The Product Development Process

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Food Science behind Food Product Development (Re-run)

4 JULY 2017

Presented by Ivy Ng, HKU SPACE

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Content

Introduction

The Product Development Process

Idea Generation and Screening

Sensory Evaluation

Food Safety and labelling

Verification and Validation

Conclusion

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Definition

Product Development: The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and

evaluation, and commercialization of a new product.

The Product Development and Management Association

The PDMA Hand Book 1st Edition

.

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Definitions

New Food Products New Food Products New Food Products New Food Products:

1. A product not previously manufactured by a company and introduced by that company into its marketplace or into a new marketplace, or

2. The presentation or rebranding by a company of an established product in a new form, a new package or under a new label into a market not previously explored by that company

New Food Product Development:

From concept to marketplace

Gordon W. Fuller

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Definition

• Innovation is the specific instrument of entrepreneurship... the act that endows resources with a new capacity to create wealth.

Peter Drucker

• INNOVATION

• 1: the introduction of something new

• 2: a new idea, method, or device : novelty

Merriam-Webster dictionary

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Understanding The Definitions

Discuss what this means in the Food Industry

• Nature of product – new, extension or improvement

• New technology – ingredient, process and/or machinery

• Packaging

• Labeling and regulatory controls

• Market segment

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Consider the case of no-name labels or supermarket brand products….

• The products are purchased from a food manufacturer

• Can be a retailer or even a discount or fusion line by the manufacturer.

• All the cost, technical know-how, market research and risks are borne by the food manufacturer.

 Suggest examples of a no-name/supermarket brand, a retailer and a possible

product

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Line Extensions

• Little time or research

• No major manufacturing changes in processing lines or major equipment purchases

• Relatively little change in marketing strategy

• No new purchasing skills [commodity trading] or raw material sources

• No new storage or handling techniques for either the raw ingredients or the final product i.e. regular distribution systems can be used.

 Suggest examples of line extensions?

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New Form or size of existing product

• Highly variable impact on research and development

• Highly variable impact on physical plant and

manufacturing capabilities. Major equipment purchases may be required if manufacturing to be done in-house.

• Marketing and sales resources will require extensive reprogramming

 Suggest a new form or size of existing product.

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Reformulation of existing product

• Moderate research and development required consistent with reformulation goal

• Little impact on physical facilities

• Little impact on marketing and sales resources unless reformulation leads to repositioning of product

 Suggest examples where this case may occur

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Repackaging of existing product

• The novelty of the repackaging will dictate the amount and degree of research and development required

• Slight impact on physical facilities. New packaging equipment will be required.

• Little impact on marketing, sales and distribution resources

 Suggest examples

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Innovative products

• Amount of research and development dependent on the nature of the innovation

• Highly variable impact on manufacturing capabilities

• Possible heavy impact on marketing and sales resources

• Technically difficult requiring familiarity of science, product nature and

target market.

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Creative products

• Heavy need for extensive research and development i.e.

costly

• Extensive development time required

• May require entirely new plant and equipment. Degree of creativity may require development of unique or

specialised equipment

• Will require total revision of marketing and sales forces.

Creation of a new company or brand may be required.

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 Controlled atmosphere packaging

 Tetrapacks

 Fish based gelatin

 Microencapsulation technology: flavours, colours, neutraceuticals

 Genetic Modification;

enriching foods, production yields, resistance

 Food extrusion -

pasta, cereals, baby food, snacks, pet treats

 Nutritional value

-

Omega 3,6, DHA, prebiotics (oligosaccharides), probiotics (LAB,bifidobacteria)

 Natural sweeteners, colours, antioxidants and preservatives

 Biodegradable packaging, edible packaging

*

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What makes a good Idea?

• Understanding your product category

• Does it appeal to your target market?

• Will it be cost prohibitive to manufacture, promote and sell?

• Knowledge:

• Does your company understand the need for this product

• How to package this product

• How to promote or market this product

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Timing

• Timing is incredibly important.

• Your product may be seasonal, it may be on trend or it may be too early to be introduced to the market

• Your staff may need time to familiarise themselves with the product or further training

• Your marketing plan may need to be extended to introduce the product or to promote the right message

• The General public may not be ready for your product.

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Sources of Product Ideas –

do you think this is a complete list?

General Source Specific Impetus Providing Inspiration

The Marketplace Market research to identify customer and consumer needs; customer profiling Retail data of buying habits of customers

Distributors expressing their requirements for products and problems they encounter when interacting with in-store customers

Customer and consumer communication through complaints, letters, calls etc

Within the Company Sales force’s interaction with retail buyers, individual customers in store and from observations of competitive products and placement within stores

Government pressure or incentives to innovate Ideas generated from employees

Environment outside the marketplace

National and international trade exhibitions where new machinery, food products and ingredients are displayed

Competitive intelligence gathering

Competitors’ new products requiring marketplace retaliation

Food and cooking literature providing ideas on ethnic cuisine and new recipes

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Companies do not need the “perfect idea” but a “Good idea”

Why? Because good ideas will :

Satisfy the needs and desires of a company’s target consumers and therefore attract customers.

Ideally, come from those who will need and use the product

Satisfy the goals for new product success set by senior management

Lead to profitable products according to criteria set by management.

