Question 1 (10)%
Read the following passage and write a summary in either Chinese or English.
Image a plastic so smart that it can be used to sense baby’s breath, measure the force of a karate punch, sense the presence of a person 100 feet away, or make a balloon that sings. There is a plastic film capable of doing all these things. It is called polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF).
When this polymer is processed in a particular way, it becomes piezoelectric and pyroelectric.
A piezoelectric substance produces an electric current when it is physically deformed or
alternatively undergoes a deformation caused by the application of a current. A pyroelectric material is one that develops an electrical potential in response to a change in its temperature.
Because PVDF is piezoelectric, it can be used to construct a paper-thin microphone; it responds to sound by producing a current proportional to the deformation caused by the sound waves. A ribbon of PVDF plastic one-quarter of an inch wide could be strung along a hallway and used to listen to all the conversations going on as people walk through. On the other hand, electric pulses can be applied to the PVDF film to produce a speaker. In addition, because the PVDF film is pyroelectric, it responds to the infrared radiation emitted by a human as far away as 100 feet, making it useful for burglar alarm systems.
Making the PVDF polymer piezoelectric and pyroelectric requires some very special processing, which makes it costly. However, this expense seems a small price to pay for its near-magical properties.
Question 2 (15%)
After read the following passage, please describe the viewpoints of the writer either in Chinese or in English.
Why do we age? No one knows, but many scientists think that oxidation plays a major role, the oxygen molecule and other oxidizing agents in the body apparently can extract single electrons from the large molecules that make up cell membranes, thus making them very reactive.
Subsequently, these activated molecules can link up, changing the properties of the cell membrane.
At some point, enough of these reactions have occurred that the body’s immune system comes to view the changed cell as an enemy and destroys it. This is particularly detrimental to the organism when the cells involved are irreplaceable. Nerve cells, for example, fall into the category. They rarely regenerate in an adult.
The body has defenses against oxidation, such as vitamin E, a well-known antioxidant. Studies
have shown that red blood cells age much faster than normal when they are deficient in vitamin E.
Based on studied such as these, some have suggested a large doses of vitamin E as a preventative measure against aging, but there is no solid evidence that this practice has any impact on aging.
Another protective antioxidant found in our bodies is superoxide dismutase (SOD), which protects us from the superoxide ion O2-, a powerful oxidizing agent that is particularly damaging to vital enzymes. The importance of SOD in opposing the aging process is indicated from the results of a study by Dr. Richard Cutler at the Gerontology Research Center of the National Institute of Health in Baltimore that showed a strong correlation between the life spans of a dozen mammalian species and their levels of SOD. Human SOD is now being produced by the techniques of
biotechnology in amounts that will enable scientists to carefully study its effects on aging and on various diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and muscular dystrophy. Although SOD is available in health food stores in forms to be taken orally, this practice is useless because the SOD is digested (broken down into simpler substances) before it can reach the bloodstream.
Research does indicate that consuming certain foods may retard the aging process. For
example, a recent study of 8000 male Harvard graduates found that chocolate and candy eaters live almost a year longer than those who abstain. Although researchers from Harvard School of Public Health are not certain of the mechanism for this effect, they suggest that the antioxidants present in chocolate may provide the health benefits. For example, chocolate contains phenols, antioxidants that are also present in wine, another substance that seems to promote good health if used in moderation.
Oxidation is only one possible cause for aging. Research continues on many fronts to try to discover why we get older as time passes.
Questions 3~5 (15%)
Read the following passage and answer the questions
Common household bleach is an aqueous solution containing approximately 5% sodium hypochlorite, a potent oxidizing agent that can react and decolorize chemicals that cause stains.
