforming in commodity the seed- which by its biological nature,. al. n. v i n should no be commoditized- andCinduce upon other inputs (Shiva, 1993). h e ndependence gchi U. Consequently, this innovation is one of the main causes of soil degradation. and poses a significant risk to agricultural production. Moreover, development for agriculture has impacted greatly in the ASEAN natural ecology and biodiversity of the region: large tracts of agricultural monoculture have replaced vast areas of native forests and woodlands (Callow & Clifton, 2011). Different types of development and, in particular the transition from traditional subsistence to globalized agricultural systems have altered both the rate and style of agricultural development, and.  . 29  .

(30)   consequently the impact in biodiversity. During the latter part of the 20th Century, the area of agriculture has increased significantly in developing countries as the Philippines and Thailand. Whilst this suggest that rates of forest clearing have slowed somewhat in recent years, large areas of forest in countries such as Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia are rapidly cleared for agriculture (Callow & Clifton, 2011). A particularly good example of the changes of agricultural systems and the place of globalized agricultural systems in these developing countries is the oil palm plantation industry. While originally an African plant, the oil palm was introduced to Malaysia in the early 20th Century. The potential for the high-yielding and valuable crop to. 治 政 大 the development of the oilprovide a stable and high income source for people drove 立 palm industry in Malaysia and Indonesia, which together accounted for 80 per cent of. ‧ 國. 學. the world’s oil palm output in 2005. The production of oil- palm occurs on a variety. ‧. of farms, from small-scale, grower-owned and controlled plantations, through to. sit. y. Nat. larger-scale corporatized operations. The oil- palm returns large quantities of oil. io. er. compared to other plants, with application to the fast food, cosmetics and biofuels industries. Because of the application of the products, and their importance in. al. n. v i n particular for the food industry,C large corporations are now buyers of oil palm h eglobal ngchi U. products and control the market for the product. Additionally, the world demand for oils and biofuels in particular, have driven up the global price and consequently the Indonesian and Malaysian government have strongly encouraged the growth of this crop to respond to the global demand (Callow & Clifton, 2011). The significance of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia between 1990 and 2005 involved primary or secondary forests and the loss of their associated biodiversity. Forest clearance for.  . 30  .

(31)   agriculture in the tropics has direct and severe impacts on biodiversity with many native species in danger of extinction (Callow & Clifton, 2011). Finally, at the other end of the management continuum are the moves by some producers away from large-scale, homogenized globalized systems towards organic farming and “fair trade” markets. The organic sector therefore offers considerable potential to ameliorate some of the adverse environmental effects associated with ‘mainstream’ agriculture, whilst its own expansion has arisen through opportunities presented by a globalized system of agricultural production and consumption. Specifically, the benefits to biodiversity are associated with a reduction in chemical. 治 政 大 of hedgerows and other pesticides and inorganic fertilizers, sympathetic management 立. non-cropped habitats, and the preservation of habitat heterogeneity through the. ‧ 國. 學. encouragement of mixed farming practices, all of which have been shown to enhance. ‧. populations of native plants, invertebrates, mammals and birds on organic farms in. sit. y. Nat. comparison to conventional farming (Hole, 2005).. io. er. Some policy responses to the threats outlined above can be shown in examples from outside the Asia- Pacific, which offer potential for adoption within the region.. al. n. v i n Union, C policies h e nong cagro-environment hi U. Within the European. whereby individual. farmers can access funds designed to support environmentally sensitive modes of production have been progressively introduced and refined since the mid- 1980s. This reflects a changing emphasis from farmers as food producers to ‘custodians’ of the land, implying greater responsibility on the individual to maintain biodiversity (Callow & Clifton, 2011). Although, these serious environmental problems, there are ASEAN has not yet issued regional policies to manage them..  . 31  .