Respect certain financial impositions set by management i.e. be developable within certain budgetary and time constraints

Be within the marketability and sales skills of the company

• To summarise, the ideas can be developed within the skill level, technical

capabilities, and managerial and financial resources of the company i.e. the core

competencies of the company are considered to be good ideas

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 Idea Generation



Idea Screening

 Concept Development &

Testing

 Marketing Strategy Development



Business Analysis

 Product Development

Test Marketing

Basic Product Development Process

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Basic Product Development Process

DESIGN

Idea Generation

Idea Screening

Concept Development &

Testing

DEVELOPMENT

Marketing Strategy Development

Business Analysis

Product Development

PRODUCTION

Test Marketing

Product Launch

Commercialization

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Your role in Product Development

• Everyone has a part to play in Product Development

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Concept Objective testing

Subjective testing

Consumer preference

testing

Product design

Bench-top product

Pilot plant production

Commercial plant production

Market test and evaluation

Process design

Pilot process

Plant production

Idealised representation of activities flow in product development

Adapted from fig 2.2 New Food Product Development 3rdEd. G.W. Fuller

M a

r k e t i n g

F o o d T e c h n o l o g i s t s

E n g i n e e r i n g & P r o d u c t i o n

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Typical Product Life Cycle

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Profit Picture

• Introductory phases have minimal net profit due to R&D, promotion costs etc.

Often start at a LOSS

• Net profits are greater than expenses towards the end of the growth phase

• Profits improve during maturity but start to decrease towards the end of this phase.

• Profits steadily decrease during decline phase

• To keep profits flowing and maintain viability of the company, replacement products must be ready for launching.

i.e. the company should always have products ready to launch , in consumer

testing or being screened

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Preferred Product Life Cycle

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Success is not guaranteed

• Differing estimates on the success rate of new products from 1 in 6 to 1 in 20

• Skarra (1998): 1 in 58 product ideas is developed into a successful new product

[Leslie Skarra CEO Merlin Foods provides R&D Services]

• Difficult to assess failures:

• At what stage of the process is the product determined to be a failure?

• After launch when market share criteria are not met?

• What is a ‘satisfactory market share’?

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So why develop new products?

when its difficult, costly and lacking assurance for success

The failure rate is so high that Product Development is considered a commercial gamble.

The rewards, however, can mean the continued profitability of the company

Food companies cannot ignore new product development as a means to grow

and survive.

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General Criteria for screening New Product Development

To Summarise:

• Marketability

• Technical feasibility

• Manufacturing capability

• Financial capability

 Discuss what areas are weakest if you’re making a copy-cat product i.e.

following your competitors

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Definition

“Sensory evaluation comprises a set of techniques for

accurate measurement of human responses to foods and minimises the potentially biasing effects of brand identity and other information influences on consumer perception”

Sensory Evaluation of Food: principles and practices. 2nd Ed.

H.T. Lawless, H. Heymann 2010

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Definition

“A scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze and interpret those responses to

products that are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing.”

Sensory Evaluation Practices. 2nd ed.

Stone, H and Sidel, JL. 1993.

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What are your Five Senses?

Sight Smell Touch Taste

Hearing

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How is Sensory Evaluation Used?

• In a food company, sensory scientists work closely with product developer’s to understand:

• What consumers like and why

• If consumers can tell a difference when they change a product (e.g. substitute an ingredient)

• In academia, sensory scientists:

• Try to understand how our senses work and how our senses respond to stimuli (both from food and chemicals)

• Improve testing methodology

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Why use Sensory Evaluation?

• Scientific evaluation and analysis to

• Reduce uncertainty

• Reduce risks in decision making

• Ensures a cost-efficient delivery of new products with high consumer acceptability [meeting consumer demands]

• Humans vs Machines

• Humans can be more sensitive than machines to odours, taste

• Machines cannot measure preference or liking

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Location, location, location!!!

• How do you feel when studying in a quiet library or a noisy common room?

• Why do airplanes now have complicated mood lighting patterns on long-haul flights?

• Does the ambience of a restaurant affect how you feel about the food?

• Lighting

• Music

• Smells/odours

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Colour association

• Name a red food

• Yellow?

• Green?

• Brown?

• Blue?

• What flavour is it?

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Colour perception - taste

• Stronger colours equal stronger flavours and/or

more fruitiness

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 Will the purple cauliflower taste different to the regular cauliflower?

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Colour perception - portions

What's With the Color of Your Plate?

Van Ittersum, Koert, & Wansink, B. (2012). Plate size and color suggestibility: The Delboeuf illusion's bias on serving and eating behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 215-228

The Delboeuf illusion,

 Named after the Belgian scientist who discovered it in 1865

 Weak colour contrast between the plate and your food induces you to take a larger serving

 If your goal is to eat less, select plates that have high contrast with what you plan to serve for dinner.

 Want to eat more greens? Try serving them on a green plate!

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Principles of Good Practice

• Facilities should be well designed

• White or off-white colour

• Lighting should be controlled

• There should be good ventilation

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Principles of Good Practice

• Samples should be prepared properly

• Temperature should be controlled and the same for all samples

• Volume served should be equal for all samples

• Samples should be served at equivalent shelf-life or time since cooking/preparation

Need to minimize discrepancies which may give false results

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Principles of Good Practice

• Experimental Design Considerations

• Samples should be labeled with random 3-digit codes to avoid bias

• Samples should be served in random or counterbalanced order

• Counterbalanced order means that if 2 samples are served, half of the subjects receive one sample first and the other half receive the other sample first

• Counterbalancing takes into account order effects

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Sensory Evaluation Methods

• The goal is to match the right test with the right question

Are the products different?

