of Junior Secondary Students with Reference to the

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Enhancing the Interface: Developing Reading Skills of Junior Secondary Students with Reference to the

Learning Progression Framework Part 1

Simon Chan

Faculty of Education,

HKU

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Rundown of the Workshop

Part 1

• Understanding the LPF

• Strategy 1: Graphic organisers

• Strategy 2: Identifying

language features typical of the genres

• Strategy 3: Building and

preparing students for tasks according to the ATMs

• Strategy 4: Detailed reading

Part 2

• Recap on the LPF

• Genre-based pedagogy

• Strategy 5: Identifying

typical rhetorical structure of common genres

• Strategy 6: Matching language patterns and communication functions

• Putting things into practice

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3

What is a Learning Progression Framework (LPF)?

The LPF:

• represents the growth of learners on a developmental continuum (i.e. across key stages) as they work towards the Learning Targets and Objectives of the English Language curriculum;

• is made up of Learning Outcomes (LOs) organised under the four language skills and divided into eight levels of

attainment;

• helps teachers better understand and articulate learners’ performance; and

• helps teachers plan strategically how to enhance the English Language learning, teaching and assessment cycle.

……… ………

1

……… ………

2

………

3 ………

……… ………

4

……… ………

5

……… ………

6

……… ………

7

………

………

ATM

8

Learning Outcomes

Slide adapted from EdBWeb site

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Figure Illustrating the Structure of the LPF for English Language

LOsorganised & presented under the four language skills

LOsfor each language skill expressed in the form of Outcome Statements (a

general description of learner

performance)

Pointersprovide specific

examples of what learners are able to do in demonstrating the LOs.

Underlying Principles elucidate some of the learning objectives which do not lend themselves to the description in terms of 8 attainment milestones but are essential to English language learning.

Outcome Statements

Underlying Principles

Exemplars

Exemplars illustrate the expected student performance.

4

Slide adopted from EdBWeb site

ATMs

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Quick Warm-up Task

Refer to your copy of the LPF for reading, and identify:

1. The Outcome Statement for ATM5

2. One Pointer for ATM 4, together with its Exemplars

Note that:

1. There’re no direct links between the ATMs and the Key Stages as the former refer to individual students’

competence whereas the latter refer to the curriculum stages, i.e. ATM4 NOT necessarily marking what

students should be able to do after completing KS2

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Aspects of Progression shown in the Productive and Receptive Skills

Speaking Writing

• Content, Organisation and Communication Strategies

• Language

• Pronunciation, Stress, Rhythm and Intonation

• Content

• Organisation

• Language and Style

Underlying Principles Underlying Principles Productive

Skills

The outcome statements show the progression in terms of:

Reading Listening

The outcome statements show the progression in terms of:

• Depth of processing information, ideas and feelings

• Text complexity

• Range and application of strategies

Receptive Skills

Underlying Principles

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Slide adopted from EdBWeb site

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Reading Task/Exploration of LPF 1:

• Complete the graphic organiser on the task

sheet based on the printout of the previous

three slides and the copy of the LPF Poster

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Graphic Organiser of LPF

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Framework (n): a ​system of ​rules, ​ideas, or ​beliefs that is used to ​plan or ​decide something

(Cambridge English Dictionary);

i.e. we should focus on what we ‘do’ and not just what we ‘know’

earning rogression

ramework

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learning outcomes

attainment milestones ATMs

macro language skills: reading,

listening, speaking, writing

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continuum

learning targets/objectives

performance

teaching learning

assessment

Implications for the continuum of such targets/objectives…?

- from KS2 to KS3 and from KS3 to KS4

- from “Learning to Read” to “Reading to Learn”

- “Reading across the Curriculum” (RaC)

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Which language pattern used is used in constructing the outcome statements?

Gerund phrases

learner performance

ATM

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what learners are able to do

learning outcome statements

Which language pattern is used in constructing the pointers?

Complete sentences with the modal ‘can’

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Underlying principles

values attitudes

text types

lengths topics

texts tasks

teacher support

Which language patterns are used in constructing the underlying principles?

A range of patterns like passive voice, to-infinitives etc

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Graphic Organisers as a Reading Strategy:

• Helping students to understand and organise their understanding of reading texts

• Providing a good context for teaching grammar and vocabulary, i.e. discourse grammar , where meanings and forms are linked

• Providing opportunities for self-directed

learning (e.g. through making students design their own graphic organisers) and

collaborative learning (e.g. through jig-saw

reading tasks)

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Reading Task 2

• What does the above URL suggest to you?

