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The Curriculum Development Council Recommended for use in schools by
A series of eight Key Learning Area (KLA) Curriculum Guides (Primary 1 to Secondary 3) and the General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (2002) have been developed by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) to support the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) and to help realize the recommendations made in the CDC Report on Learning to Learn - The Way Forward in Curriculum Development (2001) and in the Education Commission's (EC's) education reform final report, Learning for Life, Learning through Life (2000).
The CDC is an advisory body giving recommendations to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government on all matters relating to curriculum development for the school system from kindergarten to sixth form. Its membership includes heads of schools, teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields or related bodies and representatives from the Hong Kong Examinations Authority, as well as officers from the Education Department.
The KLA and General Studies (GS) Curriculum Guides are based on the Learning to Learn consultation documents of the respective KLAs and GS published in November 2000. Relevant KLA committees under the CDC have taken into consideration the concerns, needs and interests of schools, teachers and students as well as societal expectations expressed during the consultation period when developing these Guides.
The KLA and GS Curriculum Guides aim to present curriculum frameworks, which specify the KLAs' or GS's curriculum aims, learning targets and objectives, and provide suggestions regarding curriculum planning, learning and teaching strategies, assessment and resources. In addition, each Curriculum Guide provides exemplars of effective learning, teaching and assessment practices. Schools are encouraged to adopt the recommendations in the Curriculum Guides and to achieve the learning goals of the school curriculum (CDC Report, 2001) and aims of education (EC Report, 2000), taking into consideration their contexts, needs and strengths.
Schools are also encouraged to make cross-reference to the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) and the related subject guides as often as possible. This will ensure that there is a coherent understanding of curriculum planning at school, KLA and subject levels.
As curriculum development is a collaborative and on-going enhancement process,
Ideas and suggestions on the development of the Technology Education Curriculum are always welcome and may be sent to:
Chief Curriculum Development Officer (Technology Education) Curriculum Development Institute
Education Department Room 501, 5/F, 24, Tin Kwong Road, Kowloon
Technology Education Key Learning Area (TE KLA)
• Technology is the purposeful application of knowledge, skills and experiences in using resources to create products or systems to meet human needs.
• Technology influences and is influenced by the cultures of people, is part of our daily life and has impact on the individual, family and society.
(Section 1.2.2) Technology Education
• Technology Education is the entitlement of EVERY student. It is the learning of how human beings solve their daily problems and how to replicate and transfer the process to solve new problems that arise from time to time.
(Sections 1.3.1 - 1.3.2) Existing Subjects under TE KLA
• At the primary level, the content of TE is subsumed in the General Studies curriculum.
• At the junior secondary level, there are a total of 15 subjects which are of diversified orientations to satisfy the different interests and needs of students.
(Sections 1.3.3 - 1.3.5) Direction for Development
• TE will be moving from a curriculum that provides students with specialized knowledge and skills to one that emphasizes the development of students' understanding of their own aptitudes, interests and abilities for their future studies and work.
Aims of TE
TE aims to help students to develop their:
• Technological Capability to identify needs, problems and opportunities;
technological activities; the concepts, knowledge and processes of different technologies
• Technological Awareness to be aware of the cultural and contextual dependence of developing technologies, and their impact on the individual, family, society and environment.
(Section 2.1) Principles to Guide Actions
• Building on the existing strengths of schools and Hong Kong
• Relating the curriculum to daily life and keeping it abreast of the local economic, industrial and technological changes
• Relating the curriculum to the experiences, interests and inclinations of students
• Providing space for developing students' potentials
(Sections 1.5.1 & 3.2.5) The Central Curriculum of TE
• The central curriculum helps students develop their knowledge, generic skills, and values and attitudes through the study of the following three strands:
Knowledge Contexts in Technology:
- Information and Communication Technology - Materials and Structures
- Operations and Manufacturing - Strategies and Management - Systems and Control
- Technology and Living Process in Technology Impact of Technology
(Section 2.2.1) Core and Extensions
• For each Knowledge Context, extension learning elements are provided to help students to excel in areas of their own choice.
