The Effect of Job Standardization on Job Burnout: The Role of Psychological Capital and Workload of Private Middle School Teachers in Honduras

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(1)The Effect of Job Standardization on Job Burnout: The Role of Psychological Capital and Workload of Private Middle School Teachers in Honduras. by Alvaro José Vindel Martinez. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resources Development. Advisor: Lu, Cheng-Chieh Allan, Ph.D.. Graduate Institute of International Human Resource Development National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan June 2018.

(2) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I would like to thank God for giving me the opportunity of coming to Taiwan and being able to study a Master´s degree. Not many people are blessed as much as I am, not many people have such amazing family, friends, and teachers. This is why I thank him and will continue on doing so. Secondly, I would like to thank my family, my mom Carolina Martinez for giving me strength and guidance whenever I felt I could not do it anymore. I am grateful for your love and understanding; you are truly the best person I could ever aspire to be. I thank my sister Carol Vindel for being my example in this adventure, without you I would have never been able to withstand every obstacle I had to face, thank you for your love and friendship. Living in this beautiful country with you was an experience I will never forget. Thank you Angie Torres for you unconditional love, your support, and patience. These past three years apart have been difficult but they will definitely be worth the wait. I would like to express my deep appreciation and gratitude to all my professors. I would especially like to thank my thesis advisor Dr. Lu for all his guidance and support through these two years. I would like to thank the committee for all your advice. To my other professors, thank you for every lesson taught, I know I am a better professional now that when I came to Taiwan and this is in great part because of you. Finally, I would like to thank my friends and classmates. Without you, this journey would have never been the same. Thank you for all the incredible moments that are embedded in my memory. May you all become great professionals with beautiful families and a great life. May God bless and guide you always..

(3) ABSTRACT Burnout syndrome is affecting working professionals and other people around the world. Now, studies have found the effect of burnout and how this affects the physical and psychological aspect of people´s lives. Teachers do deserve special attention and consideration even if they are no more stressed and burned out than other professionals. As a society, we rely on teachers to mold our children since they are the future citizens of our nation. Job standardization has proven to make people work more efficiently while using less resources and producing less waste. However, teachers have to deal with different students every day; each student has a different personality, potential and the way they each learn is not the same. The workload teachers have to handle has also increased through the years, this is because they are to reach certain goals and standards that have been set by others. This study tries to investigate why standardizing every aspect of a teacher’s job may prevent the teacher of reaching his or her full potential. By setting new standards teachers are burdened with a higher workload every year, making them work longer periods of time, with the same salary and with high expectations set on the results the children produce. A teacher suffering from burnout is not nearly as productive as one not suffering from it. This study also tries to explain how having a positive psychological capital will probably delay the burnout syndrome if the teacher is suffering from it. This would also enable them to handle negative events in a more satisfactory manner. The sample of this study are 150 middle school teachers working in the private sector in Honduras. An online questionnaire has been developed in order to collect the data of this study. All the questions of the questionnaire were well-established items derived from previous studies. Simple linear and hierarchical regression analysis were employed to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings of this study provide meaningful implications for private education institutions in Honduras. For this study the researcher hopes that it can be used as a guide for human resource professionals as well as professionals in other areas on how teachers feel and how they could manage burnout syndrome, job standardization, psychological capital, and workload in a more effective way in order to obtain better results. Keywords: Job burnout, job standardization, psychological capital, workload. I.

(4) TABLE OF CONTENTS. ASBSTRACT .............................................................................................................. I TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................ II LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................... IV LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................V CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................1 Background of the Study ........................................................................................................... 1 Problem Statement ..................................................................................................................... 4 Research Purposes ..................................................................................................................... 5 Research Questions .................................................................................................................... 6 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................... 6 Definitions of Terms .................................................................................................................. 8 Delimitations ........................................................................................................................... 10. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................................11 Job Burnout .............................................................................................................................. 11 Job Standardization .................................................................................................................. 19 Psychological Capital .............................................................................................................. 23 Workload .................................................................................................................................. 28. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD .................................................................................. 31 Research Framework ............................................................................................................... 31 Research Hypotheses ............................................................................................................... 32 Sampling and Data Collection ................................................................................................. 32 Research Procedure.................................................................................................................. 34 Research Instrument................................................................................................................. 35 Data Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 40. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS ............................................................... 41 Descriptive Statistics ............................................................................................................... 41 Pearson Correlation Analysis .................................................................................................. 44 Hierarchical Regression .......................................................................................................... 45 Finding Summary and Discussion ........................................................................................... 49 II.

(5) CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................... 53 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................. 53 Research Limitations .............................................................................................................. 54 Implications ............................................................................................................................. 55 Recommendations for Further Research ................................................................................. 57. REFERENCES............................................................................................................................... 58 APPENDIX A RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................................ 68 APPENDIX B ONLINE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE SAMPLE .......................... 74. III.

(6) LIST OF TABLES 2.1 Effects of Burnout ...................................................................................................................... 13 3.1 Items of Emotional Exhaustion ................................................................................................... 36 3.2 Items of Depersonalization.......................................................................................................... 37 3.3 Items of Reduced Personal Accomplishment .............................................................................. 37 3.4 Psychological Capital: Questions in 4 Dimensions ..................................................................... 38 3.5 Items Regarding Job Standardization .......................................................................................... 39 3.6 Items Regarding Workload .......................................................................................................... 40 4.1 Sample Profile ............................................................................................................................ 42 4.2 Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlations and Reliability ............................................................ 44 4.3 Results for Simple Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 1 .......................................................... 46 4.4 Results for Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 2a ................................................ 47 4.5 Results for Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 2b................................................ 47 4.6 Results for Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 2c ................................................ 48 4.7 Research Hypotheses Results ..................................................................................................... 49. IV.

(7) LIST OF FIGURES 2.1 Multi-casual integral model: Burnout in the workplace ............................................................. 17 2.2 Teacher burnout tested model ...................................................................................................... 19 3.1 Research framework ................................................................................................................... 31 3.2 Research procedure .................................................................................................................... 34. V.