How are they different?

What is the

acceptability of one product over another?

• Discrimination Tests

• Triangle Test

• Duo-Trio Test

• Paired Comparison

• Descriptive Analysis

• Trained Panellists

• Affective/Hedonic Tests

• Preference Tests

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Discrimination Tests

• Basic Question: Are two products different from one another?

• Basic Setup

• 25-50 panelists

• Screened for acuity

(keenness or sharpness of perception, i.e. can they smell and taste well?)

• Given triangle, duo-trio or paired comparison tests

• Analysis is done using tables which compare results to chance – this analysis ensures that the difference was real and not because people chose the correct sample by luck/chance

• Advantage

• Quick and simple

• Limitations

• Limited results – only yes they are different or no they are not

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Discrimination Tests

• Question: Are two products different from one another?

Choose the sample that is most different

498 221 746

A A B

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Discrimination Tests

• Question: Are two products different from one another?

: Choose the sample that matches the reference sample Duo –Trio

In front of you are two coded samples and a reference

sample B. One of the coded samples is identical to the reference B. Evaluate the samples and circle the code of the sample that is

IDENTICAL to the reference B. Thank you!

B 221 986

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Discrimination Tests

• Question: Are two products different from one another?

• Paired Comparison Test: Which sample is sweeter?

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Discrimination Tests

• Triangle Test: Choose the sample that is most different

• Duo-trio Test: Choose the sample that matches the reference sample

• Paired Comparison Test: Which sample is sweeter?

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Descriptive Tests

• Basic Question: How do products differ in all sensory attributes?

• Basic Setup

• 8-12 panelists

• Screened for acuity

• Trained

• Asked to rate intensity for all sensory attributes

• Analysis is done using a t-test to determine if means are statistically different

• Advantages

• Detailed quantitative information

• Limitations

• Time consuming

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Descriptive Tests

• Most food companies have a panel that is trained on each of their products

• To train a panel takes several weeks to months

• There are several different methods of training

Quantitative Descriptive Analysis

• Sensory Spectrum

• Flavor Profile

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Descriptive Tests

• What does trained mean?

• It means that the panelists are trained to evaluate products similar to how any instrument would give a reading

• In essence, the panelists are calibrated so that they have an understanding of each attribute and the range of

intensity

• For example, a trained panel would be

a given a sample of grape juice and

would be able to rate the level of

turbidity, color, viscosity, etc..

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Descriptive Tests

• Mean attribute ratings are calculated, statistics is used to determine if the means are significantly different

• The data can be plotted onto graphs – such as the spider plot – to easily

compare samples

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Consumer Acceptance Tests

• Basic Question: Are the products liked?

• Basic Setup

• 75-150 consumers per test

• Screened for product use

(Do they buy the product? And how often?)

• Asked degree of liking

(how much do they like it) and/or preference questions

• Advantages

• Provides essential information – Do they like it or not?

• Disadvantages

• May be difficult to get a representative sample of consumers

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Consumer Acceptance Tests

• Used to measure how much people like a product

• There are several types of scales that can be used

• Quartermaster Corp. 9-point hedonic (liking) scale. [Most commonly used]

9 LIKE EXTREMELY

8 LIKE VERY MUCH

7 LIKE MODERATELY

6 LIKE SLIGHTLY

5 NEITHER LIKE NOR DISLIKE

4 DISLIKE SLIGHTLY

3 DISLIKE MODERATELY

2 DISLIKE VERY MUCH

1 DISLIKE EXTREMELY

• The Smiley Scale Used with children Sample Ballot

Taste each product in the order listed. Circle how much you like the product.

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Consumer Acceptance Tests

• Preference Tests

• The “Pepsi Challenge” type of test that is widely used in marketing research

• Used to determine which product is preferred, although people have the option to choose “no preference”

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Statistical Analysis

• The more information you have, the more you know – right?

• The science of sensory evaluation uses statistics to eliminate the likelihood of false results

i.e.. accurate interpretation of the data

• Sample group size,

incorrect/misleading/invalid answers, comparable to the market population, margins of error

• We now use T-tables or pc programmes to calculate the margin of error, standard deviation etc.

• What does this mean?

• To eliminate errors and obtain the most probable interpretation of the data.

• To prevent us from concluding that a treatment had an effect when none was really present and our differences were merely due to chance or experimental error variation

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The Consumer’s role

Test Characteristic Sensory Test Product Concept Test

Conducted by Sensory Evaluation Dept. Marketing Research Dept.

Primary end user of information Research and Development Marketing

Product Labelling Blind-minimal concept Full-conceptual presentation

Sensory tests versus product concept tests

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Qualitative Consumer Research

• Consumer Research Agencies

• Interviews

• Focus Groups

• Market Research surveys

The task is to provide the simplest format to the consumer in order for you to gain the relevant information

Common mistakes include:

 Confusing questions; need brevity, plain language,

 Avoid vague questions; do not lead the respondent, be aware of wording, ambiguity and open-ended questions

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Test Markets

Advantages Disadvantages

Information about the effectiveness of product, pricing, packaging and marketing strategies is obtained

They can be very costly ventures They are time-consuming

Information about retail reaction is obtained Sales force is diverted to new product launch possible to the detriment of regular products

Information about competitive counter action is seen, and protocols can be developed to thwart the competition

Test markets warn competition of company activity

Development protocols are justified A successful test market does not foretell a successful full-scale launch

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Let’s change what???