(Section 2.3) Emphasis of TE Learning at Different Key Stages
• Key Stages 1 and 2 (P.1 - 6 in General Studies): Awareness and Exploration
• Key Stage 3 (S.1 - 3): Exploration, Experiencing and Familiarization
• Key Stage 4 (S.4 - 5) and beyond: Exploring Orientation for Life-long Learning and Specialization
(Sections 1.4.4 & 2.5) School-based Curriculum Development
- Vision and mission of the school as well as those of its sponsoring body - Strengths of the school and its teaching force
- Background and learning needs of students - Resources of the school
• Phases of school-based curriculum planning - Subject-based learning
- Aligning existing subjects
- Collaborative teaching of subjects - Theme-based learning
- Life experiences of students
(Sections 3.2.5-3.2.10) Learning and Teaching
• The learning and teaching of TE should:
- be purposeful
- be progressive and iterative in nature
- involve the coordination of the mind (problem-solving) and hands (hands-on experiences)
- integrate the different knowledge contexts in TE
- nurture in students the basic knowledge, skills and attitudes for life-long
or talent in TE
(Section 4.1.1) Short Term Targets
• Enhancing student learning: from skill-based or content-based teaching towards learning and teaching for a balanced development of technological capability, understanding and awareness
• Broadening TE learning through life-wide and life-long learning
(Section 1.5.2) (Refer to Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) for more information on various curriculum matters.)
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 What is a Key Learning Area? 3
1.2 Overview of Technology 4
1.3 Position of the Technology Education Key Learning Area 5 in the Schoool Curriculum
1.4 Rationale and Direction for Development 7
1.5 Strategies for Development 9
1.6 Structure of the Guide 11
Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework
2.1 Curriculum Aim of Technology Education 15
2.2 The Curriculum Framework 16
2.3 Core and Extensions 41
2.4 Curriculum and Subject Organization 43
2.5 Interface with Secondary 4 and Secondary 5 43
Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning
3.1 A Balanced Curriculum 47
3.2 Central Curriculum and School-based Curriculum Development 47
3.3 Cross Key Learning Area Links 61
3.4 Time Allocation 62
Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching
4.1 Principles to Guide Actions 65
4.2 Approaches to Learning and Teaching 65
4.3 Catering for Student Diversity 74
4.4 Homework 75
Chapter 5 Assessment
5.1 Principles to Guide Actions 79
5.2 Modes of Assessment 79
5.3 Formative Assessment 85
5.4 Summative Assessment 86
5.5 Reporting 87
Chapter 6 Learning and Teaching Resources
6.1 Textbooks 91
6.2 Quality Learning and Teaching Resources 91
6.3 Resources Management in Schools 91
Exemplars Exemplars of Developing a Technology Education School-based Curriculum in Primary and
1. Technology Education Curriculum in ABC Secondary School I-3 2. Technology Education Curriculum in LCM Secondary School I-8 3. Technology Education Curriculum in DEF Primary School I-14
Exemplars of Learning, Teaching and Assessment Activities
4. A Presentation to Promote the Image of Hong Kong I-18
5. Poster Design I-21
6. From Tough to Tender - Methods of Tenderizing Meat I-24
7. Building a Tower I-28
8. A Balanced Diet Exercise I-31
9. Project Work Assessment - Design Challenge - Hand-held I-34 Communication Device
A. Technology Learning Activities II-3
B. References for Teachers II-5
i. Reference Books II-5
1. Local III-1
2. International III-1
3. Websites Consulted III-3
Membership of Curriculum Development Council Committee
on Technology Education (from September 1999)
List of Figures
Figure 1 Subjects under Technology Education Key Learning 6 Area
Figure 2 Technology Education Curriculum Framework 17 Figure 3 Learning Elements under Knowledge Contexts in 20
Figure 4 Learning Objectives at Different Stages of Learning 24 Figure 5 Core and Extensions of Learning Elements 42
under the Six Knowledge Contexts in Technology Education
Figure 6 Phases of Development: From a Subject-based 51 Curriculum to a Curriculum on Life Experiences
Figure 7 Modes of School-based Technology Education 52 Curriculum Development
Figure 8 Establishing Links between Home Economics 55 and Design & Technology
Figure 9 Integrated Learning Elements in Technology 56 Education Subjects
Figure 10 A Framework of School Assessment Practices 78 Figure 11 Technology Education Reporting System 87
List of Examples
Example 1 Emphasis on Awareness and Exploration 8 Example 2 Emphasis on Exploration, Experiencing and 9
Example 3 Emphasis on Exploring Orientation for Life-long 9 Learning and Specialization
Example 4 Developing Communication Skills 36
Example 5 Developing Creativity 37
Example 6 Developing Critical Thinking Skills 37
Example 7 Developing Collaboration Skills 38
Example 8 Developing Information Technology Skills 38
Example 9 Developing Numeracy Skills 39
Example 10 Developing Problem-solving Skills 39
Example 11 Developing Self-management Skills 40
Example 12 Developing Study Skills 40
Example 13 Establishing Links between Subjects - 55 Home Economics and Design & Technology
Example 14 Theme-based Learning - Quality Living 58 Chapter 4
Example 15 Developing Civic Mindedness through TE Learning 68 Activities
Example 16 Developing Reading to Learn Skills in TE 69 Example 17 Learning TE through Projects at the Primary Level 69
Example 18 IT for Interactive Learning in TE 70
Example 19 TE Life-wide Learning - Technology Competition 72 Example 20 TE Life-wide Learning - Job Attachment Programme 73 Chapter 5
Example 21 Project Work Assessment - Light Source 81 Example 22 Project Work Assessment - Improving Our Community 81 Example 23 Project Work Assessment - Software for an 82
Information Kiosk for Your School
Example 24 Task-based Assessment 84
This Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2002) is to be used in conjunction with the Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002), the existing 15 Technology Education (TE) subject syllabuses (Secondary 1-3) and the General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (2002). This Guide helps schools to move from the existing subject orientation towards a balanced TE curriculum framework and its associated curriculum planning.