• What kind of organisation is it? What tells you that?

• What does ‘smss’ stand for?

• Have you explored your school’s website? What do you expect to see in a school’s website?

www.smss.edu.hk

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Without reading the text in detail,

answer the

following questions:

• Where does the text come from?

• What’s special about its layout (e.g. what is on the leftmost column)?

• What would you

first pay attention

to when you read

this text?

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Now compare the two texts below:

-Both texts are taken from the same website.

Can you spot any differences in their structure?

What do(es) such difference(s) suggest to us?

-Why does the word ‘more’ appear repeatedly in

the second text?

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Looking at Language

• In both texts you will see the simple past,

present, and future tenses. Why is it the case?

• How about the present perfect?

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Let’s read the texts in detail and answer…

1. The website is for _______.

A. teachers B. students C. parents

D. all of the above

• What are the clues for getting the answer?

LPF ATM 4

…deduce the intended readers of the

website by using semantic clues, e.g.

the headings at the two sides of the web

pages

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2. Find these words and phrases on the Homepage. Match each one with the correct meaning. The first one has been done for you as an example.

Words and phrases on the Homepage a) improve (line 4)  Meaning 5

b) teething troubles (line 18) c) settled in (line 19)

d) intake (line 20)

e) be familiar with (lines 32-33)

Meaning

1) small problems at the beginning 2) became comfortable in a place 3) already know

4) new students 5) make better

• How would you guide the students to do the matches?

LPF ATM 4

…work out the meaning of words by using

- semantic clues, e.g. the association between ‘Form 1’ and ‘new’

- syntactic clues, e.g. the association between ‘Form 1 intake’ and ‘new students’ in the repeated structure

‘to help…’

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3. Why did the principal want to help new

students? Write down

the phrase that gives you this idea.

Explain the phrase in your own words.

• How would you guide the

students to get and explain the phrase?

LPF ATM 5

…work out the meaning of the idiomatic expression ‘teething troubles’ by using

- semantic clues, e.g. the meaning of the word ‘troubles’ and of the root of the word ‘teething’

- syntactic clues, e.g. the contrast between the subordinate clause

about the ‘teething troubles’ and the main clause about how the students

‘settled in well’ after ‘the first few

weeks’

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4. Was the Multimedia

Language Centre finished at the right time? Write down the word that gives you this idea.

• How would you guide the students to identify the word?

LPF ATM 4

…deduce the information that there was delay in the completion of the setting up of the

Multimedia Language Centre by using - Syntactic clues, e.g. the adverb

‘finally’ and the exclamation mark - semantic clues, e.g. ‘finally’ as an

adverb adding the additional meaning of ‘going through a long process’ to

the adjective ‘ready’ and leading to the

conclusion that the multimedia centre was not

finished at the right time

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5. The statements below are either FACT or OPINION.

Refer to the web pages and decide which is/are which.

a). The school has 3 laboratories.

b). The examination results were excellent.

c). The students are aged from 11 to 19.

d) The campus is very pleasant.

• How would you guide the students to tell facts from opinions?

LPF ATM 5

… distinguish facts from opinions by using semantic clues, e.g. the

adjective ‘pleasant’ as an opinion,

the interpretation of which can be

very subjective and varies among

people

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Now it’s our turn to set reading items according to the LPF

In small groups set one question targeting the

following pointers based on either Text 1 or Text 2:

• …locate specific information by identifying keywords (ATM2)

• Identify main ideas and some supporting details explicitly stated in the text (ATM3)

• …make predictions about the likely development of the text by identifying key words (ATM3)

e.g. How old is the school?

e.g. Is the school campus a well-equipped one?

e.g. What do you expect to see after clicking on the different

‘more’s?

