Tips For School Managers

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Tips For School Managers

Be open to different views

Seek common ground while reserving differences

Care about education Promote

home-school-community collaboration in school

development

Seek chances for self-enchancement Upgrade your skills and be

prepared for challenges Be impartial in

handling matters and rational in

discussion

Actively involve but not interfere Collective responsibilty

and commitment

Set directions and goals

Proper delegation of authority and greater

accountability Participatory

decision-making

Decisions made in the

interests of students

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Under the Education Ordinance, every aided school is required to establish by 2009 an incorporated management committee to manage the school. The incorporated management committee plans the school’s future direction, makes decisions on the school’s budget and staffing, steers the school to promote students’ ethical, intellectual, physical, s o c i a l a n d a e s t h e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d i s a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e performance of the school. These are not simple matters, as they affect the interests of students, the morale of staff and how the school is seen by parents and the community.

As a school manager, you can help your incorporated management committee formulate policies and procedures to improve the education of students in your school. Given the diverse backgrounds of school managers, you can also represent the views of your category of manager to promote quality education for students. By valuing and respecting others’ views, you can also help your incorporated management committee to create a partnership among your school, the parents and the community. This partnership will certainly foster an all-round education for students and provide them with an environment to support learning, not just in school but throughout their lives. Your participation in this process is crucial.

This Handbook is designed for the school managers of those schools with incorporated management committees. School managers may use this Handbook as a resource. You will find ideas and guidelines that you may select and adapt to meet your needs and those of your incorporated management committee. School managers of schools without incorporated management committees may also use this Handbook as a reference.

This is the August 2006 edition of the printed version. We will continue to refine the contents of the Handbook and you may visit the website of the School-based Management Section (http://www.emb.gov.hk/sbm) for

Foreword

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Contents

Tips For School Managers i

Foreword ii

Section 1 Introduction 1

Purpose of the School Managers’ Handbook 1 Mode of Operation in Aided Schools 2

Key Points 6

Section 2 The School-based Management 7

Governance Framework

Incorporation 7

Composition of IMC 7

Nomination of School Managers 10

Resignation, Cancellation of Registration of Managers 13

Liability of School Managers 14

Amendment to the Constitution 15

Key Points 16

Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated 17 Management Committee

Strategic Planning 17

School Development Plan 18

Annual School Plan 18

School Report 19

Summary of the Role of the IMC 20

Curriculum Policy 21

Overall Aims of the School Curriculum 21

The Curriculum Framework 22

Effective Learning and Teaching 24

Assessment for Learning 26

Summary of the Role of the IMC 27

School Management 28

School Personnel 28

School Finance 30

Home - School - Community Partnership 31

Key Points 34

Section 4 Code of Ethics for School Managers 35 Basic Principles Governing the Work of Managers 35

School - based Code of Ethics 37

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Section 5 Declaration and Disclosure of Pecuniary or Other 40 Personal Interests

Declaration of Pecuniary or Other Personal Interests 40 under the Education Ordinance

Disclosure of Pecuniary or Other Personal Interests 41 under the Education Ordinance

Conflict of Interest 41

Examples of Conflict of Interest in Schools 42 A Two-pronged Approach to Declaration of 43 Conflict of Interest

Register of Interests 44

Key Points 45

Section 6 Procedures for Incorporated Management 46 Committee Meetings

Number of Meetings 46

Special Meetings 46

Supervisor 46

Secretary 47

Agenda 48

Quorum 48

Attendance 48

Withdrawal from Meetings 49

Motions 49

Casting of Votes 50

Resolution by Circulation 50

Minutes of Meetings 51

Key Points 51

Section 7 Collaboration and Delegation 52

Collaboration with the Principal and Staff 52 Collaboration with Committees and Working Groups 53

Restrictions on Delegation 54

Key Points 55

Appendices 56

I Points to Note in Scrutinising the School 56 Development Plan and Annual School Plan

II Sample Code of Ethics for Managers 58 III Sample Form for Declaration of Interests 63 IV Example of an Agenda for an IMC Meeting 64

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1.1 Purpose of the School Managers’ Handbook

(a) The School Managers’ Handbook aims to support managers in performing their leading role in school management and development. It seeks to identify the responsibilities of the incorporated management committee (IMC) and put forward general principles that govern the discharge of duties by managers. Except for statutory requirements, the procedures in the Handbook are for reference purposes only. Schools are encouraged to adapt these procedures to suit individual needs.

(b) With the wider scope to excel and grow created by the education reform, the IMC plays a crucial role in setting the direction for school development and in providing quality education for students. At the same time, the implementation of school-based management provides the IMC with greater autonomy in school management and use of resources. This is a huge responsibility and the School Managers’ Handbook serves as a handy reference for managers of public sector schools to effectively manage and promote quality education in schools.

(c) This Handbook may be accessed on the School-based Management Section‘s website (http://www.emb.gov.hk/sbm).

Comments on the Handbook are most welcome and can be sent to :

Address: School-based Management Section Room 1140, 11/F, Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East

Wanchai, Hong Kong Telephone: 2892 6658

Fax line: 2891 0512

E-mail: grsbmd@emb.gov.hk

Section 1

Introduction

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(d) In addition to this Handbook, the Education and Manpower Bureau has been providing other support to managers such as experience-sharing sessions for serving, new and potential managers, the School Administration Guide and abstracts of relevant circulars. The details can also be accessed on the Education and Manpower Bureau’s website.

1.2 Mode of Operation in Aided Schools

1.2.1 Management

(a) Each aided school shall be managed and operated in accordance with the provisions of the Education Ordinance and those of its subsidiary legislation, the Codes of Aid and guidelines that the Education and Manpower Bureau may issue from time to time.

(b) The Education Ordinance stipulates that when an IMC has been established in respect of a school, the school shall be managed by the IMC. The IMC consists of members who are required to be registered under the Education Ordinance as managers of the school. The IMC is entrusted with the responsibility of governing the school and is accountable to the Education and Manpower Bureau, the sponsoring body, parents and the community for the overall performance of the school.