1.1 What is a Key Learning Area (KLA)?
A Key Learning Area is an important part of the school curriculum. It is founded on fundamental and connected concepts within major fields of knowledge which should be acquired by all students. A KLA provides a knowledge context for the development and application of both generic skills (e.g. creativity, skills of communication, critical thinking and collaboration) and subject-specific skills, positive values and attitudes through appropriate use of learning and teaching activities and strategies. It serves as a context for the construction of new knowledge and the development of understanding. The studies offered in each KLA may have an academic, social or practical orientation or a combination of these, depending on their purpose(s). They can be organized into subjects, modules, units, tasks or other modes of learning. The interrelationships among Knowledge, Skills, and Values and Attitudes are depicted below:
1.2.1 In the context of this Guide, technology is defined as the purposeful application of knowledge, skills and experiences in using resources to create products or systems to meet human needs. Technologies have been employed and constantly improved over time to satisfy basic human needs in various aspects of daily life:
Using natural materials such as animal skin
Weaving with silk and cotton
Production of synthetic fabrics such as nylon and polyester
Primitive hunting and fishing
Production of genetically modified food
Living in caves and igloos
Using wooden pillars and beams in traditional Chinese architecture and
marble in ancient Greek architecture
Using pre-fabricated building parts in intelligent buildings
Carriages drawn by horses
Trains powered by steam engines
Magnetic floating trains In shelter:
and innovations of technology influence the development of human civilizations, affecting and changing interactions among people, organizations, artefacts, etc.
1.2.3 Technology also constitutes an influential factor in the social and economic development of our society. The milestones in technological development often bring about a rearrangement of values and beliefs as well as a change in the social, economic and political structures of our society.
• Paper making and printing facilitate the keeping of records, the passing on of knowledge and the process of communication.
• The compass makes exploration of the world more feasible, resulting in a greater mobility.
• Development in information technology, for example, from the abacus to the computer, has resulted in great leaps forward in the processing of data and information.
1.3 Position of the Technology Education Key Learning Area in the School Curriculum
1.3.1 TE is one of the eight KLAs that each student is entitled to study. It provides students with the essential knowledge contexts that are related to the improvement of everyday living, and the social and economic development. TE helps to keep Hong Kong abreast of technological advancement in the world. The contexts within which technology operates include areas like home, design, food, business and finance, information and communication, etc. which should be updated whenever required.
1.3.2 TE learning experiences focus on how human beings solve their daily problems and how the process could be replicated and transferred to solve new problems that arise from time to time. Hence TE is also an effective platform for nurturing the problem- solving skills, creativity and critical thinking skills of students. TE helps students to develop the knowledge and skills for further studies, for work, or both, as well as cultivate their attitude as life-long learners for the betterment of their adult life.