• Ingredients

• Availability, supplier problems, quality problems,

• Packaging material

• Permitted chemicals, specifications, supplier problems

• Product Specification

• Trials, testing and focus groups should the need to change, redefine the target market,

• Labelling

• New regulations and restrictions,

• Launch date

• Circumstances dictate a change in launch date, revised marketing plan, Corporate decision not to launch or to accelerate the marketing/launch date.

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Are you keeping relevant records?

• What formulations have you tried?

• What was the result?

• What did you decide to change?

• Did you keep a record of changes in

• Taste

• Appearance

• Size

• Texture

• Aroma

• Was the product improved?

• What next?

To prevent repetition and mistakes, its essential to keep good documentation

What if your development deviates from the original request?

Good documentation is all

inclusive

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Product Date: Trial #:

Ingredients Method

Cooking/Baking/Equipment Instructions:

Expected Quantity:

Result

Formulation

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Product Name Date: Trial #:

Ingredients Quantity Ingredient

Method

Results & Comments Quantity Produced:

Action Proposed Changes:

Trial Record

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Information required about your product before planning a timeline

Item Departments Reason

Ingredients R&D /QA

Purchasing /Procurement Factory,

Finance Marketing

Certification, supplier audit, specification

Formulation Quality and shelf-life, labelling, Nutrition Facts, Product Specifications; size, weight, height, volume, taste,

texture, flavour, aroma, special characteristics e.g.

high fibre, low fat etc.

Packaging Purchasing, Engineering,

Marketing – Art dept.

R&D,

Finance & Legal Factory

Dimensions, packaging material specifications and quality, packaging layout

Artwork,

Quality and certification

Labelling, bar codes, regulations

Packaging trials- safe to use in factory

Cost All departments

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Project Timelines

• Timelines samples are available online

• Various timeline styles from simple to complex and detailed depending on the degree of development

• Can use simple Excel spreadsheet to complex Gantt timelines

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Recommended format for Nutrition labelling

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Nutrient Reference Value (NRV) is derivedfor nutrition labelling purposes making reference to the recommended intake levels of various nutrients.

It is based on a 2000-kcal diet.

The set of Chinese NRVs are more applicable for people in Hong Kong and the Mainland because they are derived for Chinese.

e.g. the Chinese NRV of saturated fat is 20g,which means based on a 2000-kcal diet, we should aim at eating not more than 20g of saturated fat per day.

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Criteria to assess Shelf life

Criteria Changes

Microbial change Total plate counts, Colony forming units.

Counts of specific microorganisms of public health or economic significance. e.g. E.coli, Salmonella spp,

Nutritional change The loss of a nutrient might be chosen. This nutrient should one for which the food products is a significant source e.g. Calcium in milk, Vitamin C in orange juice

Loss or change in colour Loss or change of colour or the production of breakdown colour compounds. Exudation or drip loss, moisture transfer, shrinkage, malodour production

Change in functional property

Loss of functional property e.g. ability to whip, to colour, to flavour, to foam, to leaven or to set

Undesirable textural change:

Hardening, softening, staling, loss of crispness, development of graininess, viscosity etc

Curiale 1991

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Conditions of shelf life testing?

What conditions should shelf life testing be held? Ideal or abusive conditions

• Temperature & light

• Physical abuse

• Environmental abuse

• Travel tests

• Microbial load; tests GMP and HACCP effectiveness.

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Types of Test

• Static Test

The product is stored for a given period of time under a given set of

environmental conditions selected as most representative of the conditions to which with product will be subjected

• Accelerated Test

The product is stored under a range of some environmental variables e.g.

temperature

• Use/Abuse Test

The product is cycled through some environmental variables.

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Certification

• The need for 3

rd

party or an internationally recognized

certification applies whether you’re a local food supplier or a multinational

• Today, food safety/quality is a major concern of governments, food suppliers and the consumer

• Who can you trust?

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Which certification?

• ISO – International Organization of Standardization

• BRC – British Retail Consortium

• GFSI – Global Food Safety Initiative

• SQF – Safe Quality Food

• IFS – International Food Safety

• FSSC – Food Safety System Certification 22000

• Global GAP – Good Agricultural Practices

• HACCP

Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points

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At this point:

Basic idea for a new product

Initial test sample to test viability

Assessment/Review of your test sample

Decision to revise or fine- tune your sample

Decision to revise your new product idea

Ask yourself: Is your product

? Exciting? Boring and Safe?

? Something new or special to the market [USP?]

? Something wanted or needed by the market

? Something with the potential to develop into a long term success?

? Just a gimmick/short term idea?

? Can it be easily replicated, replaced or improved by a competitor?

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10 Legal requirement s for labelling food packaging

1. Product Name

2. Product Description

3. Manufacturer’s name and address 4. Weight or Volume of product

5. Allergy advice 6. Country of Origin 7. List of Ingredients 8. Date Marking

9. Instructions for use 10. Storage Instructions

* Refer to the HK Govt. website for HK Labelling laws

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Test Marketing

• The Product and Marketing programmes are introduced into a more realistic

market setting

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Verification & Validation

www.123rf.com

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Design Verification;

before product launch

• Specifications:

• Size, taste, texture, colour, appearance

• Quality documentation Design Validation;

after product launch

• Sales volumes,

• Customer feedback

How well do you know your product?

