FIRST REPORT OF THE PLANNING COMMITTEE
HONG KONG UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS
PART A - GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Membership and Terms of Reference of
the Planning Committee 3
Organisation of the Committee Work 5
Timing and Format of the Report 7
General Comments that Affect the Nature of the Report 7
PART B - ADVICE ALREADY OFFERED BY THE PLANNING COMMITTEE
Naming of the Third University 8
Site Selection 8
Level of Entry for First Degree Courses at the University 9
Recommendations to Government 10
Provision of Student Residential Facilities 11
The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club Donation 13
PART C - MAJOR ISSUES UNDER CONSIDERATION BY THE PL,ANNING COMMITTEE
Maximising the Utilization of the University Resources Medium of Instruction
Distribution of Student Numbers
Planned Growth of the Student Population Staffing Requirements Academic Staff Non-Academic Staff Campus Planning Area Requirements 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 24
Indicative Recurrent Costs 25
Indicative Capital Costs 27
Staff Salary Scales and Conditions of Service 28
PART D - PROGRESS ON EXECUTIVE TASKS
Recruitment of Vice-Chancellor 29
Architectural Competition 30
Appendix APPENDICES Descrintion A B(1)-(9) C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P
QR S T
Membership of the Planning Committee
Membership and Terms of Reference of Sub-Committees Suggested Names for the Third University of Hong Kong Photograph Showing the Site for The Hong Kong University
of Science and Technology
Chairman Letter to Government Regarding Site Selection, Choice of Name for The Third University, and the Level of Entry to First Degree Courses
Chairman Letter to Government Regarding the Provision of Student Hostel Accommodation
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Ordinance Academic Profile - Preliminary Model
Projected Student Population
Projected Undergraduate Student Population - School of Engineering
Projected Undergraduate Student Population - School of Science
Projected Undergraduate Student Population - School of Business and Management
Projected Postgraduate Student Population
Projected Academic Posts Required 1989/90 - 1995/96 Projected Non-academic Posts Required 1989/90 - 1995/96 Conceptual Relationship Between Academic and
Support Units on Campus
Summary of Indicative Net Area Requirements Space Norms and Assumptions
Notes on the Recurrent Indicative Costs
SUMMARY OF CONTENTS
This Report covers the first year of the work of the Planning Committee for The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, originally the Planning Committee for the Third University. It deals in Part A with the appointment of the Planning Commit- tee in September 1986 by the Governor of Hong Kong, the membership and terms of reference of the Committee, and the modus operandi adopted by the Committee. In accordance with the Planning Committee terms of reference, the emphasis of the new University is to be on science, technology, and management and business studies, with first student intakes no later than the 1994-97 triennium, and with a student population of 7,000 FTEs by 1999-2000 with room for further development up to about 10,000. This part of the Report describes the Committee wish to have the new University in operation in 199 1, much earlier than the 1994-97 deadline indicated in its terms of reference, in recognition of the needs of the Hong Kong community as well as in fulfilment of the wishes of the late Gover- nor of Hong Kong, Sir Edward Youde.
Part B of the Report deals with advice already conveyed to the Government and the Government response to that advice. The first set of recommendations forwarded on 8 January 1987 were in respect of the choice of a name for the new University following an invitation to the public to make suggestions; the selection of a site for the University campus from four potential sites; and, the Committee advice on the level of entry for first degree courses at the University. On 17 January 1987, the Hong Kong Government notified the Committee of its acceptance of the Committee advice that the University should be named he Hong Kong University of Science and Technology” in English and ” E @
F-FE*% ” in Chinese, that the University should be located at the former Kohima Barracks site at Tai PO Tsai, Sai Kung, with additional land earmarked for University use, and that the University should plan for entry at A level to three-year first degree courses. A further recommendation was conveyed at this time to the Hong Kong Administration in respect of student hostel accommodation, which the Committee feels strongly should be provided, for a variety of compelling reasons, from public funds to enable students to spend a part of their university life in residence on campus. In its reply the Administration has stated that privately funded and operated hostels to a level of 30% may be provided and that only if sufficient private funds cannot be obtained could the use of public funds be considered. The question of privately donated funds for hostel accommodation to a level above 30% remains a subject for further discussion between the Committee and the Administration. This part of the Report goes on to describe the enactment by the Hong Kong Legislative Council on
1 July 1987 of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Ordinance which is to be brought into effect upon a date to be decided by the Governor; it also describes the acceptance by the Hong Kong Government on 2 June 1987, on the advice of the Planning Committee, of a donation of HK$l,500 million by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club to fund the construction of the University campus and the arrangements made for the Jockey Club to manage the project on behalf of the Planning Committee.
Part C of the Report describes the progress made to date by the Planning Committee with certain issues which are ongoing, and which the Committee will continue to address in the next phase of its work. These are, specifically:
0a (b) 0 C (4 0 e VI (g)
refinement of the preliminary academic profile already drawn up, to ensure that the courses to be offered match the economic demand for graduates;
the structure of the coures to be offered, a modular system being favoured;
the medium of instruction, with a strong emphasis on English and Chinese, and with consideration being given to a third language, such as Japanese, being proposed;
the student mix emphasising a strong effort in the field of postgraduate programmes, both full and part time;
the planned growth of the student population, with the academic and administrative staff and the physical plant necessary to support this growth; the Report indicates that, if the first students can be enrolled in October 1991, a build up to 7,000 FTE could be achieved by 19951 96;
the indicative recurrent and capital costs; and,
the staff salary scales and conditions of service.
Part D of the Report is concerned with the progress made towards the selection of the University first Vice-Chancellor and the architectural competition for the procurement of the campus master plan. Following a very comprehensive recruitment exercise carried out by the Vice-Chancellor Search Committee, the Planning Committee, at its meeting on 21 September 1987, accepted the advice of the Search Committee that a recommendation should be made to the Hong Kong Government that Dr Chia-Wei Woo should be offered appointment as Vice-Chancellor of The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. This recommendation was approved by the Governor on 10 October 1987, and a formal announcement of Dr Woo appointment was made on 5 November 1987.