(8) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The following chapter will provide the research background, the problem statement, the research purposes, the research questions, the research significance, the definitions of terms and the delimitations and limitations of this study. This chapter will also provide a definition of the key terms to have a better understanding of the study.. Background of the Study Job Burnout is an important concept that has given Human Resource professionals much to talk about, but it is not a new concept. Around the 1970s, the concept of job burnout gained importance because it captured something critical about what people experienced with their work. Schaufeli, Leiter and Maslach (2009) stated that even though this concept was introduced almost 35 years ago to both, cultural disclose and psychological literature, it still affects many professionals all over the world. Both then and now, job burnout has been a concept that seems to ring true to a common experience among people. It has inspired researchers to study it and try to better understand what it is and why it happens (Zin & Talet, 2016). Job burnout is a factor that affects many workers negatively all over the globe. Because of this, people of different professions seek ways to manage with it, avert it, and in some cases avoid it. Zin and Talet (2016) advocated that this is why from the beginning; both practitioners and researchers recognized job burnout as a social problem worth paying attention to. Bakker and Costa (2014) stated that research has compellingly demonstrated that workers who are at risk of job burnout; for example, those workers who are constantly exhausted and have a cynical attitude toward their job, have demonstrated diminished job performance and in some cases may be at risk of suffering health problems through time. Teachers are responsible for helping mold the future of children who will become part of our society. This is why this research was focused on the effect of burnout on teachers. Teacher 1.

(9) burnout is a chronic phenomenon that continues to be a main cause of teacher exodus in the 21st century. Burnout is a precursor to teacher attrition (Lavian, 2012). Teachers are a key part for the correct development of children all around the globe. Because of the negative effects of burnout, it is important to understand the effect it will have on teachers because this could reflect on the quality of education they provide. Teachers’ work satisfaction is conceived as a key factor in improving school performance, burnout, generally considered as harmful to work satisfaction, should be avoided or reduced if possible (Sargent & Hannum, 2005). Reducing the levels of burnout among employees is not an easy task. Many actions might be taken into consideration to reduce the levels of burnout and a relatively new one is job standardization. Job standardization is the extent to which employees follow standard operating procedures to perform their jobs (Chen, Niu, Wang, Yang, & Tsaur, 2009). Job standardization is a core section of total quality management (TQM) that has received attention because of the globalized mainstream and the competition strategies applied to achieve organizational excellence (Talib, Rahman, & Qureshi, 2010). Even though job standardization is a relatively new field to study, it has demonstrated positive results in several organizations, especially in the service industry. Karatepe, Avci and Arasli (2004) supported Hsieh and Hsieh´s notion that job standardization will have a positive effect on quality of the service provided by the employees of an organization. This could indicate that if job standardization was to be applied to other jobs, for example teaching, it might make a difference in the quality of the service that they provide as well as on the quantity of the job. Job standardization specifies the standard operating procedures (SOP) for relevant organization members during all stages of value chains to earn sustainable progress in productivity or service quality (Hsieh, Chou, & Chen, 2002). In many cases, job standardization will enhance the way a certain task is completed, but in this particular study, this study views standardization in teaching as an impediment instead as of an enhancer. This does not mean they do not follow a standard operating procedure. Many teachers have to follow 2.

(10) a curriculum in order to achieve the yearly goals the schools impose on them. Teachers constantly have to adapt to ever-changing environments, new problems, heavier workloads, lack of curricular freedom, unsupportive parents, and many more issues. This is why having a positive psychological capital is considered a key factor for their success in this particular study. Psychological capital has been defined as “an individual’s positive psychological state of development that is characterized by (a) having confidence (efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks; (b)persevering toward goals and, when necessary, redirecting paths to goals (hope) in order to succeed;(c) making a positive attribution (optimism) about succeeding now and in the future; and (d) when beset by problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond (resilience) to attain success” (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007). Furthermore, psychological capital has demonstrated that it provides an additional value for a display of the worker´s positive behaviors, such as organizational citizenship (Walumbwa, Luthans, Avey, & Oke, 2009). This study thus proposed that psychological capital might be an important moderator for the relationship between teachers’ work standardization and the level of their job burnout. Previously the researcher suggested that because of job standardization teachers now have more tasks in their daily routine. Spector and Jex (1998) suggested that workload in simple terms is the total volume of work required of an employee, in this case teachers. This research can relate workload to job burnout because the researcher can deduce that the more workload a teacher has the more energy he or she consumes and the more tired they get. As Gopher and Donchin (1986) stated, there are two types of workloads, mental and physical. Mental workload is characterized by the demand imposed on the limited mental resources that humans possess (Moray, 1979). Meaning that every person has a different limit, making this type of workload subjective. Physical workload is easier to observe, this is because muscular work is openly discernable and easier to measure (Gopher & Donchin, 1986). Both of these types of workloads have different effects on the person; for this study, the researcher considers that workload is a 3.

(11) mediator between job standardization and job burnout.. Problem Statement Currently, because of globalization, new technologies, overpopulation, and more hands-on parenting teachers have more tasks in schools. In addition, because there is more competition globally parents want their children to move at the same rhythm and get the same level of education other children receive around the world. This is when job standardization can be applied in the school systems. However, following a certain international standard can in some cases limit the children and in other cases, children are not able to meet these standards because they are too high. The neoliberal version of globalization, particularly as implemented by bilateral, multilateral, and international organizations, is reflected in an educational agenda that imposes particular policies for evaluation, financing, assessment, standards, teacher training, curriculum, instruction, and testing (Burbules & Torres, 2004). Because of this, teachers have to adapt constantly to new standards. Schools need to take this mission into consideration because now they realize that the job markets are changing as well as the working environment; they also have to consider that there will be an increased competitive global pool of applicants, they also have to consider that flexibility is important to adapt to new jobs. This means that teachers have to work longer hours in school, plan according to standard, check assignments and tests, input grades online, answer parent’s emails, etc. All this tasks consume many of their time in school so many of the teachers have to put in extra time whenever they are home, taking away time that could be used for resting, having a social life, and bonding with their families. Under such circumstance, job standardization might be harmful rather than beneficial since most of the time teachers have to engage in repetitive tasks and routines, which might cause teachers losing their interests on their jobs. Job burnout might thus occur. The level of workload that teachers have to deal with every year has been constantly 4.