 Product Specifications

 Product Quality Assurance

 Process parameters

 Product Knowledge

 Pricing

 Marketing

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Any questions?

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References

Textbook references:

• Fuller, Gordon W. (2011). New food product development :

from concept to marketplace. 3

rd

ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

• Tybout, Alice M. Calder Bobby J. [2010]. Kellogg on marketing.

2

nd

ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

• Diamond, Jared (1997), Guns, Germs, and Steel, New York: W.W.

Norton

• Lawless, H. T., & Heymann, H. (2010). Sensory evaluation of

food: principles and practices. New York: Springer.

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References

Online references:

• http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-archive1/augustseptember-2014/a-new- paradigm-for-validation-verification-and-monitoring/

• http://www.iit.edu/ifsh/resources_and_tools/pdfs/preventive_controls_white_paper.pdf

• http://www.foodprocessing.com.au/content/business-solutions/article/verification-and- validation-1335816537

• http://www.foodqualityandsafety.com/article/verification-validation-key-to-helping-food- companies-comply-with-gfsi-standards/?singlepage=1

• http://www.iit.edu/ifsh/resources_and_tools/pdfs/preventive_controls_white_paper.pdf

• http://testingbasicinterviewquestions.blogspot.hk/2012/01/difference-between-verification- and.html

• www.fda.org

• www.british-assessment.co.uk

• www.particlesciences.com

• www.ptm-consulting.com

• www.biochemia-medica.com

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食品研究與開發背後的食品科學原理 (重辦)

4 JULY 2017

Presented by Ivy Ng, HKU SPACE

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課題

引言

產品研發過程

意念衍生和篩選

感官評估

食品安全和標籤

驗證與確認

結論

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定義

Product Development: The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and

evaluation, and commercialization of a new product.

The Product Development and Management Association The PDMA Hand Book 1st Edition

. 翻譯

產品研發:策略,組織,概念衍生,產品和市場營銷計劃的創作和評估,及 新產品商業化的整個過程。

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定義

New Food Products New Food Products New Food Products New Food Products:

1. A product not previously manufactured by a company and introduced by that company into its marketplace or into a new marketplace, or

2. The presentation or rebranding by a company of an established product in a new form, a new package or under a new label into a market not previously explored by that company

New Food Product Development:

From concept to marketplace Gordon W. Fuller

翻譯 新食品 新食品 新食品 新食品: : : : 1. 1.

1. 1. 以往未曾生產過的 以往未曾生產過的 以往未曾生產過的 以往未曾生產過的產 產 產 產品 品 品 品, , , ,由該公司引入其市場或新市場 由該公司引入其市場或新市場 由該公司引入其市場或新市場 由該公司引入其市場或新市場, , , ,或 或 或 或 2. 2.

2. 2. 公司以新形式 公司以新形式 公司以新形式 公司以新形式, , , ,新包裝或新標籤展示或重新品牌塑造現有產品到該公 新包裝或新標籤展示或重新品牌塑造現有產品到該公 新包裝或新標籤展示或重新品牌塑造現有產品到該公 新包裝或新標籤展示或重新品牌塑造現有產品到該公 司未曾探索過的市場

司未曾探索過的市場

司未曾探索過的市場

司未曾探索過的市場

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定義

• Innovation is the specific instrument of entrepreneurship... the act that endows resources with a new capacity to create wealth.

Peter Drucker

翻譯

• 創新是創業的具體工具...賦予資源新的能力來創造財富。

• INNOVATION

• 1: the introduction of something new

• 2: a new idea, method, or device : novelty

Merriam-Webster dictionary

翻譯

• 創新

• 1: 引進一些新的東西

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了解定義

討論在食品工業的含義

• 產品性質 - 新,延伸或改進

• 新技術 - 材料,過程和/或機械

• 包裝

• 標籤和監管控制

• 市場細分

(87)

考慮無名品牌或超市品牌產品的情況...

• 產品從食品製造商購買。

• 可以是零售商,甚至是製造商的折扣或混合線。

• 所有的成本,技術知識,市場研究和風險都由食品製 造商承擔。

 舉出一些無名品牌/超市品牌的零售商和產品例子

(88)

產品線延伸

• 時間或研究不足

• 生產時,在加工線或主要設備採購方面沒有重大變化

• 市場營銷策略的變化相對較小

• 沒有新的採購技能[商品貿易]或原材料來源

• 沒有為原材料或最終產品使用新的儲存或處理技術,例如:

使用常規分配系統。

 舉出一些產品線延伸的例子。

(89)

現有產品的新形狀或尺寸

• 對研究及發展有大量可變的影響。

• 對廠房設備和生產能力有大量可變的影響。 如果要自 行製造,可能需要採購新的主要設備。

• 將需要大規模地重新編排市場營銷和銷售資源。

 舉出一些現有產品的新形式或尺寸的例子。

(90)

重組現有的產品

• 適度的研究及開發需要和新目標相符

• 對廠房設備影響不大

• 對市場營銷和銷售資源的影響不大,除非重組令產品 需要重新定位

 舉出一些可能發生這種情況的例子。

(91)

重新包裝現有產品

• 重新包裝的新穎性將決定所需的研究及開發的數量和 程度

• 對廠房設備的影響輕微。可能需要新的包裝設備。

• 對市場營銷,市場銷售和分銷資源的影響不大

 舉出一些例子。

(92)