Asregards the architectural competition, the sixarchitects selected to proceed to stage II from the fifty-four Stage I submissions, will have their entries judged by the assessment panel in November 1987, and the Planning Committee will then make a final decision on the winning design.
1. In September 1985, the Executive Council agreed that the provision of tertiary education facilities in Hong Kong should have a high priority. However, before deciding on the establishment of a Third University, the advice of the University and Polytechnic Grants Committee (UPGC) was sought on a number of academic and organisational points pertaining to the proposed institution and on the student number planning targets in the 1990 .
2. Having considered the advice of the UPGC, the Executive Council on 18 March 1986 acceptedthat the new higher educational institution should be a university with a grouping of professional schools emphasising science, technology, management and business studies, and agreed on student target figures. The Governor-in-Council ordered that a Planning Committee should be set up to work out in detail the establishment of the Third University.
MEMBERSHIP AND TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE PLANNING COMMITTEE
3. On 13 May 1986, Government announced two major appointments signifying the formal commencement of the planning of the new university. Dr. the Hon. Sir Sze-yuen Chung, the Senior Member of the Executive Council, who had been the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Committee for the Hong Kong Polytechnic in 1969-71 and the Chairman of the Planning Committee for the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong in 1982-83, was appointed as Chairman of the Planning Committee for the Third University. Mr. I.F.C. Macpherson, then Secretary for Transport, was appointed as Secretary-General (Designate) to assume duty in August 1986.
4. The Government also announced in August 1986 the membership of the Planning Committee, which comprises seven local lay members, five overseas academics and six local academics and educational administrators (one from each of the two existing universities, the two polytechnics, the Hong Kong Baptist College and Diocesan Boys’ School). It was intended that the local lay members should be drawn predominantly from the industrial and commercial sectors to enable the Planning Committee to have an up-to- date knowledge of the local demand for technological and professional graduates, that overseas academics would contribute experience in the establishment of universities in other countries and would represent the international dimension in higher education, and that local academics would have the knowledge and practice of the local educational scene.
5. On 2 June 1987, an offer of a donation from The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club to fund the capital cost of the University campus up to a maximum of HK$1,500 million was accepted by the Governor-in-Council and it was agreed that The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, with its expertise in handling such projects, should manage the construction of the university campus as a turnkey project. With a view to improving communications between the Planning Committee and the Jockey Club, a further member, who was concur- rently the Deputy Chairman of the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, was appointed to the Planning Committee in June 1987.
6. The Planning Committee for the Third University, whose members are listed in Appendix A, was formed in September 1986 with the following terms of reference :
aving regard to the Government intention that -
the Third University should be a grouping of professional schools emphasising science, technology, management and business studies;
by 1999-2000 the University should provide degree places for 7,000 full-time and equivalent part-time students, with room for further development up to about 10,000;
the University should have its first intake no later than the 1994-97 triennium;
a site of about 20 hectares would be made available for the construction of the University; and
the legislation, staff salary scales and conditions of service of the Third University should be drawn up with due regard to those of the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong;
the Planning Committee is invited to :
( ) a
advice to the Government on -
the name and the legislation required for the Third University;
the administrative framework for the proper function and regulation of the University;
the detailed academic profile and development plans of the University, together with the necessary resource requirements;
the capital works and programme of construction together with the necessary resource requirements;
0e staff salary scales and conditions of service;
(0the selection of a suitable site for the University; and
(9)any other relevant matters; and
(11) (a)recommend for appointment the first Vice-Chancellor and other staff for the University; and
09carry out any executive functions as directed by the Government.”
7. The idea of establishing a third university had been talked about for some time but it was due to the determination and far sightedness of the then Governor, Sir Edward Youde, that the Government eventually went ahead with this important project. It was most unfortunate that Sir Edward Youde suddenly passed away whilst on official business in Beijing on 4 December 1986. Hong Kong has lost a great Governor and the Third University will be born without its father. The Chairman and Members of the Planning Committee would like to record their sincere and heartfelt condolences to Lady Youde and her family.
8. In an obituary tribute to the late Governor in the Legislative Council on 10 December 1986, the Acting Governor, Sir David Akers-Jones said I’... hegave wholeheatted support to the concept of building a third university and said that it should specialise in management, science and technology and that it should be built as quickly as possible. HOIL Members, we have that legacy to carry out.”
9. For this reason the Planning Committee has felt that the new University should be in operation as soon as possible and believes that it should aim for first student intakes much earlier than the 1994-97 deadline indicated in its terms of reference.
10. Having considered the nature and range of advice to be tendered to Govern- ment, under its terms of reference, and to ensure parallel and related progress oneach aspect of the planning task, the Planning Committee decided at its first plenary session in September 1986 to establish sub-committees to give detailed attention to each. These aspects were :
0a academic planning and development;
09capital works and building projects;
0C establishment matters; (d) financial matters; and
0e senior staff recruitment.
Later, as the role of the Sub-Committee dealing with capital works and building projects changed, its emphasis shifted to campus planning and estate management and the Sub- Committee was renamed accordingly. A General Matters Sub-Committee was also formed to provide advice on such matters as the naming of the University, the governance and administrative organisation necessary for the proper functioning and regulation of the University, legislation for the establishment of the University and the selection of a site for the campus.
11. In addition, a separate ad-hoc committee was established to conduct the search for the first Vice-Chancellor. This ad-hoc committee will be dissolved once the Vice- Chancellor is identified and appointed.
12. It was recognised that the development of the university campus should be in accordance with standards acceptable to both the UPGC and the Government and that, in order to meet changing needs in Hong Kong, it might be necessary from time to time to revise accommodation and design briefs and specifications for the execution of the master plan. In July 1987, the Planning Committee and The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club jointly set up a Campus Project Management Sub-Committee to supervise the construction of the Univer- sity campus.