(12) increasing, while salaries amongst teachers are not high. Workload is concerned more on tasks than on the people performing these tasks (Spector & Jex, 1998). As previously stated, schools and governments are more focused on reaching a certain performance level. This level of performance increases the workload and consequently increases the level of job burnout without taking into consideration the state of the mental health of teachers. Ksenia, O´Dea and Bevan (2012) viewed workload as the workload in the working environment that exceeds the individual´s abilities that result in feelings of frustration, nervousness, anxiety, or annoyance. These feelings are closely related with the effects of job burnout. This study is meaningful because few researchers have studied these specific four variables together. Job burnout has been studied thoroughly through the years, and is somewhat of an old concept; however, not many studies focus specifically on teachers. In this study, the researcher focused on middle school teachers working in Honduras specifically in the private sector. Standardization is a common in many lines of work and teachers are not exempt when it comes to standardization because of the perception of how useful it has become in several industries. However, the relationship of job standardization has on job burnout is yet to be studied properly. Psychological capital as previously stated consists of four factors, these four factors affect the livelihood of everyone around us, and this is why the researcher aimed to understand how the previous to variables affect it positively or negatively. Some research has been done regarding the relationship between workload and burnout, but not between job standardization, workload, and job burnout. This is the main purpose for this particular study.. Research Purposes The central objective of this study is to develop a model analyzing the relationships between the variables of Job Standardization, Workload, Psychological Capital, and Job Burnout in middle school teachers working in the private sector in Honduras.. 5.

(13) Specifically, the main objectives of this current research are as follows: 1. To investigate the relationship between job standardization and job burnout for middle school teachers. 2. To investigate the moderating effect of psychological capital for the relationship between job standardization and job burnout. 3. To investigate the mediating effect of workload for the relationship between job standardization and job burnout.. Research Questions The focus of this study will be on teachers of Honduras, specifically those who work on the private sector. To summarize, this study aims to examine the following two research questions: 1. Does job standardization (i.e., daily work routines) affects teachers’ level of job burnout? 2. Does psychological capital have a significant moderating effect for the relationship between work standardization and job burnout? 3. Does workload have a significant mediating effect for the relationship between job standardization and job burnout?. Significance of the Study Children spend many hours a day in school, for example in Costa Rica they spend at least 1267 hours a year in school (OECD, 2015). This means that they spend a sizeable part of their days with teachers. This is why researching these four variables is important. If teachers are competent, satisfied, happy etc… they are able to perform better at their jobs, thus providing a better education for their students. However, if standardizing their jobs increases their workload and with reduces their feeling of satisfaction, it may make them suffer from the job 6.

(14) burnout syndrome or at least some aspects of it. This is why in this study aims to find out the relationship among these four variables, because even though they have been studied thoroughly separately, very few studies have combined them into one research. Additionally, this study will try to contribute to the following three sectors: 1. Private Sector The private education sector in Honduras is a very big market, and even though many children go to these types of schools, very few people and institution research how they are performing and even less research how teachers feel about their job because they expect them to be happy and satisfied because they have a job. This is why after this study is completely concluded the researcher will provide the surveyed schools with the results obtained from the data provided. This will help the administrative and curricular parts of the school have a better understanding about how these four variables are related to overall feeling teachers have. 2. Human Resource Practitioners Managing employees is never an easy task, and getting to know their individual problems is almost impossible. This is why getting a general idea about how job standardization might lead to job burnout and ways to avoid this problem if it exists in a school could be useful for the Human Resource department in schools in Honduras. They are an important part of the administrative aspect of the school and having an idea of the problems their employees might be going through is part of the responsibilities of their job. Understanding the effect the workload teachers have to deal with on their daily routines is also a key factor to understanding if this is causing job burnout. The findings of this study might affect how they manage their personnel for the next school year regarding working hours and workload. Thus, creating a better working environment and a more attractive and satisfying job for teachers and other employees in different sectors. 7.

(15) 3. Contribute to Literature Numerous studies have used job burnout, job standardization, psychological capital, and workload as their variable. However, this is the first study to put them together in order to analyze the relationship among them and the effects they have on middle school teachers in Honduras working in the private sector. This study can contribute to the current literature by trying to comprehend and measure the impact of the relationships among these four variables.. Definitions of Terms To avoid any conceptual misunderstanding of the terms used in this research and at the same time provide context for the readers or researchers, the definition of the main terms used through this study are included.. Job Standardization In a broader sense, standardization is the process of articulating and implementing technical knowledge (Russell, 2005). However, to be more specific job standardization is setting standards in a specific job with the purpose of making it cheaper, safer, quicker, while also improving the quality of the work provided. Hsieh & Hsieh (2001) defined job standardization as the extent to which employees and employers follow standard operating procedures. This will be related as to how employees perform in their jobs. Procedures about both, behaviors and performance expectations are a part of job standardization. An elevated degree of job standardization entails several things, such as explicit rules and policies, as well as procedures that control job related activities (Hsieh & Hsieh, 2001).. 8.

(16) Psychological Capital The concept of psychological capital can be employed at an individual level and at an organizational level. For the individual level, psychological capital is a psychological resource able to boost performance and growth. At the organizational level psychological capital may provide leverage, return on investment, and competitive advantage through improved employee performance (Luthans, Avolio, Walumbwa, & Li, 2005). Using these criteria, psychological capital is the positive and developmental state of a person, comprised out of four elements: hope, resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy (Luthans, Yousseff, & Avolio, 2007). Magaletta and Oliver (1999) defined hope as a psychological anticipation of the future. Resilience is the ability to bounce back from adversity (Luthans, Youssef & Avolio, 2007). Optimism is a general expectance that one will experience good outcomes in life (Scheier & Carver, 1992). Lastly, self-efficacy is to take on and put the necessary effort to succeed in challenging tasks (Luthans, Avolio, Walumbwa, & Li, 2005).. Job Burnout As a metaphor employee burnout can be described as the draining of energy, burnout refers to the smothering of a fire or the extinguishing of a candle. It implies that once a fire was burning but the fire cannot continue burning brightly unless there are sufficient resources that keep being replenished. Over time, employees experiencing burnout lose the capacity to provide the intense contributions that make an impact (Schaufeli, Leiter, & Maslach, 2009). However, the real definition that has emerged from all of this research is a conceptualization of job burnout as a psychological syndrome in response to chronic interpersonal stressors on the job. Job burnout has three dimensions, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion indicates feelings of being overextended and depleted of one´s emotional and physical resources (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). Depersonalization refers to a mental distancing from a cynical response to others 9.

(17) (Ladebo, 2009). Reduced personal accomplishment refers to feelings of incompetence, reduced ability to do the job, and a lack of accomplishment (Maslach, 1993).. Workload The concept of workload does not have a clear definition among experts because it is subjective to the individual. In a general sense, workload represents the total amount of volume of work required of an employee (Spector & Jex, 1998). Allard, Haas and Hwang (2011) used the term workload to describe the moment when an employee spends psychological and physiological energy on a job task to achieve the requirements set for the job. This implies that workload can be measured in two separate aspects, psychological and physiological. On the other hand, Gopher and Donchin (1986) used the term workload as a direct assessment of the difficulties that employees confront when working on an assigned task.. Delimitations To make this research more feasible and facilitate a more realistic research process, the delimitations are clearly stated.. 1. This study is delimited to middle school Honduran teachers working in the private sector. 2. This study explored the relationship between job standardization and job burnout. 3. The study explored the moderating effect of psychological capital on the relationship between job standardization and job burnout. 4. The study explored the mediating effect of workload on the relationship between job standardization and job burnout.. 10.