創新產品

• 研究及開發的數量取決於創新的性質

• 對製造能力有大量可變的影響

• 可能對市場營銷和銷售資源造成重大的影響

• 對科學,產品性質和目標市場的熟悉能幫助解決技術上困難。

(93)

創意產品

• 需要深入的研究及開發,成本將會是昂貴的

• 需要大量的開發時間

• 可能需要全新的工廠和設備。 創意的程度可能需要開 發獨特或專門的設備

• 將需要對市場營銷和銷售力進行全面修訂。 有可能需 要建立新公司或品牌。

• 高失敗的風險 高失敗的風險 高失敗的風險 高失敗的風險

(94)

 控氣包裝

 利樂包

 魚類明膠

 微囊化技術:香料,色素,保健品

 基因改造; 豐富食品,生產產量,抗性

 擠壓食品 - 麵食,穀物,嬰兒食品,小吃,寵物食品

 營養價值 - Omega 3,6,DHA,益生元(低聚醣),益生菌(LAB,雙歧桿菌)

 天然甜味劑,色素,抗氧化劑和防腐劑

 生物可降解包裝,可食用包裝

*

(95)

什麼因素能做出一個好概念?

• 了解您的產品類別

• 產品對你的目標市場有吸引力嗎?

• 製造,促銷和銷售的成本是否過高?

• 知識:

• 您的公司是否了解此產品的需求

• 如何包裝此產品?

• 如何推廣或推銷此產品?

(96)

時機

• 時機是非常重要。

• 您的產品可能是季節性的,可能是迎合潮流或可能太早推出市場 。

• 您的員工可能需要時間熟悉產品或接受進一步培訓。

• 您的市場營銷計劃可能需要擴展至介紹產品或宣傳正確訊息。

• 公眾可能沒有準備好接受你的產品。

(97)

產品創意的來源–

你覺得這是一個完整的列表嗎?

一般來源一般來源一般來源

一般來源 具體行動力提供的啟示具體行動力提供的啟示具體行動力提供的啟示具體行動力提供的啟示

市場 市場研究,以確定客戶和消費者的需求;客戶分析

顧客購買習慣的零售數據

分銷商表達他們對產品的要求,以及與店內消費者接觸時的問題 通過投訴,信件,電話等途徑與客戶和消費者溝通

公司內部 通過銷售部與零售買家和店中個人客戶的互動,以及觀察店中具競爭性的產品和其

佈置

政府的壓力或創新的動力 員工的構思

市場外的環境 國家和國際貿易展覽會展示的新機械,食品和材料

收集具競爭性的情報

對競爭對手的新產品需要作出的市場回應

食品和烹飪文獻提供有關民族美食和新食譜的構思 技術,貿易和科學文獻為發展開闢新的視野

(98)

公司不需要“完美的意念”,只要好的意念

為什麼? 因為好的意念會:

滿足公司目標消費者的需求和願望,從而吸引客戶。

理想情況下,是來自那些需要和使用產品的人

滿足高級管理層設定的新產品成功目標

根據管理層所設定的標準製造出有盈利的產品。

尊重管理層設定的某些財務責任,即可以在某些預算和時間限制內發展

在公司的銷售能力和技術範圍內

• 總的可說,可以在公司的技術水平,技術能力,管理和

財務資源(即公司的核心能力)內發展的就是好的意念

(99)

意念衍生 

意念篩選 

 概念開發和測試

 市場營銷策略發展 商業分析 

 產品開發

基本產品開發流程

(100)

基本產品開發流程

設計 設計 設計 設計

意念衍生

意念篩選

概念開發和測試

發展 發展 發展 發展

市場營銷策略及發 展

商業分析

產品開發

生產 生產 生產 生產

測試市場

產品商業化

(101)

您在產品開發中的角色

• 每個人在產品開發都有一個角色

產品開發

研發/品質保證經理

廠經理

採購經理

財務經理 市場營銷部經理

行政總裁

(102)

概念 客觀測試 主觀測試

消費者喜好 測試

產品設計 示例產品

試點工廠生

商業工廠生

市場測試和

評估

過程設計 試行過程 工廠生產

產品開發中活動流程的理想化表示

改編自 fig 2.2 New Food Product Development 3rdEd. G.W. Fuller

食 品 技 術 專 家

工 程 與 生 產

(103)

典型產品生命週期 典型產品生命週期 典型產品生命週期 典型產品生命週期

引入期 成長期 成熟期 衰落期

收入或利潤

收入

利潤

(104)

利潤狀況

• 由於研發,推廣等需要投入大量成本,引入期的淨利潤最小,往往一開始 會處於虧損狀態

• 淨利潤在成長期結束時會大於支出

• 利潤在成熟期時有改善,但在此階段結束時開始下降。

• 利潤在衰落期穩步下降

• 為了保持利潤流動和維持公司的生存能力,必須準備好替代產品。 該公

司應有隨時可推出、進行消費者測試或被篩選的產品

(105)

理想的產品生命週期

損益

整體利潤

時間

(106)

成功是沒有保證

• Differing estimates on the success rate of new products from 1 in 6 to 1 in 20

• Skarra (1998): 1 in 58 product ideas is developed into a successful new product

[Leslie Skarra CEO Merlin Foods provides R&D Services]

翻譯

• 新產品的估計成功率由6分1到20分1不等

• Skarra(1998):58個產品概念中只有1個被開發成為成功的新產品

• 難以評估失敗:

• 在過程的哪個階段,產品被確定為失敗?