13. A Committee of Sub-Committee Chairmen was also formed, in February 1987, to meet monthly to exchange information, discuss plans, monitor progress and co-ordinate the activities of the various Sub-Committees. In practice, the Committee established itself as a source of advice to the Chairman of the Planning Committee and adopted the role of a de-facto Executive Committee. As it was anticipated that the involvement of The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club in the University campus project would result in the Planning Committee having to make a number of urgent executive decisions between plenary ses- sions, the Committee of Sub-Committee Chairmen was formalised to become the Executive Committee with effect from August 1987.
14. Because it was not possible for the overseas academics on the Planning Committee to attend frequent regular meetings in Hong Kong, it was decided that Members should meet in plenary session three or four times a year to formulate major policies and to monitor and endorse the progress of the Sub-Committees. The recent commercial applica- tion of facsimile transmission has not only enabled overseas members to be kept informed simultaneously with local members but also to make timely contributions to Sub-Committee meetings held between plenary sessions.
15. The membership and terms of reference of the Executive Committee and the sub-committees are shown at Appendices B(1) to B(9).
TIMING AND FORMAT OF THE REPORT
16. Although the Planning Committee Chairman has received no formal direction from Government regarding periodic reporting, the Planning Committee decided that it should produce interim reports at suitable intervals. Many of the details in a report would be of direct concern to the UPGC and it seemed appropriate to produce annual reports coinciding somewhat with the usual academic year of a university. September 1987 is therefore considered as an appropriate time for the Planning Committee to produce its first report which coincides with the establishment by the UPGC of a Sub-Committee to consider matters regarding the establishment of the new University.
17. The work of the Planning Committee has been progressing very rapidly and although a dedicated Sub-Committee of the UPGC was not formed until September 1987, the Secretariats of the Planning Committee and the UPGC have liaised closely.
18. This Report is presented in four parts : Part A deals with introductory matters; Part B with advice offered already by the Planning Committee; Part C with further matters on which Government wishes in due course to be advised and which are of interest to the UPGC; and, a concluding Part D which reports progress on the executive, rather than on the advisory, tasks of the Planning Committee.
GENERAL COMMENTS THAT AFFECT THE NATURE OF THE REPORT
19. In compiling this Report, the Planning Committee considers that some comments of a general nature have to be made in order that any recommendations or advice in the Report can be examined in proper perspective.
20. The overall objective of the Planning Committee has been to offer advice on how the University should meet Hong Kong needs, primarily economic but also social, by the late 1990 , but it recognises that in a place as dynamic as Hong Kong, with a traditional strength and unique talent for instinctively identifying demand and reacting quickly to satisfy that demand, this is an extremely difficult task. The Planning Committee is mindful too that much of the advice contained in the Report has been formulated without input from the future Vice-Chancellor and his supporting academic and administrative staff.
21. It has been necessary, therefore, for the Planning Committee to make a number of basic planning assumptions in formulating its advice. However, the future Council of the University should not necessarily be constrained by this Report and should be able to revise any existing plan or to initiate new developments if conditions change.
ADVICE OFFERED ALREADY BY THE PLANNING COMMITITEE
NAMING OF THE THIRD UNIVERSITY
22. It seemed inappropriate that the new University should be knowninperpetuity as he Third University”. The Planning Committee decided, therefore, at its first plenary session in September 1986, to invite suggestions for a name from the public at large.
23. The response from the public was most encouraging and as a result over 100 suggestions were received, and these are listed at Appendix C.
24. The death of the then Governor, Sir Edward Youde, on 4 December 1986, led
to suggestions, not only from the public but in both the print and electronic media, that one way of commemorating Sir Edward governorship would be to name the Third University after him. Whilst appreciating the wave of popular emotion following Sir Edward death and the very real wish to acknowledge his great contribution to Hong Kong in significant ways, the Planning Committee took the view that, in principle, an abstract name for a tertiary institute of learning was to be preferred. The setting up of the ir Edward Youde Fund” provided an alternative and a very positive and fitting way of commemorating the late Governor.
25. From the names suggested, the Planning Committee chose he Hong Kong University of Science and Technology” in English and ” 75 8 f+ I5 -k &IQ ” in Chinese as being most appropriate.
26. The selection of a suitable site for the University campus was identified as a priority task by the Planning Committee at its first plenary session. Four sites : Bowring Camp at Tuen Mun, Fanling West, Whitehead at Ma On Shan, and the former Kohima Barracks site at Tai PO Tsai, were drawn to the attention of the Planning Committee as having been reserved for possible use by a new institution of tertiary education. Detailed studies of each of the potential sites were carried out and members of the Planning Committee visited each in order to assess its suitability.
27. In its assessment of the sites, the Planning Committee considered it important that the site selected should allow for expansion, that the cost of development should be kept to a minimum and that it should enable an early start to be made. Also taken into consideration was advice from the UPGC that the University should have easy access to the metropolitan area to facilitate close cooperation with business, industry and the general community.
28. Taking account of all the numerous factors, including the fact that the Tai PO Tsai site is already formed and serviced, which would mean significant savings in time and cost and might also advance materially the date of the first student intake on campus, the Planning Committee took the view that the former Kohima Barracks site at Tai PO Tsai (about 40 hectares, of which about 16 hectares are developable), in its entirety, was the most suitable for the development of the University. In addition, to allow adequately for expansion, the Planning Committee strongly recommended that the Erskine Camp site (3.22 hectares), and the eastern seaward side of the Shaw Studios (10.79 hectares), presently held by Shaw Studios on a short term tenancy, should also be earmarked for use by the University. An aerial photograph showing the delineation of the sites is at Appendix D.
LEVEL OF ENTRY FOR FIRST DEGREE COURSES AT THE UNIVERSITY
29. One of the most difficult issues considered by the Planning Committee was the controversial question of the level of entry for first degree courses at the University.