(18) CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to review the already current literature concerning burnout, job standardization, and psychological capital. The researcher seek to explain them and how they are related. Moreover, to further explain each because even though the variables are only three they include several other factors. Burnout has been thoroughly studied in other researches, but this study wants to find more about a type of burnout involving teachers. Psychological capital is composed of four factors which will be explained further along the reading.. Job Burnout Burnout is a concept that was introduced several years ago by two people. First, in 1975 by Herbert Freudenberger, a psychiatrist who worked in an alternative healthcare agency, and in 1976 by Christina Maslach, who worked as a social psychologist and was passionate about studying emotions in the workplace (Schaufeli, Leiter, & Maslach, 2009), they wrote the initial articles about the concept of burnout. However, what can be clearly stated is that burnout has been, is, and will be a phenomenon that will affect people with various types of jobs. Burnout is one of the many psychological syndromes of emotional exhaustion, characterized primarily by depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment, which can befall on a person who works with other individuals in some capacity (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Job burnout can occur because of a wide variety of factors in a worker´s life and environment. The research of burnout began in the care-giving and service occupations; this was because the base of these jobs was between whoever provided the service and the person receiving it. This interpersonal context of the job meant that, from the beginning, burnout was studied not so much as an individual stress response, but in terms of an individual’s relational transactions in the workplace (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). In 1986, Maslach and 11.

(19) Jackson developed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), this became an important tool in the 1990s to study job burnout in the field of industrial-organizational psychology. For many years employees have been asked to achieve certain goals, these goals determine how successful and efficient they are perceived, as well as how they perceive themselves. But when they are not given the correct tools to reach these goals they will sometimes suffer the effects of this phenomenon. Burnout can affect people if several valuable resources are lost, or are insufficient when it comes to meeting the demands, or do not yield the anticipated returns (Schaufeli, Leiter, & Maslach, 2009). Most employees want to be perceived as efficient, this is why when they cannot accomplish their established goals their self-esteem can also be affected. Schaufeli, Leiter and Maslach (2009) stated that overwhelming emotional exhaustion, feelings of cynicism and detachment, and not feeling accomplished are the three major parts of what is commonly known as job burnout. Among these three major parts of this complex syndrome, emotional exhaustion is the most common manifestation and is the central quality of burnout. When people describe themselves or others as experiencing burnout, they are most often referring to the experience of emotional exhaustion. (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). As time goes by, many employers search for more capable employees, willing to work harder, for longer periods of time, and willing to take a huge amount of workload. The major demands of job often include role conflict, stressful events, substantial workload, high-pressure environment, and role ambiguity (Schaufeli, Leiter, & Maslach, 2009). Burnout does affect many people around the world, but this does not mean that everyone with a job suffers from it. As Maslach (2003) states, sometimes people perceive that you either suffer from burnout or you don’t. However, being such a complex phenomenon it is impossible to state that either you have it or you do not. That is why the phenomenon was divided into several dimensions.. 12.

(20) After several researchers Salvagioni, Melanda , Mesas , González , Gabani and Andrade (2017) summarized the effects of burnout as follows: Table 2.1 Effects of Burnout Physical Consequences . Obesity. . Hyperlipidemia. . Type 2 Diabetes. . Large waist of circumference, high body mass index, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose. . Hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol). . Coronary heart disease. . Hospitalization for cardiovascular disease. . Hospitalization for musculoskeletal disorder. . Musculoskeletal pain. . Changes in pain experience (overall pain, neck-shoulder pain, back pain, painrelated disability, headache, pain in the entire body, pain intensity and frequency). . Prolonged fatigue. . Headaches, respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal problems. . Severe injuries. . Mortality below 45 years Psychological Consequences. . Insomnia, changes in levels of insomnia. . Incidence of insomnia, persistence of insomnia and sleep disturbances. . Depressive symptoms. . Psychotropic and antidepressant treatment. . Hospitalization for mental disorders. . Psychological ill-health symptoms (continued). 13.

(21) Table 2.1 (continued) Occupational Consequences . Job dissatisfaction. . Absenteeism. . New disability pension. . Job demands, job resources. . Presentism. Note. Adapted from “Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies” by Salvagioni, Melanda, Mesas, González, Gabani and Andrade, 2017, PloS one, 12(10). Copyright 2017 by Salvagioni et al. Table 2.1 is divided in three sections stating the physical consequences, the psychological consequences and the occupational consequences of job burnout. As Maslach, Schaufeli and Leiter (2001) indicated physical exhaustion is a legitimate label for problems and it affects people inside and outside the working world. This physical consequences are listed in Table 2.1. The MBI-Es developed by Maslach, Jackson, and Schwab in 1996 cover the psychological consequences listed here in Table 2.1. The three dimensions of the psychological aspects of job burnout are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. These are the three dimensions studied in this research and the MBIEs questions measuring these three dimensions are used in the questionnaire of this study. Finally, the combination of both physical and psychological consequences lead to the occupational consequences, which are also listed on the Table 2.1 here.. Dimensions of Job Burnout Burnout is divided into three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced personal accomplishment. People who suffer from Burnout Syndrome tend to go. 14.

(22) through these dimensions, so it is important to define each one thoroughly. The first dimension and the most obvious aspect of this syndrome and it is emotional exhaustion. It is the state of depletion and fatigue that is considered the main component of job burnout (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Emotional exhaustion refers to feelings of being emotionally overextended and depleted of one's emotional resources (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Shirom and Melamed (1989) claimed that emotional exhaustion is so obvious in burnout that the other two aspects of this syndrome are merely incidental and unnecessary. Meaning that this dimension is the most important one because it is the most common and identifiable feeling of burnout. It is the most important dimension because it has significant implications both for the quality of work life and for optimal functioning in the organization. However, in order for it to be considered burnout the three dimensions have to be present in the person suffering from it. If any of the dimension was missing, you could just call it by any of the dimensions individual names. From an employee´s point of view, emotional exhaustion can be associated with somatic difficulties, such as headaches, stomach aches, lack of sleep, or colds (Belcastro, 1982). Therefore, it does not only affect the mind of the individual but also its body significantly. The second dimension is depersonalization. It refers to a negative, callous, or excessively detached response to various aspects of the job (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Depersonalization is when the person suffering from burnout begins to see everyone they are offering a service to, either a client, student, coworker, etc. as if they were almost the same person. They start seeing them as an individual with unique needs and starts looking at them as if they had the same personality. This is because the person suffering from burnout might see others needs as objects and that way it would be easier to cope with them. However, suffering from this for the purpose of this study would affect the way some teachers treat students. It might be a huge problem is a teacher gets to this point, if they start thinking that every student has the same need the level of education of the school might go down, and the 15.