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Some Food for Thoughts

Pre-reading Strategies:

• ‘Firing up’ the reading task (engaging students with the task) with multi-modal means

• Activating students’ schemata of /providing support for both content and language they are going to encounter in the reading text(s)

• Familiarising the students with the target

genre of the text, and its typical features

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The ‘Genre Egg’ Model

A functional view of language in context (Rose, D. 2005)

CONTEXT TEXT PARAGRAPHS

SENTENCE WORD GROUPS

WORD SYLLABLE LETTER PATTERN

patterns within the sentence

patterns within the text

patterns within the word

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Some Food for Thoughts

While-reading Strategies:

• ‘Teaching’ Vs ‘Assessing’ students

• Apprenticing the application of specific

reading strategies using the reading items as the context (e.g. identifying the semantic and syntactic clues)

• Actively involving the students in the reading process (i.e. not just the final product!)

through scaffolding Q&As

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Some Food for Thoughts

Post-reading Strategies:

• Providing constructive and specific feedback based on their performance in the reading task (assessment for learning)

• Actively involving the students in identifying

their strengths and weaknesses in their grasp

of the specific reading strategies (assessment

as learning)

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Introduction to other Exemplars of LPF Reading Tasks

• Please refer to the set of sample tasks

produced by the EdB

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Reading Task 3

Step 1:

•You are going to listen to the introduction part of a song. Pay attention to the melody and the language and guess what this song is about:

•https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWf-eARnf6U (00:00-01:00)

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Reading Task 3

• Step 2:

• This song is called ‘Heal the World’. Read its Wiki description (Version 1 on task sheet) and complete the time-line diagram.

Which ‘pointers’/strategies are targeted in this task ?

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E.g.s:

- organise information and ideas in texts by using knowledge of text structures and some graphic forms (e.g. mind maps, character webs) (ATM5) - locate details which support the main ideas

from different parts of a text (ATM4)

- identify main ideas and some supporting details explicitly stated in the text (ATM3)

Notice any differences among the two versions of the text and the three versions of the task?

Graphic organisers being

ends in themselves

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Some Food for Thoughts:

• Adapting authentic texts to authentic-like texts to suit the language development of the students

• Varying task difficulties by providing more input for challenging tasks (rather than just designing simple tasks)

• Multi-modal input

• Activating schemata (content + language)

• Use of graphic organisers

• Apprenticing language use

• ‘Deconstruction’ and ‘reconstruction’

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Enhancing the Interface: Developing Reading Skills of Junior Secondary Students with Reference to the

Learning Progression Framework Part 2

Simon Chan

Faculty of Education,

HKU

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Recap on LPF

• Please refer to the graphic organiser we made at the beginning of Part 1 and share your

understanding of/view on the LPF with a

partner.

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Exploration of LPF 2

Reading Task 4

Refer to the LPF Poster and answer the following:

1. What marks the key difference between ATM 4 and ATM 5, as revealed in the respective

Outcome Statements?

Simple texts Vs

Texts with some degree of complexity

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Exploration of LPF 2

2. What marks the key difference between ATM 6 and ATM 7, as revealed in the respective

Outcome Statements?

Interpreting texts in ATM7

What does it mean to interpret a text? How is it

different from making inferences?

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Exploration of LPF 2

3. Read the Underlying Principles. What are the three aspects of the TEXT that teachers need to pay attention to when planning to teach reading? What can be the pedagogic

implications?

Text type, topic, length

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Exploration of LPF 2

4. What does the interplay between tasks and texts mentioned in the Underlying Principles refer to?

Goal: Catering for learner diversity How: Designing simple/challenging tasks based on simple/challenging

texts for any particular learner groups i.e. manipulating task difficulty and text difficulty according to the

students’ needs

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Addressing Learner Diversity in

Designing Reading Tasks

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Exploration of LPF 2

5. Put the following Pointers/reading strategies in the correct order to show the progression of ATMs. The least advanced will come first.

a) infer feelings of characters b) deduce themes of texts

c) recognise common contracted forms

d) synthesise ideas and opinions from different texts

e) work out the meaning of idiomatic expressions

c (ATM 2), a (ATM 4), e (ATM5), b (ATM 6), d (ATM 8)

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Reading Task 3

• Step 2: Detailed Reading

• Let’s read paragraph 1 together in detail and discuss

some questions

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Detailed Reading Question Set 1

- How do we know “Dangerous” is a popular album?

- What else would you expect to find in Living with Michael Jackson?

- Why do we see both the present tense and the past tense in the text?

- Why do you think the music video of “Heal the World” features “children living in countries suffering from unrest” but not Jackson himself?

- What’s the main theme of Paragraph 1?

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Detailed Reading Question Set 2

- What does the word “hit” (Line 1) suggest to us?

- Where can we find Living with Michael Jackson?

Why?