30. For historical reasons, a perplexing dilemma exists in Hong Kong present sixth form education in that students completing five years of secondary education can, after taking the Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE), either follow a two-year sixth form course in Anglo-Chinese Schools leading to the Advanced (A) level examination to compete for entrance to the first degree courses (generally three years) at the University of Hong Kong (HKU), the two Polytechnics and the Baptist College, or else follow a one-year sixth form course leading to the Higher (H) level examination and entry to the first degree courses (generally four years) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK).
31. The Education Commission in its Report No. 2 (August 1986) recognised that there are undesirable consequences arising from this situation. It recommended an integrated sixth form curriculum, retaining the two-year A level course, the abolition of H level, and the introduction of a new curriculum derived from A levels to be termed Intermediate (I) levels and designed to encourage the development of balanced, well- informed individuals and to prepare students better for post-secondary and tertiary educa- tion. The proposed I level system would allow students to enter CUHK after Form 6 on the basis of a public examination within an integrated sixth form curriculum and if CUHK agreed, credit unit exemptions could be granted to students with appropriate A, or A and I, level qualifications.
32. The Education Commission did not address the question of the length of local tertiary courses, suggesting that this was a matter for the institutions and the UPGC in the first instance.
33. The reported decision by the Senate of HKU to add a foundation year to its present three-year degree course and admit students completing only one year of sixth form studies added further complexity to the issue. More importantly, in terms of the Planning Committee meeting its planning guidelines, the move by HKU towards a four-year course structure increased the uncertainty of obtaining an early decision from a process that is likely to involve the compilation of a report by a Working Party of HKU and the subsequent formal submission of proposals to the UPGC, a referral to the Education Commission by the Government and finally consideration of the Education Commission report by the Govern- ment.
34. The Planning Committee believed that it was important for the University to make an early start and decided meantime to plan for entry at A level to three-year first degree courses. Nevertheless, it also recognises that first degree courses for certain professional disciplines, despite A level entry, may require more than three years. However, should the Government decide to approve and fund the HKU proposal for four-year first degree courses after six years of secondary education, the University will change similarly in the interests of uniformity of entry levels.
RECOMMENDATIONS TO GOVERNMENT
35. The Planning Committee recommendations on each of these issues were conveyed to the Acting Governor by the Chairman in a composite letter dated 8 January 1987. This is reproduced at Appendix E.
36. On 17 January 1987, the Acting Governor replied to the Chairman of the Planning Committee that the Hong Kong Government :
accepted the recommendation that the University should be called he Hon Kong University of Science and Technology” in English and II ?$ !& $7 E -h: % n Chinese;
accepted the Planning Committee recommendation that the Univer- sity should be located on the Kohima Barracks site at Tai PO Tsai and that the Erskine Camp site and the eastern seaward side of Shaw Studios should be earmarked for future expansion; and,
was pleased to note that the Planning Committee had decided to plan for entry at A level to three-year first degree courses (except for first
degree courses for certain professional three years may be required).
disciplines where more than
PROVISION OF STUDENT RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES
37. At its first plenary session, the Planning Committee also considered the provision of student hostel accommodation on campus and took the view that hostels contributed to the quality of university life of the students and provided opportunities for early professional affiliations. This is particularly so for engineering and technology students, who will spend a very large part of their day time attending workshops and laboratories, leaving only the evenings for mixing socially with their fellow students. In addition, therefore, to the provision on campus of good study facilities and supporting infrastructure the Planning Committee believed that the conditions prevailing in the majority of students’ homes warranted the provision of student hostel accommodation.
38. The recommendation that student hostel accommodation of the order of 30% to 40% should be provided from public funds was conveyed to the Acting Chief Secretary by the Chairman on 8 January 1987. This letter is reproduced at Appendix F.
39. In reply, the Chief Secretary advised that the Administration sees no difficulty in providing student hostel accommodation to a level of 30%, providing :
the capital costs of building the hostels is met from private funds including the funds pledged by the Jockey Club for the University project;
the recurrent costs of running the hostels is met from hostel fees;
the target provision (30%) is set against the approved student number targets in the year 1999-2000 (i.e. 7,000 full-time and equivalent part-time students); and,
priority in funding continues to be given to the construction of academic buildings in the University capital programme.
The Chief Secretary has not ruled out the possibility that public funds might need to be used for student hostel projects at the University and he has indicated that, should private funds not be sufficient to meet the capital costs of building student hostel accommodation to alevel of 30%, the Administration would consider any request from the University for funds to make up the shortfall.
40. In amplification of these conditions and Committee was able to secure private funding for more
in the event that the Planning than 30%, the Government has
advised that in the context of the general policy set out in paragraph 39 above:
(a) Government would in principle welcome private donations for addi- tional student hostels; but
(b) private donations conditional upon a contribution of public funds would not be accepted; and
0C any proposed private donations to meet the full cost of building a hostel would be examined in the context of the overall capital programme and priorities for higher education. If necessary, therefore, a potential donor may be invited to agree that his donation be used to finance another project within the institution capital programme.”
The Planning Committee has reservations about the policy set out in paragraph 40(C) and intends to comment on this issue at a later date when appropriate.
41. In deciding on what legislation would be suitable for The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the Planning Committee reviewed the legislation incorporating the existing five tertiary institutions and took note of the recent report of the Steering Committee for Efficiency Studies in Universities (also known as the Jarratt Report) published in the UK. It considered that the legislation for the new University should provide a framework for the efficient functioning of a modern publicly-funded, technological university that would allow for the autonomy of the University and for the academic freedom of its teaching and research staff. The essential requirements of such a framework were considered to be :
(a) that the Council should be responsible for governing the University, notably in respect of strategic plans to underpin academic decisions and structures which bring together planning, resource allocation and accountability into one corporate process linking academic, financial and planning aspects;
(b) that the Senate should be responsible for regulating the academic contents and standards of the University and should act as the main forum for generating an academic view and giving broad advice to the Council; and,
(c) that the Vice-Chancellor should be recognised not only as the aca- demic leader but also as the chief executive of the University.
42. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Ordinance 1987 (reproduced at Appendix G), based on drafting instructions recommended by the Planning Committee, provides for the establishment and incorporation of The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. It was enacted by the Legislative Council on 1 July 1987 to be brought into effect upon a date to be decided by the Governor.
43. The balance of membership of the Council of the University has been one of the most carefully considered aspects of the Ordinance and, although the proportion of academics represented on the Council is somewhat smaller than that on similar governing bodies of the two existing universities, it is generally in line with those in the United Kingdom.
44. The Planning Committee considered that there were good reasons for an early incorporation of the University and for it to have a statutory existence during the planning period, before it opened its doors to students. Included in these were the fact that the formal grant of land to the University could only be made to a body corporate; the University would have to recruit and appoint its own staff; it would be necessary to enter into contractual relationships with architects, consultants or contractors; in view of the intention to admit its first students in 1991, an academic development plan would have to be submitted to UPGC in July 1989; and, a smooth transition from Planning Committee to University Council was regarded as important. The Planning Committee has therefore proposed that the University Ordinance be brought into effect in April 1988, with a view to the establishment of the University as a body corporate and the appointment of its first Council at the same time.
45. The Planning Committee has considered how the first Council of the Univer- sity should be formed and it is apparent that it will be for the Chancellor to make the first appointments to the Council and for the Council, when formed, to recommend the appoint- ment of the remaining nine members, under section 9(l)(g)(ii) and (iii) of the Ordinance. Thereafter, however, members, having been appointed, will retire by rotation and it is envisaged that appointments would be for differing periods, for reasons of continuity and to enable the Chancellor to ensure an appropriate balance of membership.
THE ROYAL HONG KONG JOCKEY CLUB DONATION
46. The Planning Committee was gratified to learn that the Stewards of the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club were prepared to fund and supervise the construction of the University on the basis of a turnkey project. After a period of negotiation it was agreed between the Government, the Planning Committee and the Jockey Club that:
(a) the Jockey Club total financial commitment will be limited to a maximum of HK$1,500 million, which amount includes an allowance of HK$300 million for inflation;
04should the design requirement, when agreed by the Planning Commit- tee, require acceptance of a tender above the Jockey Club limit or should that limit be exceeded for any other reason, then Government is committed to paying all additional costs;
(c) the Jockey Club will have no responsibility for financing any operating costs;
wthe project will be run by a Campus Project Management Sub- Committee of the Planning Committee which will have full and sole re- sponsibility for completion of the project to an agreed design re- quirement. The Sub-Committee will be chaired by a Member of the Planning Committee who concurrently is a Steward of the Jockey Club and should have as members two from the Jockey Club (one additional Steward and the Jockey Club Chief Executive), two from the Planning Committee (the Chairman of the Capital Works and Building Projects Sub-Committee and the University Vice-Chancellor) and one member representing Government (the Director of Architectural Services). The constitution of the Sub-Committee will remain the same throughout the duration of the project and the Chairman will have a casting vote; the Chairman will also be a Member of the Planning Committee itself; and,
0e all architects, contractors and consultants working on the project will be employed directly by the Jockey Club.
47. The Planning Committee recognised the strength and experience of the Jockey Club in supervising large scale capital projects and particularly welcomed its involvement as the best way to ensure that the University would be completed in time and within budget.
48. As a result of advice from the Planning Committee, the Governor-in Council decided, on 2 June 1987, that The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club offer to fund the capital cost of the University campus up to a maximum of HK$1,500 million and supervise the construction should be accepted. Any amount by which the ultimate cost of the campus building project exceeded HK$l,SOO million will be funded by the Government subject to the approval of the Finance Committee of the Legislative Council. Preliminary estimates have put this amount in the region of HK$400 million, calculated at the rate of 6% per annum to cover the inflationary costs of the project. In addition, a separate provision for the purchase of specialist and teaching equipment will be required. Estimates of the cost of the equipment to be purchased by the City Polytechnic for its new campus, at 1987 prices, amounted to HK$300million. However, it is believed that the University requirement will be substantially higher. On 17 June 1987, Finance Committee of the Legislative Council accepted the funding arrangement but it is anticipated that the preliminary estirnates of HK$400 million to cover the inflationary costs of the project and HK$300 million for the purchase of equipment may be inadequate.
49. As a result of these arrangements the role of the existing Capital Works and Building Projects Sub-Committee has changed and, accordingly, its terms of reference have been amended and its name retitled ampus Planning and Estate Management Sub- Committee” to reflect the new situation.
MAJOR ISSUES UNDER CONSIDERATlON BY THE PLANNING COMMITTEE
50. This section of the report deals with major issues under consideration by the Planning Committee, some of which are of interest to the UPGC. These include the initial academic development of the University and the related development of the campus at Tai PO Tsai.
51. In this first Report, an attempt has been made to formulate a preliminary academic profile for planning purposes, and, based on this profile, the initial courses of study, the build up of student numbers and the necessary resource requirements. The Planning Committee recognises, however, that Hong Kong traditional strength has been its unique talent for instinctively identifying world wide trade demand and reacting quickly to satisfy that demand. In these circumstances, it is extremely difficult to forecast Hong Kong economic demand in ten to fifteen years’ time and to advocate an educational response to that demand.
52. The academic profile is regarded by the Planning Committee as of fundamen- tal importance to the academic development of the new University and it will continue to refine and develop it, utilising information from informed sources not only in Hong Kong but throughout the world.
53. In the light of the state of economic development in Hong Kong, the Planning Committee, when determining the academic profile of the University, has given priority to the economic demand for student places. However, the Planning Committee recognised that, in determining the distribution of students by discipline, account had also to be taken of the community demand for graduates educated to meet specific needs and of the demand from qualified applicants for places on courses of study. It is in determining these needs that the Planning Committee has met difficulties. Available manpower surveys project forward for a limited time-scale the vacancy positions in various industries and classify this informa- tion by required educational background and training. The classification of educational attainment is, however, specified simply in terms of echnologist” or echnician”, the former relating to both degree holders and higher diploma graduates. Such statistics do not provide any guidance as to the demand for degrees. The Census and Statistics Department produces figures showing the overall trend in the distribution of employees by economic sector for the years 1971, 1976, 1981 and 1986; this indicates a decline in the manufacturing sector, a substantial growth in the finance and business sector, limited growth in the transport and services fields, and fluctuation in the construction industry.