• 在推出市場後不符合市場佔有率的標准?

• 什麼是“滿意的市場佔有率”?

(107)

那為什麼要開發新產品呢?

開發新產品是困難,昂貴和缺乏成功的保證

失敗率非常高,以至產品開發被視為商業賭博。

為什麼要開發新產品呢?

但是,回報可能意味著公司有持續的盈利 公司有持續的盈利 公司有持續的盈利。 公司有持續的盈利

食品公司不能忽視新產品開發是公司增長和生存的手段。

(108)

篩選開發新產品的通用標準

總結:

• 可銷售性

• 技術可行性

• 製造能力

• 經濟能力

 如果你要製作一個模仿別人設計的產品 如果你要製作一個模仿別人設計的產品, 如果你要製作一個模仿別人設計的產品 如果你要製作一個模仿別人設計的產品 , , ,即模仿你的競爭對手 即模仿你的競爭對手 即模仿你的競爭對手 即模仿你的競爭對手, , , ,討論哪方面 討論哪方面 討論哪方面 討論哪方面 你會是最弱的

你會是最弱的 你會是最弱的

你會是最弱的?

(109)

定義

“Sensory evaluation comprises a set of techniques for accurate measurement of human responses to foods and minimises the potentially biasing effects of brand identity and other information influences on consumer perception”

Sensory Evaluation of Food: principles and practices. 2nd Ed.

H.T. Lawless, H. Heymann 2010

翻譯:

“感官評估是包括一套技術,能準確地測試人們對食物的

反應,並將消費者對品牌識別的潛在偏倚效應和其他信

息的影響減至最低”

(110)

定義

“A scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze and interpret those responses to products that are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing.”

Sensory Evaluation Practices. 2nd ed.

Stone, H and Sidel, JL. 1993.

翻譯:

“是一門科學學科,用於產生,量度,分析和解

讀由視覺,嗅覺,觸覺,味覺和聽覺感官對產品

所產生的反應。”

(111)

什麼是你的五種感官?

視覺

嗅覺

觸覺

味覺

聽覺

(112)

如何使用感官評估?

• 在食品公司,感官科學家與產品開發人員會密切合作,以了解:

• 消費者喜歡什麼和為什麼

• 消費者能否分辨出產品改變後的差異(例如更改材料)

• 在學術界,感官科學家:

• 嘗試了解我們感官如何運作,我們的感官如何對刺激作出反應(食品和化學品)

• 改善測試方法

(113)

為什麼使用感官評估?

• 科學評價和分析

• 降低不確定性

• 降低決策風險

• 確保推出消費者接受度高的新產品[滿足消費者的需求],以達到高成本效益

• 人類對機器

• 人類對氣味和味道可以較機器更加敏感

• 機器無法衡量喜好

(114)

環境是重要的考慮

• 你在安靜的圖書館或嘈雜的公共休息室溫習時,會有什 麼感覺?

• 為什麼現在長途航班的飛機上有複雜照明模式?

• 餐廳的氛圍會影響你對食物的感覺嗎?

• 燈光

• 音樂

• 氣味

(115)

顏色關聯

• 指出一個紅色的食物

• 黃色?

• 綠色?

• 棕色?

• 藍色?

• 它是什麼味道的?

(116)

顏色感覺 - 味道

• 更深的顏色等於更強的味道和/或更多的果味

(117)

 紫色椰菜花的味道會否和一般的椰菜花不同 紫色椰菜花的味道會否和一般的椰菜花不同 紫色椰菜花的味道會否和一般的椰菜花不同 紫色椰菜花的味道會否和一般的椰菜花不同? ? ? ?

(118)

顏色感覺 – 份量

What's With the Color of Your Plate?

Van Ittersum, Koert, & Wansink, B. (2012). Plate size and color suggestibility: The Delboeuf illusion's bias on serving and eating behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 215-228

德勃夫大小錯覺 德勃夫大小錯覺 德勃夫大小錯覺 德勃夫大小錯覺,

 以1865年發現它的比利時科學家命名

 碟和你的食物之間的顏色對比較弱會誘使你吃更大的份量

 如果你的目標是吃少一點,你應為晚餐的食物選擇與食物具 顏色對比強的碟。

 想吃更多的蔬菜嗎? 嘗試放在綠色的碟上!

(119)

良好規範的原則

• 設施應該要有良好的設計

• 白色或灰白色

• 要控制照明

• 應該要有良好的通風 簡報室 測試室 準備室

測試展位

(120)

簡報室 測試室 準備室

測試間

(121)

良好規範的原則

• 樣本應準備妥當

• 要控制溫度而且所有樣本要有相同溫度

• 所有樣本的體積應相等

• 應在烹調/製作後相同的保質期或時間內測試樣本

需要將可能會導致錯誤結果的差異減至最低 需要將可能會導致錯誤結果的差異減至最低 需要將可能會導致錯誤結果的差異減至最低 需要將可能會導致錯誤結果的差異減至最低

(122)

良好規範的原則

•實驗設計的注意事項

• 樣本應以隨機3位數代碼標示,以避免偏差

• 樣本應以隨機或對抗平衡的次序提供

• 對抗平衡的次序的意思是如果耍提供2個樣本,一半參加者首先接受一 個樣本,而另一半會先接受另一個樣本

• 對抗平衡考慮到次序的影響

(123)

感官評估方法

• 目標是使正確的測試配合正確的問題

產品是否不同?