- Which phrase tells us that it’s uncommon not to see Michael Jackson himself in his music videos?

- What scenes about “children living in unrest countries” would you expect to see in the music video of “Heal the World”?

- What’s the function of Paragraph 1 in the text?

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Detailed Reading Question Set 3

- How do we know there’s more than one song in the “Dangerous” album?

- “Giving Tree” is the name of a…?

- What’s the meaning of the adjective “unrest”

(Line 4)?

- Look at what it describes and perhaps cutting up the word into two parts helps. Which word means the same as “sang” in Paragraph 1?

- What do we know about the song “Heal the

World” form Paragraph 1?

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Discussion

• Compare and contrast the three sets of questions

• How do the questions correspond to the Pointers under different ATMs?

• Which set would you suggest for high-,

average-, and low-ability learners? Or would

you like to blend questions from the three sets?

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Detailed Reading Practice

• Now it’s your turn of practising detailed reading.

• Form pairs or trios.

• Read paragraph 2 of the Wiki text carefully.

• One of you will be the teacher guiding the students to understand that particular

paragraph through detailed reading and the

other(s) will be the student(s) who will then

be giving feedback to the teacher afterwards.

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Some Food for Thoughts

• Detailed reading serving to kick-start and

apprentice the reading process for the learners

• Linking form (e.g. the syntactic clues) with meaning

• Looking at language at the text level

• A means for training reading strategies

corresponding to various ATM Pointers in LPF

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More on Genre-based Pedagogy

Discussion Task:

• What is a genre? How does it relate to LPF?

How can the notion inform our teaching of reading?

• Share your views with some partners.

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What is a Genre?

“All the language events , both spoken and written, that we participate in as members of our particular society and culture”

(Gibbons, 2009, p. 108).

• Each genre has a specific social purpose, and is used to get something done through language.

• Each genre has a particular structure or overall organisation.

• Each genre has language features that are typical of that genre.

Understanding the purpose, organisation and language

features of school genres helps teachers provide support for their learner’s grasp of the specific strategies needed to

comprehend texts of different text types

(adapted from Derewianka, B. (1990). Exploring how texts work. Australia: Primary English Teaching Association.)

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The ‘Genre Egg’ Model

A functional view of language in context (Rose, D. 2005)

CONTEXT TEXT PARAGRAPHS

SENTENCE WORD GROUPS

WORD SYLLABLE LETTER PATTERN

patterns within the sentence

patterns within the text

patterns within the word

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Genre-based Pedagogy

Reading Task 5: Common Genres and their Rhetorical Structures

• Let’s start with identifying the typical

structure of some common genres.

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Text structure of Text A: Junk Food

Discussion

Year 5 at our school have been discussing whether or not we should have junk food at school. Some of the class think that we should have junk food but the others don’t think so.

Some kids think that we shouldn’t have junk food because you wouldn’t grow up to be healthy and strong. Also junk food sometimes causes sickness to children if they eat too much of it.

Junk food could rot teeth.

Also when children buy junk food they throw their rubbish on the ground.

However, others think we should have junk food because if there wasn’t the children wouldn’t go to the canteen and buy anything.

Children enjoy junk food and so do many teachers. If parents allow children to eat junk food how could a school ban it?

Our class thinks junk food should not be banned from school.

We believe that teachers shouldn’t stop children from eating junk food.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text A: Junk Food

Issue

Arguments against

Arguments for

Recommendations

Discussion

Year 5 at our school have been discussing whether or not we should have junk food at school. Some of the class think that we should have junk food but the others don’t think so.

Some kids think that we shouldn’t have junk food because you wouldn’t grow up to be healthy and strong. Also junk food sometimes causes sickness to children if they eat too much of it.

Junk food could rot teeth.

Also when children buy junk food they throw their rubbish on the ground.

However, others think we should have junk food because if there wasn’t the children wouldn’t go to the canteen and buy anything.

Children enjoy junk food and so do many teachers. If parents allow children to eat junk food how could a school ban it?

Our class thinks junk food should not be banned from school.

We believe that teachers shouldn’t stop children from eating junk food.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text B: School

Exposition

I think children should go to school. It is a place where they can learn, make friends and have fun.

If they don’t go to school children may never learn to read and write.

This means that they might not get a good job or any job at all.

At school children can learn about lots of different things like maths, science, famous people and different countries.

At school you can also play sport and go on excursions to visit interesting places.