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1.2.2 Staffing

(a) As the employer of the school staff, the IMC is responsible for handling staff matters such as appointment, promotion, performance management, disciplinary action and dismissal. In the spirit of school-based management, the IMC has been given greater autonomy and responsibilities in school personnel matters. To enhance accountability and transparency in school operation, the IMC should develop a set of open, fair and formal procedures and observe the relevant guidelines stipulated in the Codes of Aid and circulars issued from time to time by the Education and Manpower Bureau.

(b) The Codes of Aid stipulate the staff establishment for the respective types of school. The staff establishment of a school is mainly determined by the number of operating classes.

Additional teachers are also provided for split classes, the school library, language teaching and other services. Each year, the Education and Manpower Bureau issues a letter informing schools of the approved class organisation and staff establishment for the coming school year. The IMC has the discretion to determine, in consultation with its staff, the distribution and allocation of duties to teachers/staff holding promotion posts. Such allocation of duties should align with the priorities for development of the school.

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Section 1 Introduction

1.2.3 Admission of Students

The allocation of school places in Primary 1, Secondary 1, Secondary 4 and Secondary 6 is made according to the allocation systems that the Education and Manpower Bureau may from time to time determine.

The Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower may direct an aided school to admit a pupil to fill an available vacant place in that school. Other than those places filled by the above arrangements, the school head has the discretion to fill the vacant places. The Reform Proposals for the Education System in Hong Kong published in September 2000 lays down, inter alia, short-term and long-term mechanisms for the allocation of places and the mechanisms for assessment. Schools have to keep abreast of the latest developments in formulating the relevant school policies.

1.2.4 Suspension and Expulsion of Pupils

(a) Pupils admitted into an aided primary school shall be allowed to complete the six-year course. Pupils admitted into an aided secondary school in the junior secondary course (Secondary 1 - 3) and the senior secondary course (Secondary 4 - 7) should normally be allowed to complete that course. Pupils admitted into a course in an aided special school should normally be allowed to complete that school course.

(b) No primary pupil and junior secondary pupil (Secondary 1 - 3) aged under 15 years should be expelled without proper warning and notice to parents, as well as the approval of the Education and Manpower Bureau. Pupils must not be expelled solely on the ground that they are academically weak. In appropriate cases, schools which have pupils with persistent lack of academic progress or behaviour problems may seek advice from respective Regional Education Offices.

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1.2.5 Block Insurance Policy and IMC Liability Insurance Policy

(a) For tortious liability, such as personal injury or accidents during school activities, the Government provides a block insurance policy for aided schools. This policy covers claims against any public liabilities, employees’ compensation and group personal accident.

(b) The Government also provides an IMC liability insurance policy for IMCs and their managers. Should the IMC still find the insurance cover inadequate, it may arrange its own supplementary insurance cover.

1.2.6 Relevant Documents

The Education Ordinance, Education Regulations, Codes of Aid, circulars issued by the Education and Manpower Bureau and reports published by the Education Commission are official documentation listing the principles and requirements within which the IMCs make decisions. In October 2001, the School-based Management Section issued to each school a School Administration Guide which provides detailed information on school management in order to familiarize school managers and school personnel with their responsibilities and assist them in running the school more efficiently and effectively. The Guide is updated regularly and the latest version may be accessed on the Education and Manpower Bureau’s website (http://www.emb.gov.hk).

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Section 1 Introduction

A school manager should acquire knowledge and develop skills in school management. Besides attending experience-sharing sessions, seminars and so on organised by the Education and Manpower Bureau for school managers, a manager can make reference to relevant documents [Section 1.2.6] such as -

• the Education Ordinance and Education Regulations,

• the Codes of Aid,

• circulars, manuals and guidelines issued by the Education and Manpower Bureau,

• the IMC constitution of the school,

• other relevant ordinances, and

• other codes of practice.

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2.1 Incorporation

(a) In respect of an operating aided school, which has commenced operation before 1 January 2005, its sponsoring body shall submit to the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower a draft of the constitution of the proposed IMC by 1 July 2009. In respect of a planned aided school, with the scheduled opening date of which falls on or after 1 January 2005, its sponsoring body shall make the submission not later than six months before the scheduled opening date.

(b) In respect of a Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) school or a specified school (a school specified in Schedule 3 of the Education Ordinance), its sponsoring body may notify the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower in writing of its intention to establish an IMC. For an operating DSS or specified school, the sponsoring body shall make a submission for the purpose of the establishment of IMC within six months from the date of notice given. For a planned DSS or specified school, the sponsoring body shall make the submission not later than six months before the scheduled opening date.

2.2 Composition of IMC

(a) An IMC shall be constituted in accordance with its constitution.

The composition of an IMC as provided for in its constitution shall be:

• the numbers of sponsoring body manager shall not exceed 60% of the maximum of number of managers that the IMC may have under its constitution, one alternate sponsoring body manager may also be provided

Section 2

The School-based Management Governance Framework

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• not less than one teacher manager (where the constitution allows the nomination of not more than one teacher manager, one alternate teacher manager shall be provided)

• not less than one parent manager (in case of a bi-sessional school, not less than one parent manager for each of the A.M. session and P.M. session)

• one or more alumni managers where such manager or managers is or are nominated

• not less than one independent manager

(b) If the IMC constitution allows the nomination of not more than one parent manager, one alternate parent manager shall be provided. In case one parent manager is provided for each of the A.M. session and P.M. session for a bi-sessional school, one alternate parent manager shall be provided for each session.

(c) An alternate manager shall have all functions and rights of a manager except voting rights. An alternate sponsoring body manager shall not vote on any matter to be resolved by the IMC by voting unless any sponsoring body manager is absent from meeting or unable to vote on the matter. An alternate teacher manager or alternate parent manager shall not vote on any matter to be resolved by the IMC by voting unless no teacher manager or parent manager is present at the meeting.

(d) In calculating the maximum number of sponsoring body managers, all alternate managers shall not be counted. No manager shall serve in an IMC in more than one capacity.

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2.2.1 Supervisor

(a) The IMC of a school shall have a supervisor who must be a manager of the school. However, the principal or a teacher of the school shall not be the supervisor or act as the supervisor. The supervisor must be appointed by the sponsoring body or elected among the IMC managers as stipulated in the IMC constitution.