Bleaching solution are manufactured by dissolving chlorine gas in a sodium hydroxide solution to give the reaction
Cl2(g) + 2 OH-(aq) OCl-(aq) +Cl-(aq) + H2O(l)
As long as the pH of this solution is maintained above 8, the OCl- ion is the predominant chlorine-containing species. However, if the solution is made acidic, elemental chlorine is favored, and since Cl2 is much less soluble in water than is sodium hypochlorite, Cl2 gas is suddenly evolved from the solution. This is why labels on bottles of bleach carry warning about mixing the bleach
with other cleaning solutions. For example, toilet bowl cleaners usually contain acids such as H2PO4 or HSO4- and have pH values around 2. Mixing toilet bowl cleaner with bleach can lead to a very dangerous evolution of chlorine gas.
On the other hand, if bleach is mixed with a cleaning agent containing ammonia, the chlorine and ammonia react to produce chloramines, such as NH2Cl, NHCl2 and NCl3. These compounds produce acrid fumes that can cause respiratory distress.
3. Which substance is the most in bleach solution?
A. OCL-; B. Cl-; C. H2O;
4. According to the information in the text, when the bleaching solution with cleaning solutions are mixed, which is true (i) pH is lowered; (ii) pH is increased; (iii) [Cl-] is increased; (iv) Cl2 is increased.
A. i, iv;
B. ii, iv;
C. i, iii;
D. ii, iii
5. Which title of the following is the best description of the passage A. bleach application;
B. warning of bleach application;
C. bleach chemistry;
D. properties of bleach solution.
Questions 6~10 (25%)
Read the following passage and answer questions
Nicotine is only a small component of cigarette smoke, which contains more than 4600 chemical compounds, including 43 cancer-causing substances. In recent times, scientific research has been providing evidence that years of cigarette smoking vastly increase the risk of developing fatal medical conditions. In addition to being responsible for more than 85 percent of lung cancers, smoking is associated with cancers of, among others, the mouth, stomach and kidney, and is thought to cause 24% of leukemia and cervical cancers. In 1990, smoking caused more than 84000 deaths,
mainly resulting from such problems as pneumonia, bronchitis and influenza. Smoking, it is
believed, is responsible for 30% of all deaths from cancer and clearly represents the most important preventable cause of cancer in countries like United States today.
The study also emphasizes that cancer is not caused by a single element in cigarette smoke;
harmful effects to health are caused by many components. Carbon monoxide, for example,
competes with oxygen in red blood cells and interferes with the blood’s ability to deliver life-giving oxygen to the heart. Nicotine and other toxins in cigarette smoke activate small blood cells called platelets, which increases the likelihood of blood clots, thereby affecting blood circulation
throughout the body. Tobacco also contains appreciable amounts of cadmium (Cd). Since the absorption of Cd in the lungs is much greater than that from the gastrointestinal tract, smoking contributes significantly to the total body burden of Cd. Each cigarette on the average contains approximately 1.5 to 2.0 mg of Cd, of which 70% passes into the smoke. Daily intake of Cd from food is estimated at 35 to 90μg. When dietary exposure reaches critical concentrations, toxicity symptoms are manifested. Cadmium intakes of Japanese farmers suffering from widely known
“tai-tai” disease were reported to be 0.6 to 1.0 mg/day. Many of the victims died as a result of the disease. However, inhalation of Cd is more dangerous than ingestion. This is because, through inhalation, the body’s organ is directly and intimately exposed to the metal. Furthermore, 25 to 40%
of inhaled Cd from the air is retained, while only 5 to 10% of ingested Cd is absorbed. Inhaled Cd may cause emphysema and pneumonitis, while ingested Cd may result in disturbances in the
gastrointestinal tract, vomiting, proteinuria, liver dysfunction, kidney damage manifested by anemia and hypertension.
The study argues that the type of action needed against passive smoking should be similar to that being taken against drugs and AIDS. The Research maintains that the simplest and most cost-effective action is to establish smoke free work places, schools and public places.