That’s why children should go to school.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung,

with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text B: School

Thesis

Argument #1

Argument #2

Conclusion

Exposition

I think children should go to school. It is a place where they can learn, make friends and have fun.

If they don’t go to school children may never learn to read and write.

This means that they might not get a good job or any job at all.

At school children can learn about lots of different things like maths, science, famous people and different countries.

At school you can also play sport and go on excursions to visit interesting places.

That’s why children should go to school.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung,

with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

What’s the difference between a discussion and an

exposition text?

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Text structure of Text C

Narrative

A long time ago there was a barn with owners named Mr and Mrs Smith. They were poor and they only had a horse for riding, 2 sheep for wool, 1 pig and a bull and a cow for milk.

They were poor because their pig ate them out of house and home and he didn’t share with the other animals. His name was Bob.

“You should go on a diet,” said Clarabelle the horse. “Oh be quiet, I’m not fat; I’ve got big bones.” A few minutes later Bob was rolling around on the ground. “I’m sick, I’m sick”, he shouted. “Help me, help me.” Mr and Mrs Smith ran down and called the vet. The vet came quickly and said quietly, “If he eats like he has been eating he’ll surely die.” “Oh,” groaned the pig.

Clarabelle overheard and said to the other animals, “Our friend is dying, we’ve got to help him.” “Yeh,” said the other animals. “Let’s go.” They went up to Bob and said, “We are going to get you in shape.” First they told him to eat only half of the food in the trough.

Then they made him run up and down the hill and made him swim in the duck pond.

He did this every day for three long weeks and he got better and he thanked Clarabelle and Bob was never greedy again.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text C

Orientation

Complication / Problem

Solution

Resolution

Narrative

A long time ago there was a barn with owners named Mr and Mrs Smith. They were poor and they only had a horse for riding, 2 sheep for wool, 1 pig and a bull and a cow for milk.

They were poor because their pig ate them out of house and home and he didn’t share with the other animals. His name was Bob.

“You should go on a diet,” said Clarabelle the horse. “Oh be quiet, I’m not fat; I’ve got big bones.” A few minutes later Bob was rolling around on the ground. “I’m sick, I’m sick”, he shouted. “Help me, help me.” Mr and Mrs Smith ran down and called the vet. The vet came quickly and said quietly, “If he eats like he has been eating he’ll surely die.” “Oh,” groaned the pig.

Clarabelle overheard and said to the other animals, “Our friend is dying, we’ve got to help him.” “Yeh,” said the other animals. “Let’s go.” They went up to Bob and said, “We are going to get you in shape.” First they told him to eat only half of the food in the trough.

Then they made him run up and down the hill and made him swim in the duck pond.

He did this every day for three long weeks and he got better and he thanked Clarabelle and Bob was never greedy again.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text D

Procedure

How to Play Snakes and Ladders

What you need

Snakes and Ladders board game 1 dice

2 to 4 players

Counters of different colours. 1 for each player.

How to Play

•Put all counters on Start.

•First person rolls the dice and moves his counter in counting order the number of places shown on the dice.

•Other players take their turns.

•If a counter lands on the bottom of a ladder, the player moves the counter to the top of that ladder.

•If a counter lands on a snake’s head, the player moves the counter down to the bottom of that snake’s tail.

•The winner is the first player to reach Finish.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text D

Goal

Materials

Sequence of the Steps

Procedure

How to Play Snakes and Ladders

What you need

Snakes and Ladders board game 1 dice

2 to 4 players

Counters of different colours. 1 for each player.

How to Play

•Put all counters on Start.

•First person rolls the dice and moves his counter in counting order the number of places shown on the dice.

•Other players take their turns.

•If a counter lands on the bottom of a ladder, the player moves the counter to the top of that ladder.

•If a counter lands on a snake’s head, the player moves the counter down to the bottom of that snake’s tail.

•The winner is the first player to reach Finish.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text E

Recount

Yesterday Year 5/6 went on an excursion to the Power House Museum.

When everyone arrived at school we walked to Marrickville station. Our class caught the 9:30 train to Central station.

When we got off at Central we walked through the

Devonshire St tunnel to Harris St. We walked in the museum and we saw some slides and a movie. The movie was about communication and it was called Get The Message. We then looked at some games and equipment. After lunch we walked up to the Sydney Morning Herald and saw how they make papers. After that we caught the train back to Marrickville.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text E

Orientation

Sequence of events

Recount

Yesterday Year 5/6 went on an excursion to the Power House Museum.