(b) The supervisor shall hold and vacate office as such in accordance with the IMC constitution. If the supervisor is unable to perform his/her functions during a period of not less than 28 days due to absence from Hong Kong or illness, the sponsoring body shall appoint another manager as the acting supervisor to act in the place of the supervisor during the period in case the supervisor is appointed by the sponsoring body. In case the supervisor is elected by the managers, the other managers shall elect amongst themselves an acting supervisor to act in the place of the supervisor during the period.

(c) The IMC shall give notice in writing of the assumption of office of the first supervisor to the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower within 14 days after its establishment and of any subsequent supervisor to the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower within 14 days after his/her election or appointment. The notice shall contain the English and Chinese names of the supervisor and such other information as the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower may specify.

(d) The supervisor shall preside over the IMC meetings, give notice in writing to the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower that any manager, principal or teacher ceases to hold office, or any teacher is employed to teach at the school, sign the

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Section 2 The School-based Management Governance Framework

2.3 Nomination of School Managers

2.3.1 Sponsoring Body Manager

The sponsoring body of a school may nominate such number of persons for registration as sponsoring body manager of the school as may be provided for in the IMC constitution of the school. The sponsoring body may also nominate a person for registration as alternate sponsoring body manager of the school.

2.3.2 Teacher Manager

(a) The principal of a school shall nominate such number of teachers of the school for registration as teacher manager or alternate teacher manager of the school as may be provided for in the IMC constitution. The teacher manager or alternate teacher manager must be elected among teachers of the school and the election must be held pursuant to the IMC constitution. In the election, all eligible teachers of the school must have equal voting right and right of candidature. The voting for the election must be conducted by secret ballot and the election system must be fair and transparent.

(b) A person nominated for registration as teacher manager or alternate teacher manager must be a teacher (in relation to a special school, the specialist staff is included), and must not be the principal, of the school.

2.3.3 Parent Manager

(a) The IMC of a school may recognise one body of persons as recognised parent-teacher association (PTA) for the purposes of making nomination for registration as parent manager. The IMC of a bi-sessional school may recognise one PTA in respect of the A.M. session and another PTA in respect of the P.M. session.

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(b) A recognised PTA may nominate such number of persons for registration as parent manager or alternate parent manager of the school as may be provided for in the IMC constitution. A person nominated for registration as parent manager or alternate parent manager must be a parent of a current pupil of the school, and must not be a teacher of the school.

(c) The election for parent manager must be conducted by the recognised PTA of the school. In the election, all parents of the current pupils of the school must have equal voting right and right of candidature. The voting for the election must be conducted by secret ballot and the election system must be fair and transparent.

2.3.4 Alumni Manager

(a) The IMC or sponsoring body of a school, as may be provided for in the IMC constitution may recognise one body of persons as recoginsed alumni association for the purposes of making nomination for registration as alumni manager. The IMC or sponsoring body of a bi-sessional school may recognise one alumni association in respect of the A.M. session and another alumni association in respect of the P.M. session.

(b) A recognised alumni association may nominate such number of persons for registration as alumni manager of the school as may be provided for in the IMC constitution. A person nominated for registration as alumni manager must be an alumnus, and must not be a teacher of the school.

(c) If no person is nominated by the recognised alumni association in respect of a school, the IMC may nominate such number of persons for registration as alumni manager of the school as may

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Section 2 The School-based Management Governance Framework

2.3.5 Independent Manager

The IMC of a school may nominate such number of persons for registration as independent manager of the school as may be provided for in the IMC constitution. However, the following persons shall not be nominated for registration as independent manager:

• a teacher or specialist staff of the school;

• a parent of a current pupil of the school;

• an alumnus of the school; or

• a person who is – (i) a member;

(ii) the spouse or a grand-parent, parent, brother, sister, child or grand-child of a member; or

(iii) an employee,

of the governing body of the sponsoring body of the school.

2.3.6 Exemption from Composition Requirements

(a) The first independent manager of a school may be registered as such at any time within one year from the establishment of the IMC of the school. In relation to a planned school, the first teacher manager shall be nominated for registration as such at any time within one year from the establishment of the IMC, whilst the first parent manager shall be nominated for registration within three years. In relation to an operating school, the first parent manager shall be nominated for registration as such at any time within three months from the establishment of the IMC.

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(b) However, an IMC may apply to the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower for exemption from any requirement of the Education Ordinance on its composition if it is unable to nominate such number of persons as stipulated in the IMC constitution for registration as the manager of the school after the IMC has taken all reasonable steps to secure compliance with the requirement.

2.4 Resignation, Cancellation of Registration of Managers

(a) If a parent manager ceases to be a parent of a current pupil of the school in a school year, his/her term of office as a manager shall continue until its expiry or the end of the school year, whichever is the earlier.

(b) If in a school year an independent manager becomes a person mentioned in paragraph 2.3.5, his/her term of office as a manager shall continue until its expiry or the end of the school year, whichever is the earlier.

(c) If a manager resigns from his/her office as a manager in accordance with the IMC constitution or passes away, the IMC shall give a written notice of the event to the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower.

(d) If a teacher manager or alternate teacher manager of a school ceases to be employed in the school, he/she shall be deemed to have resigned from his/her office as a manager in accordance with the IMC constitution.

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Section 2 The School-based Management Governance Framework

(e) The Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower may cancel the registration of a manager of a school –

• if the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower receives a notice in writing from the IMC of the school that the manager has been absent without the consent of the committee from all meetings of the committee in a school year and the manager has been given due notice to attend those meetings

• if the manager fails to produce, upon request by the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower, a medical certificate issued by a registered medical practitioner after the date of such request certifying that the manager is physically fit to perform the functions of a manager

• if the manager fails to make declaration of pecuniary or other personal interest under section 40BF of the Education Ordinance

• if the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower receives a notice issued by the IMC under section 40AX of the Education Ordinance as regards the cancellation of the registration of the manager

2.5 Liability of School Managers

2.5.1 Civil Liability

A manager shall not incur any civil liability in respect of anything done or omitted to be done by him/her in good faith in the performance or purported performance of any function of his/her office as the manager. No civil proceedings shall be brought against a manager of a school for anything done or omitted to be done by or on behalf of the IMC unless he/she has not acted in good faith.