1.3.3 The existing school subjects under the TE KLA listed in Figure 1 are of diversified orientations, such as academic, practical and vocational. They provide the strengths,
e 1 Subjects under Technology Education Key Learning Area Business SubjectsBusiness FundamentalsPrinciples of AccountsPrinciples of A Word Processing & Business Communication (English) Retail Merchandising Commerce Business Studi Computer EducationComputer LiteracyComputer StudiesTo be replaced byComputer Studi Computer and InformationComputer Appli Information TechnologyTechnology Home EconomicsHome EconomicsHome Economics (Food, Home and Family) Home Economics (Dress and Design) Technological SubjectsCatering ServicesAccommodation & Accommodation & Catering ServicesCatering Services Automobile TechnologyAuto Repairs Design & TechnologyDesign & TechnologyDesign & Techn Design & TechnologyDesign & Technology (Alternative Syllabus)(Alternative Syllabus) Design Fundamentals Desktop PublishingPrinting Engineering ScienceEngineering Sci Electronics & ElectricityElectrical StudiesElectronics & ElectricityElectronics (ASL) Fashion DesignFashion & ClothingFashion & Clothing Technology FundamentalsMetalworkTechnological StudiesMetalwork Graphical CommunicationTechnical DrawingGraphical CommunicationTechnical Drawing TextilesTextiles S.1-3S.4-5S.6-7 Groups of SubjectsExisting SubjectsExisting Subjects Proposed to be Phased out/be Replaced
Existing Subjects Proposed to be Phased out/be Replaced
Existing SubjectsExisting Subjects
Education (PSHE) and Science KLAs. The total suggested time allocation for GS is 12%
1.3.5 At the junior secondary level, the existing TE curriculum is subject-based and has a suggested time allocation of 8% - 15%. The government has provided additional resources to a number of schools where technology subjects are better vehicles for the development of students' generic skills and of values and attitudes, and suit their specific interests and aptitudes. In these schools, the time allocation for TE is 25% - 35% and the lesson time, in terms of percentages allocated to other KLAs, could be adjusted accordingly.
1.4 Rationale and Direction for Development
1.4.1 Rationale for development in TE
• There is an urgent need to prepare students to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing world and to maintain Hong Kong's competitive edge in the Asia-Pacific Region and in the world.
• TE subjects are introduced at different points in time with different emphases to meet the social needs of that particular time. The timely updating and reorganizing of the TE curriculum would keep TE learning in pace with the technological and social development and thus helps to prepare students for their adult life.
• The provision of various TE learning experiences to students in different schools gives them the opportunities to develop their potentials to the fullest.
• Recently students have been given many opportunities to develop basic skills in information technology. More space might now be given for students to acquire and construct knowledge in other areas of TE.
• The existing TE subjects such as Home Economics, the subjects of the New Technical Curriculum and school-based curriculum innovations which have emerged recently have provided a good basis to develop the technological literacy1 in students.
• From acquisition of easily outdated discipline-based knowledge and skills to understanding of broader technological contexts to keep abreast of changes in the world.
• From a choice between academic or vocational studies to a judicious balance of academic and practical studies for solving daily life problems, for life-long learning and for work.
• From acquisition of trade-specific skills to application of generic skills in new situations to develop creativity, critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
• From a subject-based curriculum to diversified modes of curriculum planning based on the strengths of schools, and the needs and interests of students.
1.4.3 The aims and design of the TE curriculum, from primary to junior secondary and then to senior secondary level, should be coherent, continuous and progressive, in accordance with the social and cognitive development of students.
1.4.4 The emphasis of TE at different Key Stages (KSs) is:
At the primary level, KS1 & KS2:
• "Awareness and Exploration".
Example 1 Emphasis on Awareness and Exploration In playing with battery-
powered cars or lightweight model planes powered by elastic rubber bands, students learn about sources of energy and their characteristics. They can explore the amount of energy provided by a different
number of batteries, by the number of turns given to the elastic rubber band, or by rubber bands with different elasticity. They can experience how technology works and how cars or planes are designed so that the amount of energy provided is not wasted. Through these activities, students develop their interest and curiosity in technology, and their ability to appraise technological products critically.
• "Exploration, Experiencing and Familiarization".
Example 2 Emphasis on Exploration, Experiencing and Familiarization In TE classes at the junior secondary level, students learn about the characteristics of energy supplied through the mains (the gas and the electricity). Through hands-on activities, they learn about the convenience of having these energy supplies, how gas and electricity are used to power our household appliances to improve our quality of life, and the potential hazards and related safety issues associated with their use. Students will learn to act sensibly, and know what to do and what not to do when there is a gas leak. The activities may be modified to cater for the different needs of students.
On progressing into senior secondary, KS4:
• "Exploring Orientation for Life-long Learning and Specialization".
Example 3 Emphasis on Exploring Orientation for Life-long Learning and Specialization
In their further studies on energy sources, students acquire knowledge about how the power generated by the different energy sources can be controlled, how the efficiency can be maximized, and how the design and control concepts can be integrated to develop systems or products to satisfy identified needs.
Students learn to see the global nature of different sources of energy as they explore them. They acquire concepts pertaining to sustainable development as they examine the world energy consumption and the current energy crisis. They develop their communication and information processing skills as they explore and disseminate information pertaining to these issues. Through the process of learning TE, students are better equipped for future study and work.