When everyone arrived at school we walked to Marrickville station. Our class caught the 9:30 train to Central station.

When we got off at Central we walked through the

Devonshire St tunnel to Harris St. We walked in the museum and we saw some slides and a movie. The movie was about communication and it was called Get The Message. We then looked at some games and equipment. After lunch we walked up to the Sydney Morning Herald and saw how they make papers. After that we caught the train back to Marrickville.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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• Some potential for reading across the curriculum

• In which subject(s) do you think the following

two text types are typically found?

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Text structure of Text F: Turtles

Information Report

Turtles are reptiles and are cold blooded. They depend on their surroundings for their body heat.

Turtles are covered with a hard box-like shell which protects the soft body and organs. It is composed of an upper section called a carapace and a lower plate called a plastron. The head, tail and legs of turtles are covered with scales. Turtles withdraw them inside the shell for protection. Turtles have four paddled shaped flippers which help them to swim.

Turtles do not have teeth, they have a sharp beak instead.

Turtles can breathe on land and under water. They mainly eat jellyfish, sea snails and other soft-bodied, slow-moving sea animals.

Female turtles lay their eggs in the sand on beaches. Once the eggs are covered the female returns to the sea. When the eggs hatch the baby turtles crawl down to the sea and take care of themselves.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text F: Turtles

Classification

Appearance

Behaviour

Reproduction

Information Report

Turtles are reptiles and are cold blooded. They depend on their surroundings for their body heat.

Turtles are covered with a hard box-like shell which protects the soft body and organs. It is composed of an upper section called a carapace and a lower plate called a plastron. The head, tail and legs of turtles are covered with scales. Turtles withdraw them inside the shell for protection. Turtles have four paddled shaped flippers which help them to swim.

Turtles do not have teeth, they have a sharp beak instead.

Turtles can breathe on land and under water. They mainly eat jellyfish, sea snails and other soft-bodied, slow-moving sea animals.

Female turtles lay their eggs in the sand on beaches. Once the eggs are covered the female returns to the sea. When the eggs hatch the baby turtles crawl down to the sea and take care of themselves.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text G: Flotation

Explanation

Flotation is a technical term that deals with the degree objects stay on the surface or sink on liquids. Objects that float are said to be buoyant.

When a solid object is placed in a liquid it is forced by the density of the liquid. If the density of the solid is greater than the density of the liquid then the solid will sink. If the density of the solid is less than the density of the liquid then the

object will float. That is why light objects float on water and heavy objects like rocks will sink.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Text structure of Text G: Flotation

Description of the Phenomenon

Causal explanation sequence

Explanation

Flotation is a technical term that deals with the degree objects stay on the surface or sink on liquids. Objects that float are said to be buoyant.

When a solid object is placed in a liquid it is forced by the density of the liquid. If the density of the solid is greater than the density of the liquid then the solid will sink. If the density of the solid is less than the density of the liquid then the

object will float. That is why light objects float on water and heavy objects like rocks will sink.

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Discussion Task:

• Do you think an identification of the rhetorical

structure of different genres with the students may help them read ‘a wide range of texts’ as suggested in LPF? Share your views with your partner(s).

To name a few Pointers:

• …locate specific information by recognising simple text structures (ATM 3)

• …organise information and ideas in texts by using knowledge of text structures (ATM 5)

• …analyse the development of ideas, views or arguments in texts (ATM 7)

• …analyse the use of different text types in presenting a

message (ATM 8)

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Language Features and Rhetorical Structure of Texts

Reading Task 6: Genre Structure and Language Features

• Now let’s look at how language features (e.g.

sentence patterns) are connected to the

structure of texts

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Let’s first work out the rhetorical structure of a letters to the editor

Policies needed for ageing issues

The subject of Hong Kong's ageing population has received a lot of media attention.

Hong Kong will inevitably face ever greater challenges as a consequence of more of its citizens living for longer.

With a steady increase in the greying population and therefore a greater dependency, the need to deal with this issue and the problems it will bring should be high on the list of the government's priorities.

We cannot afford to neglect this ageing trend and officials must come up with effective policies as soon as possible.