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2.5.2 Criminal Liability

A manager shall be guilty of an offence only when the IMC contravenes the concerned provisions of the Education Ordinance with his/her consent or connivance.

2.6 Amendment to the Constitution

(a) An IMC may by resolution amend its constitution in the manner provided for in the constitution. The amendment shall be lodged with the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower and shall not take effect before the expiry of one month after it is lodged.

(b) The Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower may, by notice in writing to the IMC, object to an amendment lodged with him before the amendment takes effect. Within 21 days after the service of the notice, the IMC may appeal to an Appeal Board against the decision of the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower referred to in the notice by delivering in duplicate to the secretary of the Appeal Boards Panel a notice of appeal. Every notice of appeal shall be in writing and shall specify the decision of the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower in respect of which the appeal is brought and the grounds on which the appeal is brought.

(c) If the decision of the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower is reversed by the Appeal Board, the amendment shall, where the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower does not appeal against the reversal within the period of 14 days after he is being served with a notice of decision, take effect at the expiry of that period or on the original effective date, whichever is the later.

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Section 2 The School-based Management Governance Framework

(d) If the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower appeals against the reversal and the reversal is upheld, the amendment shall take effect on the date on which the reversal is upheld or the original effective date, whichever is the later.

(e) The IMC shall, as soon as practicable after any amendment to its constitution takes effect, lodge a copy of its constitution as amended with the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower.

The main provisions in relation to establishment and operation of an IMC are provided for in Part IIIB of the Education Ordinance. A manager interested in a particular topic may refer to the relevant sections for details.

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Section 3

Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

The IMC seeks to govern the school with a view to promoting quality education and improving the learning outcomes of students. To steer the school for continuous development, the IMC is responsible for developing the general direction for the school, formulating its educational and management policies, overseeing the planning and budgetary processes, monitoring performance, ensuring accountability and strengthening the community network.

3.1 Strategic Planning

(a) In fulfilling their obligations and duties, members of the IMC have to bear in mind the crucial role they play. Their creativity and energy should be focused on key issues such as building vision/

mission, setting goals and formulating policies, whilst the day- to-day management of the school is left to the principal and staff.

(b) With the school-based management governance framework being put in place, the IMC is given more autonomy in funding and administrative management. In formulating school policies and procedures, the IMC needs to develop a set of open and fair principles that guide decisions and actions. The IMC has to ensure that the school is transparent and accountable to the community for the school’s operation and the proper use of public funds.

(c) A self-managing school is also accountable for the quality of the education it delivers. For this purpose, the IMC should ensure that a self-evaluation mechanism is in place to evaluate the standards of the school’s provision and identify areas for improvement and further development. The evaluation should focus not only on students’ academic performance but also on their non-academic achievement.

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3.1.1 School Development Plan

The School Development Plan (SDP) is a blueprint for school development setting out the priorities and strategies for a longer- term period, say three years. As every school has its own individuality, there is no model plan that fits all schools. The key elements of the SDP should normally include:

• the school vision and mission

• major concerns

• intended outcome/targets

• implementation strategies for each major concern

• the time scale for each strategy 3.1.2 Annual School Plan

(a) Based on the SDP and the major concerns defined for each year, the Annual School Plan (ASP) helps guide the school’s activities and sets out the implementation details for action during the year. Based on a shared vision and direction, all aspects of school activities are woven together in a coordinated and coherent manner. As every school has its own individuality, there is no model plan that fits all schools.

The key elements of the ASP should normally include

• the school vision and mission

• major concerns

• the tasks through which the objectives will be achieved and their time scales

• resources required for the tasks

• success criteria and methods of evaluation for assessing performance

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• persons responsible for implementation, monitoring progress and evaluation of the programmes

• budget summary

(b) The SDP and the ASP should be drafted by the school head and his/her staff. As the SDP involves strategic planning, the IMC has an important role to play, such as contributing to the school’s long-term goals and development priorities. Both the SDP and ASP have to be endorsed by the IMC before they are uploaded onto the school’s website by the end of October. A list of points to note in scrutinising SDP and ASP is at Appendix I.

3.1.3 School Report

(a) Schools should report annually their self-evaluation findings, their achievements, reflection and follow-up actions in the School Report (SR). Their performance in the mandatory Key Performance Measures specified by the Education and Manpower Bureau should also be included. Schools may make use of the templates provided to prepare the SR, which should be endorsed by the IMC and uploaded onto schools’ own website before the end of November every year.

(b) With effect from the 2003/04 school year, schools’ self- evaluation activities are to be validated by the Education and Manpower Bureau. To support external school review by the Education and Manpower Bureau, schools are required to conduct beforehand an assessment of school performance in 14 areas which cover the four domains set out in the Education and Manpower Bureau’s framework of performance indicators.

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

(c) For the detailed information on SDP, ASP and SR, please refer to referencing materials for School Development and Accountability which are available on the Education and Manpower Bureau’s website.

3.1.4 Summary of the Role of the IMC

The IMC is responsible for :

setting the direction for the school

• building up a shared school mission and setting goals in line with the aims of education in Hong Kong, the vision of the sponsoring body and the expectations of various stakeholders;

• planning the long-term and short-term development strategies of the school;

formulating school policies

• drawing up school policies, administrative and operational procedures;

• ensuring an accountability mechanism in school policies and administration;

• delegating to the principal and staff decisions on matters relating to daily operations, teaching and learning, student guidance and discipline;

approving the School Development Plan, Annual School Plan and School Report

• approving the SDP;

• approving the ASP (including the school budget and staff development plan);

• approving the SR (including the school profile and financial statement);

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evaluating school performance

• monitoring and evaluating school performance and student achievement against planned priorities and objectives; and

• advising on practical follow-up actions, taking into consideration the evaluation results, current situation and priority needs of the school.

3.2 Curriculum Policy

(a) In parallel with Education Commission (EC)’s review on the education system, the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) conducted a holistic review of the school curriculum during the period from 1999 to 2001. Then it developed a curriculum framework as the basic structure for learning and teaching throughout all stages of schooling. The school curriculum should provide all students with essential life-long learning experiences for whole-person development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physical development, social skills and aesthetics. It should help students learn how to learn and develop generic skills to acquire and construct knowledge.