它們如何不同?

一種產品相對另一 種產品的可接受性 是什麼?

• 區別測試區別測試區別測試區別測試

• 三角測試三角測試三角測試三角測試

• 二對三測試二對三測試二對三測試二對三測試

• 配對比較測試配對比較測試配對比較測試配對比較測試

• 描述分析測試描述分析測試描述分析測試描述分析測試

• 曾經受訓的品評員曾經受訓的品評員曾經受訓的品評員曾經受訓的品評員

• 情感情感情感情感/喜好測試喜好測試喜好測試喜好測試

• 喜好測試喜好測試喜好測試喜好測試

(124)

區別測試

• 基本問題 基本問題 基本問題: 基本問題 : : :兩個產品是否彼此不同 兩個產品是否彼此不同 兩個產品是否彼此不同 兩個產品是否彼此不同? ? ? ?

• 基本設置 基本設置 基本設置 基本設置

• 25-50名品評員名品評員名品評員名品評員

• 篩選敏銳度篩選敏銳度篩選敏銳度篩選敏銳度(((敏銳的感知(敏銳的感知敏銳的感知,敏銳的感知,,即有良好的嗅覺和味覺,即有良好的嗅覺和味覺即有良好的嗅覺和味覺)即有良好的嗅覺和味覺)))

• 提供三角測試提供三角測試提供三角測試提供三角測試,,,二對三測試或配對比較測試,二對三測試或配對比較測試二對三測試或配對比較測試二對三測試或配對比較測試

• 使用一覽表進行分析使用一覽表進行分析使用一覽表進行分析使用一覽表進行分析,,,比較結果,比較結果比較結果,比較結果,,運氣,運氣運氣/機會運氣 機會機會機會- 該分析確保差異是真實的該分析確保差異是真實的該分析確保差異是真實的,該分析確保差異是真實的,,而不是因,而不是因而不是因而不是因 為人們通過運氣

為人們通過運氣 為人們通過運氣

為人們通過運氣/機會選擇出正確的樣本機會選擇出正確的樣本機會選擇出正確的樣本機會選擇出正確的樣本

• 優點 優點 優點 優點

• 快速和簡單快速和簡單快速和簡單快速和簡單

• 限制 限制 限制 限制

• 結果有限制結果有限制結果有限制結果有限制- 只有是或不是只有是或不是只有是或不是只有是或不是

(125)

區別測試

• 問題:兩種產品是否彼此不同?

選擇最不同的樣本

498 221 746

A A B

在你面前有3個編 碼樣本。 兩個是 相同的,一個是不 同的。評估樣本並 圈出不同的樣本。

謝謝

(126)

區別測試

• 問題:兩種產品是否彼此不同?

: 選擇與參考樣本匹配的樣本

對比測試

在你面前有兩個編碼樣本和一個參考樣 本B 。

其中一個編碼的樣本與參考樣本B相同。

評估樣品並圈出與參考樣本B相同的樣 本編碼。 謝謝!

B 221 986

(127)

區別測試

• 問題:兩種產品是否彼此不同?

• 配對比較測試 : 哪個樣本較甜?

(128)

區別測試

• 三角測試 : 選擇最不同的樣本

• 二對三測試: 選擇與參考樣本匹配的樣本

• 配對比較測試: 哪個樣本較甜?

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描述測試

• 基本問題 基本問題 基本問題 基本問題: : : :產品在所有感官屬性上有何不同 產品在所有感官屬性上有何不同 產品在所有感官屬性上有何不同 產品在所有感官屬性上有何不同? ? ? ?

• 基本設置 基本設置 基本設置 基本設置

• 8 -12名品評員名品評員名品評員名品評員

• 篩選敏銳度篩選敏銳度篩選敏銳度篩選敏銳度

• 受訓練受訓練受訓練受訓練

• 要求對所有感官屬性的強度進行評級要求對所有感官屬性的強度進行評級要求對所有感官屬性的強度進行評級要求對所有感官屬性的強度進行評級

• 使用使用使用T-檢驗進行分析以確定平均值是否在統計上有顯著分別使用 檢驗進行分析以確定平均值是否在統計上有顯著分別檢驗進行分析以確定平均值是否在統計上有顯著分別檢驗進行分析以確定平均值是否在統計上有顯著分別

• 優點 優點 優點 優點

• 詳細的定量信息詳細的定量信息詳細的定量信息詳細的定量信息

• 限制 限制 限制 限制

• 耗時耗時耗時耗時

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描述測試

• 大多數食品公司都有一個為每個產品都曾進行培訓的小組 大多數食品公司都有一個為每個產品都曾進行培訓的小組 大多數食品公司都有一個為每個產品都曾進行培訓的小組 大多數食品公司都有一個為每個產品都曾進行培訓的小組

• 要培訓一個小組需要幾個星期到幾個月 要培訓一個小組需要幾個星期到幾個月 要培訓一個小組需要幾個星期到幾個月 要培訓一個小組需要幾個星期到幾個月

• 有幾種不同的訓練方法 有幾種不同的訓練方法 有幾種不同的訓練方法 有幾種不同的訓練方法

定量描述性分析 定量描述性分析 定量描述性分析 定量描述性分析

• 感官光譜 感官光譜 感官光譜 感官光譜

• 風味剖析 風味剖析 風味剖析 風味剖析

Figure

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