(23) quality of the service they provide would suffer as well. Distancing is such an immediate reaction to emotional exhaustion that a strong relationship from exhaustion to cynicism (depersonalization) is found consistently in burnout research, across a wide range of organizational and occupational settings (Schaufeli, Leiter, & Maslach, 2001). The third and final dimension is a reduced personal accomplishment. Reduced personal accomplishment refers to a decline in one's feelings of competence and successful achievement in one's work (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). The connection of the feeling of reduced personal accomplishment to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization is considerably more complicated. In some cases, it appears to be a function of either emotional exhaustion, cynicism, or a combination of the both (Byrne 1994; Lee & Ashforth, 1996). Consequently, if an employee suffers from this dimension, he or she will have very little motivation to continue working satisfactorily. They could feel that there is no point on working hard and trying to reach the established goals because they are too hard to reach. A job in which the person feels overwhelming demands constantly that contribute to their feeling of emotional exhaustion is possible to make the person feel ineffective. In figure 2.1 it can observed that there are two kinds of stressors; work stressors and personal stressors. These stressors affect the output of the results expected by others in the job workers are intended to do. Middle school teachers are expected to perform at a very high level because they have constant contact with the children, making them an example for the children to follow. However, work stressors and personal stressors are a big part of the problem when it comes to the output of their performance. Thus, said stress adds to the level of job burnout the teachers might suffer.. 16.

(24) Figure 2.1. Multi-casual integral model: burnout in the workplace. Adapted from “New Perspectives: Towards an Integration of the concept “burnout” and its explanatory models” By Manzano and Ayala, 2013, Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 29(3), p.800-809. Copyright 2013 Service of Publication of the University of Murcia.. Teacher Burnout Good teachers are key to the development of any fruitful society and subsequently to the development of a country. Children spend enormous amounts of time in the classrooms, but teachers spend even more time planning what is going to go on in the class. On average teachers spend more than twelve hours a day doing activities related to the job. This is why teacher burnout is common. Even though some teachers are able to handle stress adequately, to other teachers long or constant periods under stress and the resulting strain may lead to sense of professional failure, a feeling of emotional exhaustion, a reduction in the sense of reduced personal accomplishment, and a tendency to depersonalize the students and their parents (Schaufeli & Buunk, 2003). 17.

(25) Three dimensions make up the syndrome described as psychological burnout: The first dimension is emotional exhaustion, this occurs when the teacher´s emotional resources are worn-out. The second dimension is depersonalization, this occurs when teachers detach themselves from their students and their work. In this dimension, they tend to develop cynical attitudes and feelings toward their students. In the third and final dimension, their sense of reduced personal accomplishment diminishes, they start perceiving themselves as less effective at their job (Cherniss, 1980). When teachers feel exhausted or feel indifferent toward their students or coworkers it is hard to gain a sense of accomplishment (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). When analyzing the daily tasks teachers have to achieve for example; adapting to different learning styles, as well as different learning levels, they also have to discipline the children, handling large classes, and at the same time get comments from both the administration and the parents and many other more. It becomes almost obvious why many teachers have some level of burnout. The perception of not being appreciated by students, parents, administrators, and the general public also contributes to teacher burnout (Sava, 2002). But teacher burnout does not affect everyone in the field. Several previous studies have shown that teacher burnout may be related to particular demographic variables, such as gender and age (Friedman, 1991; Greenglass, Burke, & Ondrack, 1990), and to work-related factors, including teaching experience (Friedman, 1991). As in any job, the time spent through the years doing the job can take a toll on the psychological and physical health of the individual. According to Friedman and Farber (1992), people entrust their children and their future to teachers, this is why they deserve special attention even if they are not more burned out than other people are. Students spend at least twelve years going through the school systems, this means that if at least half of the teachers that teach said kids suffer from burnout, the will not be receiving the best education available. Therefore, affecting the outcome of their grades when they get to higher levels of education. In figure 2.2, Maslach and Leiter (1999) developed a 18.

(26) model to show how teacher burnout and stress could affect the teaching quality and their engagement towards teaching their students, which will in turn affect the student´s education outcomes.. Teacher Burnout and Stress. Teaching Quality. Student Engagement. Student Educational Outcomes. Figure 2.2. Teacher burnout tested model. Adapted from “Teacher burnout: A research agenda”, by C. Maslach and M.P. Leiter, 1999, Understanding and Preventing Teacher Burnout, 295303. Copyright 1999 by A Source Book of International Research and Practice.. Job Standardization As stated previously, job standardization specifies the standard operating procedures for relevant organization members during all stages of value chains to earn sustainable progress in productivity or service quality (Hsieh, Chou, & Chen, 2002). Job standardization can be observed in many areas of society, in both the public and private sector. Job standardization concerns both job knowledge and methods regarding performance expectations and behaviors. A high degree of job standardization implies explicit rules, policies, and procedures to govern work activities (Hsieh & Hsieh, 2001). Therefore, it includes following a set of rules and standards in any job to perform it according to the desired outcome. When the people in charge of standardizing a job, they detail how that job should be performed. The main purpose is reducing the discrepancies associated with each task, thus improving the effectiveness of the team (Gilson, Mathieu, Shalley, & Ruddy, 2005). One of the results of job standardization is the creation of standard operating procedures, this is a written document or set of instructions 19.