54. Information on the contribution of these economic sectors to the Gross Domestic Product covers only the period 1980-1984. The indications from this information are that the manufacturing sector has become more efficient and more capital intensive whilst the service sectors, such as financing, insurance, real estate and business services, are developing at an accelerating rate as Hong Kong economy continues to prosper.
55. Perhaps the only conclusion that can be drawn is that it is likely that students will select courses leading to qualifications which are in demand and, in many cases, recognised by the professional institutions, both locally and overseas, and better remuner- ated. Graduates will be attracted to those sectors of the economy showing growth patterns.
56. A recent report of an employment survey of graduates conducted by the Ap- pointments Service of CUHKcontained the interesting observation that in recent years there has been a growing trend for graduates’ career choices to become more diversified. In view of the constant changes in the socio-economic fabric this is perhaps inevitable and such di- versification may be beneficial both to the graduates themselves and to the community as a whole.
57. In recognition of the difficulties in formulating an academic profile and in view of Hong Kong dynamism, the Planning Committee considers that the best way forward is for the University to demonstrate flexibility, providing generalist rather than specialist undergraduate courses and allowing for multi-disciplinary cross fertilisation. In pursuance of this, the Planning Committee has in mind the adoption of a modular course structure on the grounds that it can be easily adapted to changes in the local situation.
58. Given the profile of Hong Kong industries, the Planning Committee has been advised that greater emphasis should be given to integrated courses which produce more multi-disciplined graduates. The Planning Committee has also noted a recent trend suggesting that increasing numbers of engineering and science graduates are being employed in activities not restricted to their undergraduate fields of study. As a result, the planning Committee is considering how the flexibility inherent in the modular system will allow the design of an enhanced study programme
example, Engineering and Management degrees, joint degrees or other awards.
enabling students to adequately combine, for leading to distinctive awards such as double
MAXIMISING THE UTILIZATION OF THE UNIVERSITY RESOURCES
59. The Planning Committee is aware that the modular system lends itself to the operation of courses throughout the year and has examined ways of maximising the utilization of the University resources. Among others, the Planning Committee has considered the arrangements in certain universities in Canada and the UK.
60. The University of Waterloo in Canada, for example, operates three 4-month terms each year and students can follow two systems of tuition. When a student chooses the Regular System, he follows the traditional 8-month academic year from September to April and the length of time needed to obtain a degree is three or four academic years depending on the programme. However, when a student chooses the alternative system, (the Co-op System), he alternates academic terms on campus with work terms off campus in business, industry, government, or professional organisations. The work-term experience comple- ments academic studies and provides the student with an opportunity to explore various career alternatives to gain experience in a particular area of career interest. A typical Co- op programme has eight academic terms (the normal 32 months for an honours programme) and six work terms (two years of work experience).
61. While attracted to this system of three 4-month terms and in particular to the Co-op system, the Planning Committee realises the difficulty of finding sufficient committed employers. It also considers a system of graduating students in two years appropriate only for a small number of students.
62. The Planning Committee recognises that it is for the Council of the University, when appointed, to consider whether a trimester or twelve month system should be adopted. If a decision to adopt such a system is taken, the Planning Committee offers the following advice:
such a system should be regarded as appropriate only for a limited number of students capable of working at a faster pace than normal;
to avoid confusion and administrative complexities and if students are to be encouraged to take classes in Schools other than their own, all Schools should employ the same time schedule;
the credit-based modular system could best be served by three equal 15-week terms with examinations at the end of each module term; and,
teaching staff should be called upon to teach two terms out of three. In the third term they could dedicate themselves to research, directing postgraduate students, consulting, travelling overseas for conferences or collaboration.
MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION
63. While recognising that the universities in Hong Kong are dependent on the school system and its output, the Planning Committee believes that in the modern free world, English is the principal language of engineering, technology and business, and that, graduates of the University must be conversant with English in order to enable them to benefit from
gainful employment, further education, and to keep abreast of developments. English, therefore, must be the major language of instruction. Nonetheless, in the context of Hong Kong, emphasis must also be placed on Chinese. Bilingualism is no longer regarded as a luxury and it is the Committee belief that a third language, for example Japanese, should also be made available.
64. Initially, the Planning Committee considered the academic profile in terms of the traditional faculties and departments, recommending that the courses should be broad and demanding, with an arts and humanities content, but decided to develop the academic profile by considering main degree programmes only. In this respect, having regard to the Government intention that the new University should be agrouping of schools emphasising science, technology, management and business studies, the Planning Committee has in mind the establishment of Schools of Engineering, Science, and Business and Management. It does not propose, however, to establish a School of Arts and Humanities but instead to establish a General Education Centre to undertake a service teaching role in the University. The General Education Centre would be independent of all Schools but located in such a manner as to provide it with a sense of identity. Although in the early years of the University the General Education Centre would not provide first degree courses, the Planning Committee nevertheless believes that if the Centre has strong postgraduate and research programmes, and it is involved in the electives and related studies of other Schools at first degree level, it will be sufficiently attractive to facilitate the recruitment of high calibre staff.
65. A preliminary model of the academic profile envisaged by the Planning Committee at this stage is attached at Appendix H.
DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENT NUMBERS
66. The Planning Committee considers that as an initial planning target the percentage distribution of the first degree programmes in the Schools of Engineering, Science and Business and Management should be 40%, 25% and 35% respectively. The postgraduate programme, calculated initially at 20% of total full-time and part-time equivalent (FTE) numbers, has been divided respectively between full-time and part-time programmes on a 30% and 70% basis in the Business and Management School and General Education Centre and on a 50%:50% basis in the Schools of Engineering and Science.