Luk Mei-yan, Tai Kok Tsui

Letters to the Editor, May 6, 2013 South China Morning Post

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung,

with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Introduction

Supporting reason/detail 1

Supporting reason/detail 2

Conclusion

Policies needed for ageing issues

The subject of Hong Kong's ageing population has received a lot of media attention.

Hong Kong will inevitably face ever greater challenges as a consequence of more of its citizens living for longer.

With a steady increase in the greying population and therefore a greater dependency, the need to deal with this issue and the problems it will bring should be high on the list of the government's priorities.

We cannot afford to neglect this ageing trend and officials must come up with effective policies as soon as possible.

Luk Mei-yan, Tai Kok Tsui

Letters to the Editor, May 6, 2013 South China Morning Post

Text H: Structure of Letters to the editor

Can you highlight some useful language features in each stage of the genre? Mark

them on the table on the task sheet

Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung, with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

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Useful sentence starters or lexical phrases for writing letters to the editor

• The recent .... has aroused much interest.

• The recent … has started heated debates on…

• It would be …

• I strongly disagree with the comments made by …

• I am writing to support the view expressed by …

• I would like to comment on…

• I am writing in response to…

• I believe that…

• I think it will be a good idea to…

• I think the government should..

• In my opinion… / I wish to point out that…

• First of all… / First… Second… Third…

• For one thing..

• In addition… / Moreover…

• The reason why… / The reason is that… / Because… / Since…

• If this were the case…

• To conclude…

• I hope…

The letter to the editor can vary greatly on the formality scale:

There can be more formal phrases or less formal phrases used

Introduction

Supporting reason/detail

Conclusion

73 Materials developed by Prof. Angel Lin and Dr. Tracy Cheung,

with contributions from HKU facilitators © 2015

Implications for ‘reading to write’?

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Language Patterns and Communicative Functions

• We can actually go one step further down the ‘Genre Egg’ and identify

certain language patterns (at the clause, phrase, and word levels) typical of

fulfilling certain communicative

functions which correspond to the

Pointers in the LPF

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Task 7: Language Patterns, Communicative Functions and LPF Pointers

Language Pattern Communicative Function

Corresponding LPF Pointer

In my opinion,…

I reckon that…

Stating opinions Distinguish facts

from opinions (ATM 5)

Relative clauses Giving additional information of the referent

Process some compound and

complex sentences (ATM 3)

Rhetorical

questions/question tags

Giving emphasis Understand the use

of stylistic features

in texts (ATM 7)

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Task 7: Can you complete the following table?

Language Pattern Communicative Function

Corresponding LPF Pointer

Conditional Type II

To state evidence supporting an

argument

Infer feeling of

characters in

narrative texts

(ATM4)

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Task 8: Planning to Teach Reading

• In your small group, discuss how you may apply what you’ve learnt in this six-hour workshop in planning your teaching of reading based on the LPF.

• Imagine a target group of students and plan your teaching for the group.

• Take into consideration the role of LPF in enhancing the

interface across key stages (i.e. from KS2 to KS3, and from KS3 to SS)

• Think about how you’d ‘fire-up’ the text for the students at the pre-reading stage

• How would you guide the students to approach the reading items (i.e. apprenticing at the while-stage)?

• How would you provide feedback at the post-stage?

• You’ll have 20 min for your group work before sharing it with the rest of us.

• You can use a wide variety of reading text types and resources

including but not limited to books in the printed and electronic

formats

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Let’s wrap up here…

Building and preparing our students for reading tasks using the LPF as a tool:

• Authentic Vs Authentic-like Texts

• Texts of different genres and from different sources

• Manipulating ‘Task’ Vs ‘Text’ Difficulty while setting tasks based on the ATM Pointers

• Adaptation of textbook materials for the needs of target students

• Understanding where the students are (i.e. which

ATM they are currently at) and where they can be

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• engaging students in a range of tasks that cover a variety of purposes and text types

• developing reading skills progressively

• catering for diverse learning abilities

Key components

• developing strategies to approach the reading tasks

• providing support for students to

• develop various reading strategies

• understand features of different text types

• express personal responses to texts

• appreciate language arts texts

Learning &

Teaching Strategies

• setting appropriate reading tasks with reference to the ATMs of the students

• Raising students’ awareness of their grasp of their strengths and weaknesses in reading

• Providing timely feedback and suggestions for improving students’ development of reading strategies

Assessment as/for learning

Steps in Designing an Effective Reading Programme

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