(27) detailing all the steps and activities involved in a certain process, and this allows employees that contact customers frequently to accomplish the established service goals. Not many studies have been done which include job standardization, it is a field that is yet to be explored thoroughly, nonetheless some empirical studies have indicated that job standardization enhances role clarity and elucidates the performance standard of the service firm (Hsiung & Hsieh, 2003). It is an important issue that should be applied to some fields, because of the numerous advantages it provides. For example, it variations in the behaviors and perspective among employees who are in contact with costumers. It also sets a standard when it comes to the quality of the service that is to be delivered (Chiang & Wu, 2014). Job standardization decreases stress and uncertainty, it enhances efficiency, and it helps employees feel that they are performing better. This is achieved by providing the necessary guidance and by clearly clarifying the responsibilities of everyone (Becker & Knudsen, 2005). Brunsson, Rasche and Seidl (2012) suggested that there are three important aspects of standardization. The first of relates how standards are adopted by the employees, implemented the managements, and subsequently avoided and altered when they are being implemented. Second, when organizations concern themselves with standardization, they try to create standards and this is why most standards are the product of formal organizations. In this case, the formal organization would be schools. Lastly, standardization can already be viewed as a form of organization. Meaning that standardization can be applied to a school depending of what is happening in the education areas around the world, but the way it is implemented in a certain country and school may vary depending on the progress of the children and the problems that may come during the implementation process.. Job Standardization in Education In many jobs, employees must follow a certain set of rules and regulations, they have to attain a certain goal in a specific period of time. Teachers are not the exception; they have to 20.

(28) follow certain standards to reach a specific goal. If a school is compared to an organization, teachers would provide a service and the students would be the costumers. The way quality of the product (knowledge sharing) is strictly related to the outcome (knowledgeable children). However, what happens when the provider of this service has to adhere to certain standards, and the customer base is so diverse that they can´t do their job properly. As Sachs (2003) states, standards in education have been circulating sin the late 1990s. They were initially developed by Australia and United States with the purpose of improving the teaching practices in the classroom, which will later improve the performance of educational systems. Darling-Hammond, Wise and Klein (1999) argued, recently developed professional standards for teaching hold promise for mobilizing reforms of the teaching career and helping to structure the learning opportunities that reflect the complex, reciprocal nature of teaching work. However, many other researchers of educational standards claim that standards are easier to create than to actually implement in the classrooms. Standards practically determine what some teachers should be able to do and know in order to perform well at their jobs. Nevertheless, in many cases these standards are not facts, teachers come from different backgrounds and have different teaching styles, when a standard is imposed on them they have to adapt which in turn will make them work harder so it appears they know what they are supposed to already know. Students are being exposed to a globalized environment many of them have access to information with the click of a button. Many factors indicate that the need for standardization increases with globalization (Poksinska, 2007). Thus, some studies indicate that standardization will have a positive outcome on service providers such as hotel employees. Standards reflect explicitly formulated and explicitly decided rules and thus differ from more implicit social norms. The rule-based character of standards makes them important tools for regulating individual as well as collective behavior and achieving social order (Brunsson, Rasche, & Seidl, 2012). Because of these rules, teachers are many times to work longer hours 21.

(29) because they have to reach the standards imposed by the school and education system. Standards demand that every teacher in a school works almost in the same way but achieve the results that the other people are achieving. But, in education every children is unique even if they are in the same classroom. The way they process information is also different and if teachers do not adapt to this they will see negative results whenever standardized tests come further along the road. In the case of Australia and United States, Sachs (2003) states that in Australia the development of standards has not had the luxury of time nor the political independence as is evident in the US. There have been significant consequences of this for the development of Australian standards. This indicating that the standards have to be costume made depending on the region of the world, country, city and, even school. Louden (2000) argues that there are common weaknesses among all Australian standards, this is because whoever developed the standards, how these standards were developed, and political intent they might have had affected the quality of the standards. The desire some countries have to standardize their teaching might seem to be lavish and in the best interest of the educators, but honestly it may prove to be a raw idea and unintentionally work against the initial project of professionalizing teaching because it is an idea too hard to sustain. It is an idea that may prove to be too hard to implement without consulting the teachers, because they are the only one who really know how much work they have to do in order for them to achieve the standards imposed. To a certain extent, job standardization may be detrimental to many service professionals such as teachers since they need to constantly perform repetitive tasks and routines for schools and students. As time goes by, they may gradually lose their interests and passion on their job or even become stressful since they need to be engaged in same and repetitive jobs constantly. Therefore, this study proposes the following hypothesis:. 22.

(30) H1: Job standardization will be positively related to job burnout: (a) emotional exhaustion (b) depersonalization (c) reduced personal accomplishment.. Psychological Capital Psychological capital is a relatively new term, it comprises other four different terms that will be explained further along. The researcher simply use the term psychological capital here to represent individual motivational propensities that accrue through positive psychological constructs such as efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience (Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007). These psychological constructs can be observed and analyzed in various types of jobs. They are complex and sometimes hard to perceive, but they are without a doubt, of vital importance to people when it comes to their jobs. It contains several components of the inner life of workers. By inner life the researcher refers to a person’s true inner self, not who they pretend to be or pretend they care about. When experiences, components, and capital are added up it makes of the value. In the case of psychological capital, the “components” are optimism, efficacy, resilience, and hope. Csikszentmihalyi (2014) noted that such psychological capital is developed through a pattern of investment of psychic resources that results in obtaining experiential rewards from the present moment while also increasing the likelihood of future benefit. Meaning that, in many cases psychological capital is developed through past and current experiences. Both theory-building and prior research on hope, resilience, optimism, and efficacy supports that they are developable (Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007). As well as other psychological aspects, these four components can be developed positively or negatively. People with normal jobs work at least eight hours in a day, meaning that 1/3 of their days are spent trying to accomplish goals established by the company they work for. There is prior evidence suggesting that whenever these four constructs are mixed together into one higher-order construct it may be developable because this can almost be 23.

(31) considered as state of mind (Luthans, Avery, & Patera, 2008). This could mean that if these four constructs are not developed correctly people could go through emotional distress.. Self-Efficacy Self- efficacy is “the employee’s conviction or confidence about his or her abilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources or courses of action needed to successfully execute a specific task within a given context” (Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998). Every employee has their own limitations, but sometimes having the confidence to overcome these limitations can make the difference between being a good or bad employee. A comprehensive metaanalysis demonstrated that self-efficacy is firmly related to work performance (Bandura & Locke, 2003). Having the ability to perform a task is a key factor for a task to be accomplished successfully an efficiently. Evidence suggests that an optimistic sense of personal efficacy, accomplishments, and a positive well-being are vital factors for people who can solve problems in order to achieve success (Bandura, 1998). Bandura (1998) formally defined perceived self-efficacy as personal judgments of one’s capabilities to organize and execute courses of action to attain designated goals. Consequently, if teachers are not able to attain the desired goal, their motivation level will go down. If they try to achieve their goals by working excessively they will probably suffer from the burnout syndrome. There is a construct closely related to self-efficacy, it´s called perceived control. It refers to the general expectancy about whether one´s behavior or external forces control the outcome of a certain activity. When a school´s only guide to reaching its desired goals is setting standards, teachers lose their ability to control their classrooms. Leading to a lower level of psychological capital.. Hope 24.