67. Adopting this approach and having regard to the Planning Committee terms of reference which stipulate that the University should provide degree places for 7,000 FTE students, with room for further development up to about 10,000, the 7,000 FTEs will be made up approximately as follows :
First degree programmes
Postgraduate programmes (including both full-time and part-time
students) Head Count 5,525 1,930 7,455 FTES 5,525 1,185 6,710
Details of the breakdown of student numbers from 1991/92 to 1999/2000 are provided in Appendices I-L.
68. UPGC :
These numbers are based on the following weightings stipulated by the
1 Full-time Undergraduate or Postgraduate student equivalent to 1 FTE 1 Part-time Postgraduate student equivalent to 0.5 FTE
PLANNED GROWTH OF THE STUDENT POPULATION
69. For planning purposes, the Planning Committee has considered in detail the planned growth in the student population to approximately 7,000 FTEs and details are provided in Appendix I of how this can be achieved in 1995/96 and how, should Government decide to expand the student population to 10,000, this could be achieved as early as 1998/ 99.
70. The build up of student numbers shown in Appendix I assumes the following :
(a) the University will enrol its first students and commence teaching on its campus in October 1991;
(b) the initial courses, which will be on the first phase development at Tai PO Tsai, will be in areas which do not require large specialist accom- modation or major physical services (however, phasing proposed in the design eventually selected for development of the campus may make it possible to revise the courses offered in the initial phase);
(c) the second phase development to 7,000 FTEs at Tai PO Tsai will not be completed until 1993 and this will preclude the commencement of courses in heavy engineering until October 1993 (however, should the
phasing proposed in the master plan design allow, it may be possible to start early or, alternatively, the use of facilities in other tertiary institutions could be explored); and
(d) it is assumed that it will be possible to recruit staff in the time scale required to support the teaching programme.
71. Appendix J demonstrates, for planning purposes, a detailed growth in the undergraduate population in the School of Engineering in terms of the possible discipline areas that could be offered from the proposed preliminary model for the academic profile. Appendices K and L provide a similar pattern for the Schools of Science and Business and Management. However, as the detailedgrowth pattern based ondiscipline areas in these two Schools has not yet been decided, only total student numbers have been shown. Appendix M provides a growth pattern for postgraduate students in the Schools of Engineering, Science, Business and Management and in the General Education Centre.
72. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Ordinance provides for
the appointment of a Vice-Chancellor supported by up to three Pro-Vice-Chancellors; it also makes provision for Deans to head the Schools or Faculties. Under the Ordinance, the Vice- Chancellor and the Pro-Vice-Chancellors are to be appointed by the Council, the latter upon recommendation of the Vice-Chancellor. The thinking of the Planning Committee is that the Deans would also hold office by appointment rather than by election although this will be something to be considered by the Vice-Chancellor.
73. For planning purposes, staffing requirements have been prepared in terms of the likely number and levels of posts. Until such time as posts, and in particular non-academic posts, are titled, the following 11 levels are regarded as a sufficiently detailed base to form establishments for academic and non-academic areas in the University :
Academic Staff - Professor
Reader/Senior Lecturer Lecturer/Assistant Lecturer
Non-Academic Staff - Executive Officer Personal Secretary Clerical Staff Chief Technician Senior Technician Technician Other Staff -2l-
74. The University will be capable by 1995/96 of providing places for 7,000 FTEs and the estimated academic requirements presented in Appendix N cover the period from 1989/90 to 1995/96. The estimates assume that senior academic planning staff will be in post about eighteen months before courses commence.
75. The academic staffing estimates show that the overall student: staff ratio, including academic staff in the Language Centre, is 7 to 1 in 1991192 but increases to 11 to 1 by 1994/95. This is consistent with the ratios in the other universities in Hong Kong.
76. The estimated non-academic staff requirements are presented in Appendix 0. It has not yet been decided how the Central Administration will operate but it is assumed that it will provide similar administrative services in the same areas covered by the existing universities in Hong Kong and, although the posts have not been defined, they have been included in the staffing estimates. As the University will begin operation in 1991 it is assumed that a substantial number of Central Administration staff should be in post by 1989/90 and the proposed staff establishments include a substantial degree of front loading to enable the University to establish the necessary procedures and operations to recruit staff, formulate regulations, recruit students, and develop financial systems.
77. In addition to Central Administration, the staffing estimates include the following support areas :
Educational Technology Unit Language Centre
Centralised Laboratories and Workshops Research Centre
Technology Transfer Unit Industrial Training Centre Student Affairs Office Estates Office
78. The staffing estimates for the Library envisage operations being established in 1989/90 to procure the necessary book stock needed to support the courses planned for 1991/92. The Planning Committee considers also that key staff in the Estates Office, the Computer Centre and the Educational Technology Unit should be recruited in 1989/90. The recruitment of staff in the other support areas should commence in 1990/91.
79. Having decided to adopt a modular course structure and to develop pro- grammes of study containing a degree of common subject teaching, the Planning Committee considered the physical development of the campus in relation to the proposed academic developments. The Planning Committee is concerned that the physical environment is capable of supporting the implementation of the modular course structure which can succeed only if there is interaction and communication between staff in different academic disci- plines; it is considered equally important that the layout of accommodation and its location in relation to related disciplines contribute to this interaction.
80. The Planning Committee has made considerable progress in developing the academic profile and decided to establish Schools of Engineering, Science, and Business and Management and a General Education Centre which would undertake a service teaching role. The accommodation in each School and the General Education Centre would include staff and departmental offices, tutorial classroom space, space for dedicated research and some communal space. The latter should include meeting rooms, information centres and some social space where staff and students can meet informally. The purpose of providing communal space is to encourage staff and students from different, but related, disciplines to meet and discuss matters of mutual interest. The physical environment provided should be an incentive to staff to develop their own disciplines in relation to others and to promote the development of new courses comprising a combination of disciplines.