(b) The IMC plays a leading role in setting the targets of the school-based curriculum and building a framework for its implementation and evaluation. In this section, we will give school managers a brief account of the way forward in curriculum development and the role of the IMC in the school curriculum.

3.2.1 Overall Aims of the School Curriculum

(a) Our students have to face the challenges of the 21st century, such as globalisation, the impact of information technology and an interdependent but competitive world. To equip our students

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

• recognise their roles and responsibilities as members in the family, the society, and the nation; and show concern for their well-being;

• understand their national identity and be committed to contributing to the nation and society;

• develop creative thinking and master independent learning skills (e.g. critical thinking, information technology, self-management);

• engage in discussion actively and confidently in English and Chinese (including Putonghua);

• develop a habit of reading independently;

• possess a breadth and foundation of knowledge in the eight Key Learning Areas (KLAs); and

• lead a healthy lifestyle and develop an interest in and appreciation of aesthetic and physical activities.

(b) Schools have to work out their curriculum goals and a whole- school curriculum plan in line with these overall aims. The goals of the curriculum should be broad enough to achieve whole- person development and enable students with diverse needs to develop their potential to the full. The IMC will ensure that the school-based curriculum is broad and balanced, comprising different learning experiences and all KLAs, in order to lay a good foundation for our students’ life-long learning.

3.2.2 The Curriculum Framework

(a) The CDC has developed a curriculum framework which is composed of three interconnected components, namely : KLAs;

generic skills; values and attitudes.

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(b) KLAs

• Chinese Language Education

• English Language Education

• Mathematics Education

• Science Education

• Technology Education

• Personal, Social & Humanities Education

• Physical Education

• Arts Education

(c) In each KLA, learning can be organised in the form of subjects, modules, short courses, projects, etc. To fulfill the needs and goals of individual schools, the curriculum can be organised in different ways using a combination of these forms of study.

The IMC will ensure that schools choose subjects from each KLA in order to provide a broad and balanced curriculum for students at all levels. Schools should help students transfer knowledge learnt in one KLA to another, maintain continuity in learning within and across KLAs and ensure that learning experiences are connected.

(d) Generic skills

• communication

• critical thinking

• creativity

• collaboration

• information technology

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

• numeracy

• problem-solving

• self-management

• study skills

(e) The generic skills are fundamental in helping students learn to acquire knowledge, construct knowledge and apply knowledge to solve problems. They are to be developed through learning and teaching in the context of different subjects or key learning areas, and are transferable to different learning situations.

(f) Values and attitudes

• Values are qualities that students should develop as principles for conduct and decision-making, such as responsibility, commitment and a sense of national identity.

• Attitudes are the personal dispositions needed to perform a task well, such as cooperativeness and perseverance.

(g) There are many value-oriented studies in the school curriculum, such as religious education, sex education, health education, environmental education, computer ethics, media education or similar studies with different terminology (affective education, life education). They can be taken as an integral part of moral and civic education. A life-event approach to moral and civic-education covering value-oriented themes is advocated by the CDC.

3.2.3 Effective Learning and Teaching

(a) Schools are encouraged to adopt the following four key tasks advocated by the EC as strategies for learning and teaching to help students develop independent learning capabilities through KLAs and across KLAs:

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1. Moral and Civic Education

The implementation of moral and civic education should be learner-focused. Learning opportunities should be provided for students to develop and reflect on their values and attitudes using events relevant to their daily life.

2. Reading to learn

Reading is not just for the improvement of language proficiency, but serves many other important purposes, which add value to the quality of our life. These include reading for interest, appreciation, enrichment of knowledge and experience. Every teacher is responsible for nurturing a reading culture within the school. Extensive reading schemes, book recommendations, speech competitions and reading with parents are some possible ways of promoting reading.

3. Project learning

This enables students to connect knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. It also helps students to construct knowledge through investigating and analysing a variety of topics.

4. Information technology for interactive learning

This encourages teachers to make appropriate use of information technology in order to motivate students and enhance the interest of class activities.

(b) The IMC should encourage the school to use effective strategies to enhance learning and teaching. Some of these are suggested below for reference:

• Motivate students through building learning and teaching on their success;

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

• Give students opportunities to express themselves to enhance their confidence;

• Promote collaborative learning to remove the feeling of failure;

• Structure tasks to suit students’ abilities and recognise individual progress;

• Organise different forms of classroom organisation to facilitate the use of diverse strategies;

• Provide students with opportunities to experience learning beyond the confines of the classroom;

• Encourage students to inquire beyond the confines of textbooks; and

• Widen students’ learning through life-wide learning opportunities.

(c) More examples of learning and teaching approaches and strategies are available from the website of the Curriculum Development Institute at http://cd.emb.gov.hk.

3.2.4 Assessment for Learning

Assessment is an integral part of the learning and teaching cycle. When approving the assessment plans of the school, the IMC should ensure that the system of assessment facilitates learning to learn. It helps to provide information for both students and teachers to improve learning and teaching. To strengthen the learning-teaching- assessment cycle, schools may:

• use positive feedback to inform students of their strengths and weaknesses;

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• put equal emphasis on both the processes of learning (e.g.

independent learning, use of generic skills) and the products (e.g. knowledge, skills);

• use different modes of assessment for different purposes (e.g. discussion for collaboration, examinations for knowledge, performance for creativity); and

• avoid excessive assessment and unproductive uses of dictation, memorisation and rote learning.

3.2.5 Summary of the Role of the IMC

(a) In line with the curriculum framework developed by the CDC, the school will formulate its curriculum plans, taking into consideration the resources available and the readiness of students, teachers and parents. The IMC is responsible for helping the school to connect and integrate various measures and plans.

It should ensure that the school-based curriculum is coherent and flexible which can adapt to changes and is in the best interests of students. The IMC will also give advice from different perspectives and encourage the school to develop a new culture in enhancing students’ active learning, such as promoting the professional development of teachers through self-evaluation, experience- sharing, peer lesson observation and action research.