(32)   However, potential solutions for adjusting to this critical issue within the region can be also identified through examining higher agricultural education nowadays’ challenges and required improvements. This will be the focus of the next section of this research.   Issues  on  higher  agricultural  education 1. Less professionals in this area   Although, the agriculture field has currently many challenges, the declining. 政 治 大 2014). For example in the Philippines, from 2005- 2006, enrollment in SUCs (State 立. enrollment in agriculture degree programs is a worldwide phenomenon (Zamora,. ‧ 國. 學. University and Colleges) offering agriculture degree programs declined by almost 6,000 in 2008-2009 (Zamora, 2014). The decline in enrollment in agriculture is due to. ‧. different reasons among which are: first, preconceptions of agriculture as a. sit. y. Nat. profession. Agriculture is then not an attractive profession. In fact even the children of. io. er. those in the agriculture sector select other professions, even though many agriculture. al. graduates can easily find employment, as agriculture related jobs still account to 19%. n. v i n C U their initial salaries were not of the job market in the Philippinesh(Zamora, e n g c2014), h i still as competitive as other jobs. In ASEAN region, the wage of agricultural sector still lower than that of the industrial and even the services sectors. This gives the permanent impression among the youth that agriculture is a low paying job. As mentioned by Klank, cited in Zamora (2014), there is a need to push for an income parity policy of Science and Technology (DOST), and private companies, among others, as it was implemented in Japan, Europe, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States (Zamora, 2014)..  . 32  .

(33)   Secondly, rapid urbanization of agricultural areas is also a cause of student’s avoidance of agricultural careers. The conversion of agricultural land to nonagricultural uses, and the rising of employment opportunities in urban areas, resulted in rural migration with more youth heading to the cities for high paying employment. This has also shifted the interest of the youth to other more lucrative degree programs perceived to be required by modernizing societies such as computer science, engineering, and medicine. Moreover, this has also contributed to overload the job market.. 政 治 大. Finally, in some ASEAN countries, the devolution of agricultural services to the. 立. local government units (LGUs) has also influenced this declining as in the. ‧ 國. 學. Philippines. The implementation of the autonomy of local governments practically removed a large employment opportunity for agriculture graduates as agricultural. ‧. technicians and extension workers in the municipalities and provinces. In many cases,. y. Nat. sit. agricultural technicians who have degrees in education, commerce or criminology are. n. al. er. io. appointed as such because of political patronage. This further reduced the market for. i n U. v. agriculture graduates. Even those who would like to pursue research, declined due to. Ch. engchi. government under investments in agriculture Research Development and Education. On the other hand, the number of masters and doctorate students continued to increase mainly due to current highly competitive job markets requiring advanced degrees for higher positions and the man-power development program of Department of Science and Technology to meet the country’s Science and Technology requirements (Zamora, 2014)..  . 33  .

(34)   2. The current mismatch between the needs of the field and agriculture professionals in the region The Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2011 reports that the “employability of graduates” depends on the “external efficiency of higher education”, which refers to the fact that students are being prepared for fields in which there is clear demand, and when the skills and knowledge of graduates support well the workplace needs of employers. Low external efficiency is indicated by rising unemployment rates and by employer dissatisfaction with newly hired graduates. For ADB, it is clear that both issues—fields of study and relevance of preparation—need attention across Asia. A. 政 治 大. paradox of higher education particularly evident across Asia is that, even at a time. 立. when countries are producing a record number of graduates, employers complain of a. ‧ 國. 學. shortage of qualified workers, and graduate unemployment continues to rise. There is then, a growing concern among employers that graduates’ knowledge and skills are. ‧. not consistently aligned with labor market needs. Indeed, whether countries have too. Nat. er. io. sit. y. few or too many graduates, depends on what kind of graduates is being produced. According to a study by OECD on this specific region in 2009, there is. al. n. v i n C h acquisition and occupational generally a mismatch between skills needs in the region. engchi U Skills development of the labor force requires an supporting environment so that the. provision of skills is balanced with the provision of opportunities to use these skills. Therefore, skills development should be integrated with employment promotion for both the formal and informal sector (OECD, 2009). Furthermore, poverty reduction in the region still challenges development. The target groups for poverty reduction/fighting against exclusion are: women, unemployed youth, people with disabilities, ethnic minorities, and people living in rural communities and depending.  . 34  .