(32) According to Webster´s Third New International Dictionary, in general people use the word “hope” on a daily base to “(1) trust or reliance; (2) desire accompanied with expectation of obtaining what is desired or belief that it is obtainable” (Gove, 1971). This is the common definition of hope, but when it comes to Psychological Capital, hope is a “positive motivational state that is based on an interactively derived sense of successful (a) agency (goal directed energy) and (b) pathways (planning to meet goals).” As a psychological concept, hope incorporates three important conceptual foundations: agency, pathways, and goals (Snyder, Irving, & Anderson, 1991). Snyder (2000) said that researchers focusing on empirical studies found that people who have high levels of hope get sick with less frequency because the try to avoid getting sick, they analyze ways on how they can get sick and avoid it, while people with less hope don´t care about their health as much. If having hope and suffering from burnout it could be stated that people with high hope will probably find ways to avoid suffering from burnout. Thus, being healthier professionals, so if teachers with high hope found ways to avoid it they would probably do it. Goals are constantly set through a year so that they can be reached by employees in a certain amount of time, employees set their minds in certain ways to achieve these goals, they usually “hope” they can achieve it. Hope and efficacy are both considered states, hope also includes finding ways to reach goals and sub goals. Hope also involves the motivational energy to pursue said goals (Snyder, 2000). Hope constitutes several things, but putting it simply hope includes the capacity to identify, clarify and pursue the way to succeed. It could be said that to have hope, people have to organize their thoughts in a way as to achieve this goal, and hope is a key component for this. Without this organizational patter hope cannot exist, or at least it won´t be the kind of hope recognized in Psychological Capital. But how can teachers have high levels of hope if the driving assumptions of school reform are grounded in a punishing rather than a positive psychology, a view fixated on 25.

(33) weaknesses and deficits rather than on learning and growing (Bullough , 2011). This is why some teachers have low levels of hope, if you are set to fail, and your supervisors and the system are focused only on your deficits rather than the things you are doing well it makes it relentlessly hard for teachers to have high levels of hope. These low levels of hope affect the psychological capital that in term can have emotional impact and can enhance the level of burnout felt.. Optimism Scheier and Carver (1985) defined optimism as a generalized expectancy that one will experience good outcomes in life. They did not make a distinction regarding the way these good outcomes would occur. They did not mention if it was through the individual´s efforts, the efforts of others, or outside forces. It is simply having a positive mindset that things will go in the way people think they will. Optimists as those who make internal, stable, and global attributions regarding positive events (e.g., task accomplishment) and those who attribute external, unstable, and specific reasons for negative events (e.g., a missed deadline) (Seligman, 2002). Optimism is a facet of Psychological Capital that is associated with a positive outcome outlook or attribution of events, which includes positive emotions and motivation and has the caveat of being realistic (Luthans, 2002). Being realistic is strictly related with optimism. Optimism is not just an unchecked process without realistic evaluation (Schneider, 2001). Realistic optimism includes an evaluation of what one can and cannot accomplish in a particular situation and hence adds to one’s efficacy and hope (Luthans & Youssef, 2007). When it comes to teachers they have to be realistic optimists, they have to know their limitations and set their goals according to this. What people are able to do in times of adversity and what they achieve through times is also an important part of optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1992). Therefore, even if new standards are imposed on the teachers they try to find a way to 26.

(34) cope with this new information and methods. Therefore making them work harder with the expectation that they will be more efficient. When people believe that their goals are attainable, they experience positive affect, ranging from pride to gratitude to simple relief, depending upon the reason underlying the favorable expectancy (Carver & Scheier, 1990) A number of studies have also considered the possibility that optimism may be beneficial to physical well-being (Scheier & Carver, 1985). As stated before burnout can affect the health of the person suffering from it. Nevertheless, if you have teacher with high levels of optimisms, they are probably going to be happier in their jobs while at the same time performing better because they psychological capital is on a good level.. Resilience In positive psychology, resilience is characterized by positive coping and adaptation in the face of significant risk or adversity (Masten & Reed, 2002). So basically, resilience is the ability of people to adapt to risky or adverse situations, in such a way that the outcome is successful. But, applied to the workplace, resilience is defined as the “positive psychological capacity to rebound, to ‘bounce back’ from adversity, uncertainty, conflict, failure, or even positive change, progress and increased responsibility” (Luthans, 2002). Resilience is often characterized by positive coping and adaptation in the face of significant adversity or risk .Therefore, resilience can be characterized by coping responses not only to adverse events, but also to extreme positive events as well. Clinical psychologists also note that resilience can increase and even grow when the individual returns to levels above homeostasis after an adverse event (Richardson, 2002). Luthans, Vogelgesang and Lester (2006) proposed that hope, optimism, and confidence act as paths to resilience. For example, people who a very hopeful, optimistic, and confident are more likely to spring back from and adverse experience than those people who are not. In the area of education it is important to be resilient if you want a high psychological capital 27.

(35) level, this way even if you are working hard and fill burnt out you will be able to recover successfully in less time than those people who have a low level of psychological capital. This is why psychological capital is such an important factor when it comes to any job. The researcher hope to find out how psychological capital will affect the relationship between job standardization and job burnout. This study will also try to measure the levels of optimism, hope, self-efficacy, and resilience hoping to find out which is the most affected.. H2: Psychological capital will weaken the positive relationship between job standardization and job burnout: (a) emotional exhaustion (b) depersonalization (c) reduced personal accomplishment.. Workload Workload is a term that has been around for many years. There is still not a set definition of what workload really is, however this study will try to create a clearer idea in this section. Gopher and Donchin (1986) said that workload is a multifaceted concept that is hard to define clearly. The term workload can be utilized to describe aspects of employees and their assigned tasks. Workload also includes the expectations of performance is the task, and sometimes the task is beyond the person´s capacities. Spector and Jex (1998) simplified the concept by saying that workload represents in the pure volume of effort that is required from an employee. This entails since the moment they wake up to go to work, like having to wake up early in the morning, until the time the stop working at night. There is certain concern with the day to day issues, these issues have been well-established in some research of workload and multiple task performance (Gopher & Donchin, 1986). Workload is different among different professions, a doctor does not have the same psychological and physiological workload of a human resource specialist. However, Spector and Jex (1998) suggested that workload can somehow be measured in numbers of hours at work, is can be measure depending on the level of production, 28.