6. According to information in the text, leukemia and pneumonia A. are responsible for 84000 deaths each year.
B. are strongly linked to cigarette smoking.
C. are strongly linked to lung cancer.
D. result in 30% of deaths per year.
7. According to information in the text, intake f carbon monoxide A. inhibits the flow of oxygen to the heart.
B. increase absorption of other smoke particles.
C. inhibits red blood cell formation.
D. promotes nicotine absorption.
8. According to information in the text, intake of nicotine encourages A. blood circulation through the body.
B. activity of other toxins in the blood.
C. formation of blood clots.
D. an increase of platelets in the blood.
9. According to information in the text, intake of Cd from inhalation is more dangerous than ingestion, because
A. 25 to 40% of inhaled Cd from air is retained.
B. Tobacco contains appreciable amounts of Cd and 70% of Cd passes to the smoke.
C. Cd loss in urine by excretion is easier.
D. inhaled Cd directly contact the lung.
10. According to passage, which one of the following is more clearly indicated A. 30% of deaths in the United States are caused by smoking related diseases.
B. smoking is responsible for lung cancer.
C. strong action against smoking should be taken in public place.
D. Cd causes emphysema and pneumonitis, and thereby it is more toxic than nicotine.
Question 11-17 (35%)
Read the passage and answer the questions
Coal is an important and plentiful fuel in the Unites States, currently furnishing approximately 23% of our energy. As the supply of petroleum dwindles, the share of the energy supply from coal is expected to increase. However, coal is expensive and dangerous to mine underground, and the strip mining of fertile farmland in the Midwest or of scenic land in the West causes obvious problems. In addition, the burning of coal, especially, high-sulfur coal, yield air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, which, in turn, can lead to acid rain. However, even if coal were pure carbon, the carbon dioxide produced when it was burned would still have significant effects on the Earth’s climate – a green house effect.
The major green house gas emissions from human activities are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the only major contributor to the green house effect that does not occur naturally, coming from such sources as refrigeration, plastics and manufacture.
Coal’s total contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is thought to be about 18 %, with about half of this coming from electricity generation. However, the increasing concentration of these gases is largely related to the compound effects of increased population, improved living standards and changes in lifestyle. From a current base of 5 billion, the Unites Nations predicted that the globe
population may stabilize in the twenty-first century between 8 and 14 billion. The associated activities to support that growth, particularly to produce the required energy and food, will cause further increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge is to attain a sustainable balance between population, economic growth and the environment.
As we search for the energy sources for the future, we need to consider economic, climatic and supply factors. There are several potential energy sources: the sun, nuclear processes, biomass and synthetic fuels. One alternative energy source involves using a traditional fuel – coal – in new ways.
Efficiencies are likely to be improved dramatically and hence CO2 emissions reduced through combustion and gasification techniques, which are now at pilot and demonstration stages. In addition to coal gasification, the formation of coal slurries is another new use of coal. A slurry is a suspension of fine particles in a liquid, and coal must be pulverized and mixed with water to form a slurry. The slurry can handled, stored, and burned in ways similar to those used for residual oil, a heavy fuel oil from petroleum accounting for almost 15% of US petroleum imports. One goal is that coal slurries might replace solid coal and residual oil as fuels for electricity – generating power plants. However, the water needed for slurries might place an unacceptable burden on water resources, especially in the western states.
11. The globe increase in greenhouse gases has been attributes to A. industrial pollution;
B. electricity generation;
C. trend in population and lifestyle;
D. loss of forest.
12. The portion of all greenhouse gases created by coal is approximately A. 15%;
13. Current research aims to increase the energy-producing efficiency of coal by A. burning it at a lower temperature;
B. developing new gasification techniques;
C. forming coal slurry;
D. developing residual oil.
Do the following statements reflect the opinions of the writer in the reading passage?
YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
14. The coal industry should be abandoned in favor of alternative energy sources because of the environmental damage it causes.
15. The greatest threats to the environment are the gases produced by industries which support the high standard of living of a growing world population.
16. CFCs emissions have been substantially reduced in recent years.
17. Lots of waste water produced makes coal slurry impossible to apply in US.