81. The Schools of Engineering and Science require substantial specialist accom- modation, comprising mainly laboratories and workshops, and, as specialist equipment is ex- pensive and represents a considerable investment in resources, it is considered that as far as possible, the specialist resources that can be shared should be centralised; the laboratories and workshops should be centrally managed as far as practicable although limited facilities for research should be provided in the Schools and General Education Centre.
82. As the modular course structure is expected to generate a significant require- ment for large lecture theatres, these should also be located centrally, and equipped with audio and visual aids. Centrally located lecture theatres offer the added advantage of bringing students out of their respective Schools and providing one of the focal points on campus where students from different disciplines come into contact. Student numbers will determine how many other theatres, in what range of sizes, will have to be provided.
83. The teaching support services comprise traditionally the Library, Educational Technology Unit and the Computer Centre. Modern developments, however, relating to audio/video hardware and campus networking have been introduced and it is proposed that a centrally located Learning Resources Centre be established which combines the functions of all three. Also incorporated into the Learning Resources Centre would be a Language Centre with language laboratories to provide not only language instruction but remedial teaching. The establishment of a Learning Resources Centre will make the best possible use
of the latest teaching aids and allow them to become more readily available to the students.
84. As a means of attracting high calibre academic staff, the University will place emphasis on postgraduate studies and research. A centralised Research Centre, comprising the latest developments in controlled experiment conditions, will be established. This will be complemented by the location of limited and smaller research facilities in the Schools and General Education Centre, to allow for the casual interaction of undergraduate, postgradu- ate and research students. The Planning Committee has in mind that space should be allocated on campus for a Technology Transfer Unit/Incubation Centre, to be located near the Research Centre, which will capitalise on the research work, much of which will have an industrial base.
85. The requirement for students of the University to have industrial training is of paramount importance. The Planning Committee, however, believes that the number of local companies able to provide this may not be adequate and that, furthermore, facilities available in other institutions are already fully committed. It is, therefore, clear to the Committee that an Industrial Training Centre must be provided on campus.
86. A diagram showing the conceptual relationships between the various aca- demic units is presented in Appendix P and this, together with the associated area requirement, forms the basis of the architectural brief for the Master Plan of the campus.
87. In estimating the area requirements for the University, it has been assumed that the University campus will develop in three phases :
Phase I -
Phase II -
Phase III -
for about 2,000 FTEs by 1 May 1991, allowing a 1 October 1991 opening; for about 7,000 FTEs by 1 May 1993,
enabling an additional 5,000 FTEs to be admitted; and for expansion to about 10,000 FTEs sometime later.
These dates, of course, are subject to Government and UPGC approval and refer to physical readiness and not actual student intake. For example, whilst the completion of all works contracts should ensure that the campus is capable of accommodating 7,000 FTEs by 1 May 1993, the student intake in October of that same year will not increase the student population to 7,000 but will gradually build up to that number before Phase III becomes available.
88. It is estimated that the indicative floor area required for the campus buildings, i.e. academic, administration, amenities and housing, under each phase is :
Phase II (including Phase I) Phase III (including Phase II)
Net Area Gross Area
36,500 5 1,000
227,000 3 18,000
89. The net figures represent the basic design requirement but to these a balance area must be added to give the total built gross area required. Although in practice the balance area varies for each category of space, the overall average is around 40%.
90. Estimates of area requirements have been based on a detailed analysis of the distribution of students in the Schools of Study and the contribution of the General Education Centre in its servicing role to these Schools.
91. Estimated space requirements for each phase of development of the Univer- sity are summarised in Appendix Q. The assumptions and space norms used are presented in Appendix R.
INDICATIVE RECURRENT COSTS
92. The recurrent financial estimates have been prepared for each year from 1989/90 to 1995/96. They are presented in detail in Appendix S with a number of explanatory notes. It is assumed that grants from the Government through the UPGCwillcommence with the triennium 1991-94 but that funding for the earlier period will be provided directly from Government.
The estimates show that the following subventions, at 1987 prices, will be
1991192 161 1992193 245 1993194 335 1994195 419 1995196 542 Subvention (HK$ M) - 25 -
The Planning Committee stresses at this stage that the estimates are very much an initial indication of expenditure. They have been based on a detailed model of the University which includes the distribution of student numbers and proposed departmental establishments. These parameters are clearly very tentative and will be subject to substantial modifications when the Vice-Chancellor and senior staff of the University are in post. The purpose, however, in building up costs from a detailed model of the University is to ensure that there are no major omissions and that the overall total recurrent costs will be reasonably close to the actual required level of expenditure.
94. The following indicative capital costs, at 1987 prices, have been prepared for Phases I and II of the campus project which will be capable of accommodating 7,000 F students.
HK% Million 0 a Academic. Administration and Amenities (buildin&
91,500m2 net area (NA) x 1.6
= 146,400m2 gross floor area (GFA) @ $4,100/m2
(Note 1) 600
(b) Amenities - External Games Areas
100,000m2 @ $ 1,200/m2 120
0 C Housing - Staff (50% Senior Staff on camnusl
34,535m2 NA x 1.3
44,896m2 GFA @ $4,430/m2
(Note 2) 200
(4 Housing: - Students (30%)
2,100 students x $56,00O/student (based on recent
HKU experience) 118
Landscaning; and External works Lump Sum
(Note 2) 30
Possible Additional Site Formation and Drainage Works Lump Sum
(g) Professional Fees
12% of Construction Cost (a) to (f)
(h) Furniture 12.5% of (a), (c) and (d) ($918M) 0 i Contingencies Lump Sum 50 134 115 100 INDICATIVE CAPITAL COSTS
(Note 1) (Note 2)
TOTAL 1,467 (Note 3)
Rate taken directly from that approved by UPGC for the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong.
Figures taken directly from 19 January 1987 Preliminary Estimate of capital cost prepared by the Director of Architectural Services.
Excluding inflation and equipment