(b) The IMC is responsible for :

• developing coherent short-term and long-term school development plan that aligns the school aims, the needs, interests and abilities of students in accordance with the guiding principles set out in curriculum documents (e.g. The New Academic Structure for Senior Secondary Education and Higher Education — Action Plan for Investing in the Future of

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

• adjusting the focus of education and curriculum reform, staff development plan, expected achievements of the school suited to the school and community contexts;

• ensuring a broad and balanced school-based curriculum;

• endorsing the direction, targets and priorities for curriculum development;

• advising on curriculum, instructional and assessment plans;

• monitoring the progress of curriculum development and evaluating its effectiveness;

• helping with building up an environment and atmosphere conducive to learning;

• supporting and monitoring professional development o f t e a c h e r s a n d n u r t u r i n g t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m a n d instructional leadership;

• establishing networks with other schools and the community, and tapping resources for enhancing learning and teaching (e.g. collaborate with other schools in the same region to offer subjects with lower demand so as to provide more choices for students); and

• communicate with stakeholders regularly on the changes needed.

3.3 School Management

3.3.1 School Personnel

(a) In the spirit of school-based management, the IMC has been given more discretion in personnel matters, such as the authority to approve the appointment and salaries of staff on the Salaries Grant payroll in order to fill vacancies or employ substitutes for

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staff on leave, in accordance with the conditions of the Codes of Aid and standing circulars. Other areas of the IMC’s responsibilities in personnel matters have been set out in circulars issued by the Education and Manpower Bureau, a summary of which may be accessed on the Education and Manpower Bureau’s website (http://www.emb.gov.hk). With greater autonomy, schools have to be more transparent and accountable to key stakeholders for their decisions on staff matters. The IMCs will need to determine a set of guidelines in line with the general principles of openness and fairness.

(b) When formulating staff policies and procedures for the school, the IMC has to comply with relevant legislations other than the Education Ordinance, Education Regulations and Codes of Aid.

These include the Employment Ordinance, Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance, Code of Practice in Education under the Disability Discrimination Ordinance, Prevention of Bribery Ordinance, Mandatory Provident Fund Scheme Ordinance, Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, etc.

(c) The IMC needs to formulate a school policy on the acceptance of advantages and related matters. School managers have to be aware that it is an offence for teaching and non-teaching staff to accept an advantage without the permission of the IMC. All teaching and non-teaching staff are subject to section 9 of the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance, Cap 201. The IMC and the principal may refer to Section 7 of School Administration Guide for detailed guidelines on acceptance of advantages.

(d) To summarise, the IMC is responsible for :

• s e t t i n g o u t c r i t e r i a a n d p r o c e d u r e s f o r h a n d l i n g personnel matters;

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

• making these procedures known to all staff concerned;

• ensuring that these procedures are properly documented;

• recommending for the approval of the Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower the appointment of the principal;

• developing an overall plan for staff development and performance management in line with the school goals;

• establishing a staff appraisal system (including the principal);

and

• handling complaints against staff (including the principal).

3.3.2 School Finance

(a) As part of school-based management, the IMC has been given more resources and funding flexibility to meet their specific needs.

A summary of areas of funding flexibility for schools may be accessed on the Education and Manpower Bureau‘s website (http://www.emb.gov.hk).

(b) Funds may be allocated to administrative and curriculum programmes in accordance with the school’s short-term and long- term priorities for development. The school budget is the financial plan for a set period and reflects the use of resources to achieve its goals. The school head, in consultation with the staff, will set out in the budget proposed allocations to the priority development areas of the school. The school budget should be included in the ASP. The IMC has to approve the school budget, monitor and review its expenditure. This review is important, since most improvement requires financial support.

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(c) In exercising discretion in financial matters and monitoring the school finance, schools should always ensure that the interests of students come first and the expenditure is for educational purposes. At the same time, there are also requirements for greater accountability and transparency in the use of resources.

The IMC should provide schools with the scope, criteria and rules for allocating funds. The IMC should also ensure that formal procedures for the management of funds are in place.

(d) To summarise, the IMC is responsible for :

• approving the school budget, which should be included in the ASP;

• monitoring expenditure against budget and evaluating outcomes regularly;

• ensuring that accounts and records of financial operations are kept properly;

• putting in place proper reporting and auditing procedures;

• delegating authority to the principal and staff, for example, to approve expenditure up to a certain amount;

• setting up accountability mechanisms for fund management;

and

• reporting to stakeholders, such as teachers and parents, on the use of public and private funds by the school.

3.3.3 Home-School-Community Partnership

(a) Parents play an increasingly important role in education as they acquire first-hand knowledge of their children. They teach their children and shape their attitudes to learning. Schools can draw on the enthusiasm, knowledge and skills of parents in organising

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

school activities for the enhancement of students’ learning. The IMC plays a leading role in promoting a school culture that encourages and values parental participation in the education of the children.

(b) By exchanging information and collaborating in children’s learning, parents can become partners in the educational process.

Parents have the right to be informed about the various aspects of the school, such as its rules, student and teacher profiles, development priorities, financial situation and student performance. They have to be consulted before changes are introduced, especially those which affect their children’s education. At the same time, parents have the responsibility to keep the school informed of pertinent information about their children. Parents can play an active role in school education and take the initiative to communicate with the school.

(c) The IMC should develop school policies to promote home-school cooperation and cultivate a partnership with the parents. In formulating a parental participation policy, the IMC may consider :

• providing professional development for teachers to enhance their communication skills with parents;

• informing parents regularly about the school goals, children’s participation and achievement towards the goals;

• promoting parents’ knowledge of educational policies and developing their skills in helping their children to learn;

• involving parents in various school functions and activities (taking into consideration the diverse family structures and economic backgrounds);

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• encouraging participation of parents through links with community groups and voluntary service agencies; and

• providing opportunities for parents to share in decision- making, especially on school policies and procedures affecting their children’s learning.

(d) To promote life-wide learning, which is one of the key principles of the educational reforms, our students should be able to learn through activities both inside and outside the classroom. People from different professions in the community provide valuable resources and diversified learning opportunities for our students.

The IMC plays an important role in fostering a sense of co- operation and communication among parents, communities and schools. The IMC needs to :

• develop outreach mechanisms to inform the community about the school’s objectives, policies and achievements; and

• tap resources from the community to promote the all-round development of students.