(36) and it can even include the psychological demands of the work that is being performed by the person. Ippolito, Hines, Mahmood and Cordova (2010) agreed with some aspects of these definitions by proposing that work-overload resulted from some work requirements that exceeded the persons boundaries, this person had to do a vast amount of work in a set period, or working many hours that may cause the body and mind not to be able to bear with the load. Chen, Lee and Chang (2010) tried to divide workload in another way, the first division is quantitative workload, which is an excessive amount of work and qualitative workload that is how the employee perceived his or her ability being insufficient for completing a task at work. Many of these definitions take into consideration the time frame in which a task has to be completed. For teachers this time frame is usually divided into their weekly workload, and semester workload. The United States Air Force divided workload in three parts. The first part is time load, this is when a person perceived stress because of the speed they have to work at (frequency), this speed can sometimes be slowed down, however in some cases the task may be more urgent. The second part is spirit investment, this means that the person has to work hard both mentally and physically in order to achieve a preset performance. The third and final part is mental stress, this refers to the investment the person has to make in mental or perceptual activities. This includes decision-making, calculation, attention, memory, and attention. (Virtanen, Fuhrer, Ferrie, & Kivimaki, 2012). These three parts can all be applied to other professions, not only army or air force, teachers and other professionals can be included in this application. Reid and Nygren (1988) did argue that sometimes two individuals performing the same task at work perform equally when they measure their performance. That is why many times teachers get the same score when the end of the year comes and their boss evaluates them. But these does not mean that the tasks were equally different for both of them. As Vidulich and Wickens (1986) said two people performing the same task can obtain the same results, however one of this could still have plenty of attention left to perform other tasks, while the other does not. This 29.

(37) might add to the physical and psychological aspect of a teachers live. Teachers have to take into consideration the feelings of their students since this is a central value to many of them, this is also part of their workload. This leads to them having secondary roles like counseling and career advice. (Campbell & Neill, 1944). This is sometimes also included in the standards set for teachers. That is why the researcher believed that the following hypothesis would occur:. H3: Job Standardization is positively related to workload.. High workload has many consequences for teachers and others working in different environments. This consequences are both physical and psychological. Deepak, Iyer and Rao (2017) considered that a high workload could result in negative emotions of an employees, they might also present their work late, they might sometimes avoid following standards, and this might eventually create an unpleasant atmosphere for them and their coworkers. Employees who think they are short of time or think that they do not have what it takes to perform the job, tend to drain their mental and physical energy, making them feel emotionally drained which is one of the precursors of burnout (Alarcon, 2011). These and other factors are demising the mental resources of teachers. Consequently the following hypotheses were developed for this study:. H4: Workload is positively related to job burnout. H5: Workload will mediate the positive relationship between job standardization and job burnout.. 30.

(38) CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD The following chapter contains the research design and methodology for this study. The chapter will also present the research hypothesis that has been derived from the literature review and research questions. It will explain the research procedure, sample, data collection method, measurement instrument, and data analysis methods. The chapter also provides details of validation and reliability. The quantitative approach is chosen for this study to measure the independent variable and dependent variable.. Research Framework For this study, the research framework was developed after conducting the literature review. This research has one independent variable that is job standardization, the dependent variable for this research is job burnout, one moderating variable that is psychological capital, and one mediating variable which is workload. The theoretical framework for this research can be observed in figure 3.1. This figure, demonstrates the relationship amongst these variables.. Psychological Capital H2 H1. Job Standardization H3. H4. Workload H5. Figure3.1 Research framework of the study. 31. Job Burnout -Emotional exhaustion -Depersonalization -Reduced personal accomplishment.

(39) Research Hypotheses. The research hypotheses test the relationships among job standardization, psychological capital, job burnout, and workload. Based on the literature review and research questions, the following null-hypotheses were developed for testing the results:. H1: Job standardization will be positively related to job burnout: (a) emotional exhaustion (b) depersonalization (c) reduced personal accomplishment. H2: Psychological capital will weaken the positive relationship between job standardization and job burnout: (a) emotional exhaustion (b) depersonalization (c) reduced personal accomplishment H3: Job standardization will be positively related to workload. H4: Workload is positively related to job burnout. H5: Workload will mediate the positive relationship between job standardization and job burnout.. Sampling and Data Collection. The participants chosen for this study were full-time middle school teachers working solely in the private sector in Honduras. Middle school includes sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. The researcher selected this group of educators because he considers that during this period of time the children are going through a crucial point of their lives that will prepare and mold them for the things to come. However, if the teachers have a higher workload because of the standards they have to follow they could suffer from job burnout. Therefore, if the teachers are suffering from job burnout they will underperform at their job. Thus, affecting the lives and development of said children. Nevertheless, if they have a positive level of psychological 32.

(40) capital they may be able to balance their emotions and perform better as employees. For this entire study, the quantitative approach was utilized. A questionnaire was created in order to collect the data in order to test the four variables: job standardization, job burnout, psychological capital, and workload. This self-reported questionnaire was used in order to gather all the data that was needed so that the relationship among the variable could be tested properly. The participants selected for this study were Honduran teachers exclusively working in the private sector. This was because gathering information of the public sector would be complicated because of the lack of bilingualism among them. Teachers working in the public sector also lack the resources necessary to participate in this study like easy access to the internet, an email account, or a computer. Many of them work in remote areas of Honduras that are not easy to reach. After the questionnaire for the study was developed and revised, the researcher proceeded to collect data by using online-based questionnaires which was developed by using Google Forms. In Appendix B a sample of the questionnaire can be observed. Private middle school teachers were contacted through acquaintances and in some cases, the administrative office was contacted in order to reach the participants. Consequently, the researcher provided a link to the questionnaire to the participants. They were able to use their smartphones or computers in order to fill the questionnaire, which took around 10 to 15 minutes to complete. The responses to the questionnaire were received through Google Forms, an Excel spreadsheet can be retrieved and the data was transferred directly to SPSS 23. The researcher ensured the participants that their privacy was going to be respected at all times and that the questionnaire was completely anonymous. This ensured the researcher honest answers would be provided. For this research, the convenient sampling procedure was utilized in order to collect the data in a faster and more convenient way. This study obtained a total of 150 valid responses between January 10th and February 28th, 2018. 33.

(41) Research Procedure Figure 3.2 details the steps that were followed to complete this study.. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. • Identify the research topic and sample • Review literature • Define variables • Identify research questions and hypotheses • Develop research framework of the study • Determine research methodology • Develop instrument • Expert judgement and review • Data collection and coding • Data analysis • Conclusions and suggestions. Figure 3.2 Research procedure. 34.

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