(35)   on agriculture. In the latest one, skills development activities refer to life-skills based on education; capacity- building in social sectors such as health; and training of disadvantaged groups in primary sectors such as agriculture, and entrepreneurship. Issues of integration of disadvantaged groups in the labor market through the provision of basic skills and training are a key priority for combating poverty but are insufficiently dealt with by educational institutions where resources have a greater focus on the most modern and formal sectors (OECD, 2009). Therefore, the agricultural sector in the region was surpassed by the services. 政 治 大. sector, as in Indonesia, where it was the nation’s largest employer in 2008. In 2010,. 立. agriculture sector decreased, but still employs 38.3% of Indonesia’s labor force and. ‧ 國. 學. still contributes 15.3% of GDP (OECD, 2009). Given the abundance of Indonesia’s natural environment and the large external demand for various agricultural products,. ‧. agriculture will continue to play an important role in the Indonesian economy even as. Nat. sit. y. the latter transitions to a more modern footing. In the case of this country, the. n. al. er. io. government has identified two key concerns in the development of agriculture: food. i n U. v. security and cash crops. As more workers leave this sector to find better-paying. Ch. engchi. careers in industry and services, most agricultural production will continue to be dominated by unskilled, semi-skilled, or vocational labor. However, if government plans to intensify agriculture success, there will be a new, growing demand for skilled agricultural managers and a new class of specialist engineers, who can bring in innovations to improve efficiency and sustainability (The Economist, 2012) Finally, even if ASEAN has already established some policies in order to control environmental degradation and promote a transition to a sustainable agriculture in the.  . 35  .

(36)   region by emphasizing the role of education in this process (ASEAN Socio-cultural Blueprint (2009)), the general panorama still very weak. At the same time, as established by the Asian Development Bank (2011), while the contribution of higher education to economic development is generally accepted, the mechanisms through which those benefits are achieved are less well understood. The next section focuses on what are the specific means higher education can use to contribute to national development in agriculture (Asian Development Bank, 2011). 政 治 大 Section  2:  A  required  adjustment  in  higher  agricultural  education     立. ‧ 國. 學. In this way, HEIs operate as incubators of innovation and creative thinking needed. for an economically competitive society. As economic and social development. ‧. increasingly depends on innovation, universities have a potentially important role in. sit. y. Nat. driving innovation and development. They can do so both through their role in. io. er. carrying out research and development, and by training workers for the knowledge. al. economy. However, as higher education systems across Asia look forward, they face. n. v i n C h Bank, 2011) U critical challenges (Asian Development e n g c h i one of which will be studied in. this research: Increasing the relevance of curriculum and instruction at a time when rapid change in labor market needs, is still a burden not addressed. This is related with the “ external efficiency” of HEI, mentioned earlier, and concerns the alignment and relevance of the education that students receive, to their subsequent work or study options. Teaching an inter-disciplinary systems approach to agricultural and rural.  . 36  .