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Section 3 Responsibilities of the Incorporated Management Committee

As a key stakeholder of school education, a school manager can contribute at the strategic level to the following areas -

• setting the direction of the school and formulating school policies in accordance with the vision and mission of the school [Section 3.1.4];

• approving the SDP, ASP and SR [Section 3.1.4];

• monitoring and evaluating school performance [Section 3.1.4];

• ensuring a broad and balanced school-based curriculum that meet the needs of students of the school [Section 3.2.1];

• setting out criteria and procedures for handling personnel matters including staff development planning, staff performance management and handling complaints [Section 3.3.1];

• setting up accountability mechanisms for financial management including budgeting, monitoring expenditure, auditing and reporting [Section 3.3.2]; and

• promoting home-school-community relationship [Section 3.3.3].

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4.1 Basic Principles Governing the Work of Managers

(a) As IMCs make important decisions that will affect the interests of different parties, it is of paramount importance that the school be governed in ways that inspire confidence in the public, and that decisions be made in an impartial manner for the benefit of the students and the improvement of the school.

(b) Participatory decision-making under school-based management implies that a greater number of new managers will join those who have been contributing valuable time and efforts to school development. To create a common ground for managers to perform their duties in collaboration with one another, there is a cogent case for a set of values shared by all. The following paragraphs highlight the core values that many effective school managers have observed.

4.1.1 Commitment

Managers have to set aside time to be involved in and well acquainted with the school. This includes :

• Familiarizing themselves with the Education Ordinance and Education Regulations, Code of Aid, IMC constitution and relevant circulars issued by the Education and Manpower Bureau;

• Preparing for and attending IMC meetings, contributing to discussions and taking part in agreed actions after meetings;

• Getting to know the school through reading relevant papers, visiting the school and taking part in school activities; and

• Keeping abreast of educational developments by attending seminars and training courses.

Section 4

Code of Ethics for School Managers

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4.1.2 Selflessness

Managers should avoid using their position for personal gain or the gain of other outside parties, including their friends and relatives.

Even when managers are elected by certain constituents, such as parents or teachers, their role in the IMC is to give professional advice to improve student learning, not to serve the interests of their constituents.

4.1.3 Integrity above Private Interest

School managers have a duty to declare to the IMC any private interests relating to their duties as managers and to take steps to resolve any conflict of interest. The interests of the school as a whole, rather than the private interest of an individual manager, should always take top priority.

4.1.4 Impartiality

In carrying out duties such as those relating to appointments, promotions, complaint investigations and the award of contracts, school managers should be impartial. Their choices and decisions should always be based on merit and fairness. Under no circumstances should favor be given and advantages be solicited or accepted that will result in preferential treatment being given to any party.

4.1.5 Collective Responsibility

Under the school-based management framework, all decisions of a school are made by the IMC collectively. The IMC acts as a group.

Each manager has a right to participate and to state his/her own views, while respecting the views of others. School managers have no authority as individuals and decisions should be made by a majority vote in IMC meetings. Once decisions are made by the group, individual managers are bound by them. Changes to such decisions have to be instigated through proper channels agreed on by the IMC.

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4.1.6 Accountability and Openness in Decision-making

School managers are accountable for, and should be as open as possible about, all the decisions and actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the interests of students and schools clearly demand this.

Participatory decision-making in the IMC increases the openness and transparency of school governance as well as its accountability to the community.

4.1.7 Confidentiality

Each manager must respect the confidentiality of those items of business that have been designated as confidential and must not disclose what individual managers have said and how they have voted.

When a matter is under discussion by the IMC, the matter must not be disclosed before a decision is taken. The IMC should reach consensus on items to be disclosed by the spokesperson, who may be the supervisor. Managers have to follow the mode of circulation of confidential documents agreed by the IMC, for example, that these documents will be despatched by hand or in confidential envelopes and should be kept in places with security, such as in a locked cabinet.

4.2 School - based Code of Ethics

(a) With reference to the above principles and in line with the Education Ordinance, the IMC is encouraged to develop its own code of ethics with binding effects on its members. A sample Code of Ethics for School Managers is at Appendix II. The IMC can take this as a reference in initiating discussion among managers and arriving at an agreed code, modifying and making additions as appropriate. Schools may also incorporate into the code the mission and vision of the sponsoring bodies as well as

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Section 4 Code of Ethics for School Managers

(b) The school-based Code of Ethics will help to foster a sense of identity among managers and serve as a useful reminder of the ethical standards and behavior they have agreed to bring to the task. The IMC may also choose to make known to the school community its own code. This will not only further enhance the transparency of the IMC but also help to publicise its work and so gain wider recognition from the community.

(c) It is the personal responsibility of managers to understand and comply with the Code of Ethics. Violation of the provisions of the code may lead to public criticism, disrepute of the school and, in some cases, cancellation of their registration as a manager.

(d) Managers who fail to follow the Code of Ethics may face internal action agreed on by the IMC. In circumstances where the existing laws and regulations are contravened, such as under the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance, prosecutions could be instigated.

Hence, it is important that school managers carry out their managerial duties in accordance with the agreed code.

(e) In October 1995, the Council on Professional Conduct in Education extracted and reprinted the Code for the Education Profession of Hong Kong (the Code) for all practising teachers in the hope that this would promote professional conduct within the profession. In formulating the school-based Code of Ethics for managers, the IMC may consider the Code as a reference with respect to the ethical standards of conduct in the education profession. Managers who wish to know more about the Code may visit the website of the Counil on Professional Conduct in Education at http://cpc.emb.org.hk/text/english/code.htm.

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(a) The core values that an effective school manager should observe are -

commitment [Section 4.1.1]

selflessness [Section 4.1.2]

integrity above private interest [Section 4.1.3]

impartiality [Section 4.1.4]

collective responsibility [Section 4.1.5]

• accountability and openness in decision-making [Section 4.1.6]

confidentiality [Section 4.1.7]

(b) An IMC should develop its own code of ethics with binding effects for its school managers. [Section 4.2]

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The Education Ordinance requires that each manager’s name, tenure of office and category shall be made available for public inspection.

To achieve greater transparency and accountability in the operation of the IMC, managers are also required to declare any pecuniary or other personal interest and disclose any conflict of interest. This action protects them from any unwarranted suspicion or criticism that they are serving private interests, which may otherwise arise. It is imperative that managers should work only for the benefit of students and that the interests of the school should always be above those of individual managers.