(37)   development applies to training students at every level of agricultural education (secondary, intermediate and higher levels). A systems approach to agricultural education requires a team-teaching methodology using case studies, problem-solving approaches and practical, field-based exercises. The goals of education in agricultural systems can be achieved through different approaches, analyzed as follows. A  holistic  view  of  agricultural  education  (interdisciplinary)     It is not simple to keep up with the evolving nature of the agricultural enterprise. It requires a much more dynamic approach to the curriculum and teaching than most. 政 治 大. colleges of agriculture have developed. Moreover, many of the colleges have not fully. 立. recognized that changes have also taken place (Board on Agriculture and Natural. ‧ 國. 學. Resources, 2009) in their own educational institutions. The pool of potential candidates for the agricultural disciplines is no longer a relatively homogenous group. ‧. of young people raised on the countryside. That number is diminishing, while the. Nat. sit. n. al. The varied and broader. er. io. culture.. y. student population has increasingly diversely grown in terms of age, background, and. i n student body is generally C hengchi U. v. unaware of the multi-. dimensional and challenging nature of the agricultural disciplines and the fascinating career opportunities open to them, despite evidence that many students have an interest in a variety of scientific, business, economic, environmental, and social issues related to food and agriculture. The problem is that educators have not helped students to make the connection between those issues and a degree in agriculture. Therefore, the study of agriculture, before restraint as a discipline and limited in many ways, is actually interlaced with other disciplines in the natural and social sciences, and with.  . 37  .

(38)   agriculture professionals using similar approaches and systems as those in other fields. Agriculture now so comprehensively combines basic and applied aspects of the traditional STEM disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics that the acronym might rightly expand to become STEAM, joining agriculture with the other fundamental disciplines (Van Crowder, 1998). Van Crowder further emphasizes that throughout training, students need not only specialized courses which deal in-depth with specific technical subject-matter, but courses that help them think holistically, or in terms of integrated agricultural systems, so that they can understand the multi-dimensional nature of sustainable agricultural production (Van Crowder,. 治 政 大 to agricultural education. 1998). This requires an inter-disciplinary systems approach 立 Training in the systems approach is essential for agricultural education because of the. ‧ 國. 學. increasing complexity of agriculture, food and rural systems, and the problems of. ‧. environmental protection and management, women farmers and household issues and. sit. y. Nat. the needs of small-scale farmers. Even conventional subject-matter teaching should. io. er. take place within an inter-disciplinary framework of agricultural systems rather than as isolated subjects. Increasingly, education in agriculture needs to take the form of. n. al. Ch. courses in agro-forestry, agro-ecology, and the. engchi. iv n socio-economics U. of integrated. production systems. Moreover, local food production systems need to be studied in terms of the complexities of the larger economic and social context. A system’s approach to agricultural education makes it possible to understand, evaluate and integrate the many disparate elements of production systems, into a unified study of how those systems work, and how they affect the biological, economic and social environments (Van Crowder, 1998). However, there is not only a need to provide an interdisciplinary perspective into.  . 38  .

(39)   which a wide range of different disciplinary components can be integrated but it is also essential to provide experiential, field-based learning activities. An  adoption  of  participatory  approach  methods     It is well known that many faculty members do not have experience in the broader food and agricultural enterprise (besides traditional production) that would enable them to give students a “real-world” interpretation of the ideas, concepts, and skillsets they need to develop to be effective in the diverse agricultural workplace. Though, few academic institutions support faculty and students in gaining real-world. 政 治 大. experience as part of learning; neither are there sufficient resources for faculty to. 立. experiment with how to refashion the way they teach, or provide experiences that. ‧ 國. 學. reflect the challenges that food and agriculture graduates will need in their future. ‧. careers. Furthermore, the holistic view of the discipline, previously described, also makes reference to the need of students to be provided an overview of the agricultural. y. Nat. n. er. io. al. sit. and rural systems of their own specific countries.. v. Higher agricultural education must then be locally relevant, addressing local as. Ch. engchi. i n U. well as global issues (Lashgarara, 2006). Additionally, HEI are witnessing major structural changes in the content and style of instructional delivery, from hierarchical, test-based, instructor-driven, passive-knowledge-transfer types of instruction to present-day-learner centered (Suvedi, 2009). In educational systems, therefore, the fundamental requirement for sustainable agriculture is for universities to evolve into “communities of participatory learners” (Rolling, 1997). The “ Participatory approach“ in is a bottom up approach that utilizes the problem-solving or experimental learning methods, such as farmer-to-farmer exchanges, skills and.  . 39  .

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