5.1 Declaration of Pecuniary or Other Personal Interests under the Education Ordinance

(a) A manager shall, at least once in every 12 months, make to the IMC a written declaration which states the particulars of any pecuniary or other personal interest, direct or indirect, that he/

she has in any matter that raises or may raise a conflict with his/

her duties as a manager of the school, or states that he/she has no such interest. The IMC shall decide when the manager, e.g.

within one month after registration as a manager of the IMC, should make the first written declaration. Within one month after a change occurs in any matter stated in a declaration, the manager who made the declaration shall make to the IMC another written declaration which states the change.

(b) A manager shall, if so required by the IMC, provide the committee with such further information as it thinks necessary to establish any particular contained in a declaration made by him/her.

Section 5

Declaration and Disclosure of Pecuniary or

Other Personal Interests

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5.2 Disclosure of Pecuniary or Other Personal Interests under the Education Ordinance

(a) If a manager has any pecuniary or other personal interest, direct or indirect, in a matter that is considered or is to be considered at a meeting of the IMC, and the matters appear to raise a conflict with the proper performance of the manager’s duties in relation to the consideration of the matter, that manager shall disclose the nature of the interest at the meeting or (if he/she does not attend the meeting) by giving a notice in writing to the committee before the meeting. The disclosure made by a manager shall be recorded in the minutes of the meeting concerned.

(b) After a manager has disclosed the nature of any interest in a matter, he/she shall not, unless the IMC otherwise determines, be present during any deliberation of the committee with respect to the matter or take part in any deliberation or decision of the committee with respect to the matter. For the purposes of the making of a determination by the IMC, a manager who has any pecuniary or other personal interest in a matter to which the disclosure relates must not be present during any deliberation of the committee for the purpose of making the determination or take part in the making by the committee of the determination.

5.3 Conflict of Interest

It would be difficult to define all the situations that would call for such a declaration or disclosure, since each individual case differs and unforeseen circumstances arise. Nevertheless, some potential situations of conflict of interest are described below :

• a directorship, partnership, advisory or client relationship, employment or other significant connection with a company, firm,

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Section 5 Declaration and Disclosure of Pecuniary or Other Personal Interests

club, association, union or other organization which is connected with a matter under consideration by the IMC;

• pecuniary interests in a matter under consideration by the IMC held either by the manager, his/her family or close relatives;

• some friendships which might be so close as to warrant declaration in order to avoid situations where an objective observer might believe that a manager’s advice might have been influenced by the closeness of the association; and

• any interest likely to lead an objective observer to believe that the manager’s advice might have been motivated by personal interest rather than a duty to give impartial advice (such as acceptance of free service, entertainment, gifts or other favours).

5.4 Examples of Conflict of Interest in Schools

(a) Conflict of interest is a situation in which a school manager’s private interests interfere with the proper discharge of his/her duties in the school. Managers should put the interests of students before all other interests in the course of carrying out their duties. Conflict of interest may arise in cases where they exercise authority, influence decisions and actions, or gain access to confidential information. In a school, conflict of interest may arise in the following cases, which are by no means exhaustive:

• admission of students;

• staff appointment and promotion;

• complaints and disciplinary actions against staff and students;

• selection of textbooks, sale of exercise books and other school accessories;

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• supply of school uniforms;

• provision of school bus service;

• approval of tuckshop operations;

• provision of catering service e.g. lunch boxes; and

• purchase of furniture and equipment e.g. award of tenders.

(b) The Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) has produced a guidebook The Integrity Management for Schools – A Practical Guidebook for School Staff which explains corruption loopholes through case studies and recommends to school management the principles of formulating corruption prevention measures. The contents cover acceptance of advantages and donations, conflict of interest, tendering and procurement, and accounts management. The guidebook is available on the ICAC homepage (http://www.icac.org.hk/eng/0/1/10/17/14811.html).

5.5 A Two-pronged Approach to Declaration of Conflict of Interest

(a) On taking up office, school managers should declare in writing to the IMC any pecuniary or other personal interests that may conflict with their managerial duties. A two-pronged approach shall be adopted :

• managers declare any conflict of interest to the IMC, which will set up a register for recording the declared interests of individual managers; and

• managers disclose any conflict of interest during the discussion of specific agenda items at the meetings of IMCs.

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Section 5 Declaration and Disclosure of Pecuniary or Other Personal Interests

(b) The sample declaration form is at Appendix III. IMCs are encouraged to modify the form to suit their needs. Having made a declaration to the IMC, managers should take it upon themselves to update any information whenever necessary, although they are required to declare to the IMC at least once in every 12 months any conflict of interest. If managers are in doubt as to whether a declaration is warranted, they may seek the advice of the supervisor of the IMC.

(c) When a known direct pecuniary interest exists, the supervisor of the IMC may withhold circulation of relevant papers to the managers concerned. Where a manager is in direct receipt of a paper for discussion that he/she knows presents a direct conflict of interest, he/she should immediately inform the secretary and return the paper.

5.6 Register of Interests

(a) The IMC shall maintain a register of managers’ declared financial and personal conflict of interest, which should be available for inspection by any inspector of schools at any reasonable time. It may also consider making available the register for inspection by the interested stakeholders like teachers, parents and alumni of the school upon request.

(b) The IMC shall also maintain a register of all disclosures relating to the matters that are considered or are to be considered at a meeting of the IMC, which shall be available for public inspection at any reasonable time.

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(c) There should be proper procedures for the safe custody of the declaration forms, which should only be kept by a designated member or the supervisor of the IMC. The IMC may make reference to the Code of Practice on Human Resource Management published by the Office of Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data in determining the duration of retention of the register. The personal data should not be kept longer than is necessary for the fulfillment of the purposes for which the data are to be used.

(d) Any disclosure of conflict of interest made during a meeting has to be recorded in the minutes and the register must be updated accordingly.

(e) The register and meeting minutes on declaration of conflict of interest are under the protection of the Data Protection Principles of the Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance.

(a) It is imperative that school managers work only for the benefits of students and that the interests of the school should always be above theirs. [Section 5.4]

(b) A manager has to observe the requirements in relation to declaration and disclosure of interests stipulated in the Education Ordinance. [Section 5.1 & 5.2]

Figure

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References

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