1.5 Strategies for Development
1.5.1 In adopting strategies for the development of a TE curriculum, schools need to ensure that:
variety of technologies and to ensure that the learning is up to date.
• The key tasks such as project learning, reading to learn and information technology for interactive learning are used to promote technological awareness, understanding and capability.
• Schools could build on their strengths and use different modes of curriculum planning to provide a more balanced TE curriculum, shifting the emphasis from rigid subject- based contents and trade-specific skills towards a more open, flexible and updateable curriculum.
• Schools should choose the contexts, contents, and learning and teaching strategies, and activities most suited to the needs and interests of students.
1.5.2 In the short term (2001-02 to 2005-06), students and teachers are expected to:
Our Students Our Teachers
Primary 1 - Primary 3 Please refer to General Studies for
Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (2002)
Please refer to General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6)(2002)
Primary 4 - Primary 6 Please refer to General Studies for
Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (2002)
Please refer to General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6)(2002)
Secondary 1 - Secondary 3
• Engage in authentic, hands-on problem-solving learning activities using easily available materials and equipment
• Develop their knowledge and skills to cope with rapidly emerging
• Develop their willingness to update their knowledge and skills in technology from time to time
• Appraise the impact of technology and develop critical thinking ability
• Move away from subject-based
teaching and specific skills training to hands-on problem-solving teaching
• Integrate student learning within TE KLA and with other KLAs through different subjects
• Provide life-wide learning experiences to students
• Encourage students to appraise their solutions
• Use a variety of methods to assess students' learning processes and
and transferable skills and provides a strong foundation in TE for students to continue their studies in TE or other KLAs at the senior secondary level. At the senior secondary level, schools are expected to specialize in areas in which their students and teachers do well.
1.5.4 In the long term (beyond 2011), TE prepares students for life in the ever- changing world by developing their technological capability, understanding and awareness so that they are enabled to apply and appraise technological innovations and create them themselves.
1.6 Structure of the Guide
Chapter 1 sets out an overview of Technology and Technology Education (TE), and the direction and strategies for development in TE.
Chapter 2 defines a TE curriculum framework.
Chapter 3 provides suggestions on the planning and organization of a TE curriculum at the primary and junior secondary levels and the principles and strategies for planning a school-based TE policy.
Chapter 4 focuses on the principles and strategies of organizing learning and teaching in TE.
Chapter 5 focuses on the guiding principles and strategies for assessment in TE.
Chapter 6 provides information on the learning and teaching resources for TE.
The exemplars and appendices illustrate the points made in the guide, wherever appropriate, for the reference of readers.
Booklet 1, Basic Education Curriculum Guide - Building on Strengths (2002) provides relevant information on the curriculum framework.
2.1 Curriculum Aim of Technology Education
2.1.1 Technology Education (TE) aims to develop technological literacy in students through the cultivation of technological capability, technological understanding and technological awareness. TE provides students with the opportunities to acquire the essential knowledge and concepts, learn the process and skills, and be aware of the impact of technologies in improving everyday living, enhancing social and economic development, and keeping Hong Kong abreast of the technological advancement. Through TE, students are enabled to:
• develop their abilities in identifying needs, problems and opportunities, their respective constraints and preferences
• develop, communicate, implement and evaluate solutions creatively
• develop their abilities in making informed decisions in creating, using and modifying artefacts, systems and environments
• understand the interdisciplinary nature of technological activities
• understand the underlying concepts and principles of technological artefacts, systems and environments
• understand and apply the knowledge of process and resources used in designing, making and evaluating products, systems and solutions
• be aware of the cultural and contextual dependence of technological developments
• respect cultural differences and the rights of others as well as develop a sense of social responsibility in performing technological activities
• be aware that the well-being of oneself, one's family, society and the natural environment depends upon decisions on how to use technological artefacts and
2.2 The Curriculum Framework
The curriculum framework for TE is the overall structure for organizing learning and teaching for the subjects of TE. The framework, shown in Figure 2, comprises a set of interlocking components including:
• subject knowledge and skills, which are expressed in the form of learning targets under the Strands of Knowledge Contexts in Technology, Process in Technology and Impact of Technology, as well as learning objectives;
• generic skills; and
• positive values and attitudes.
The framework sets out what students should know, value and be able to do at various stages of schooling. It gives schools and teachers flexibility and ownership to plan and develop different curriculum modes according to the strengths of the schools and the learning needs of their students.
To develop technological literacy in students through the cultivation of technological capability, technological understanding and technological awareness to deal with the challenges of the future.
• Knowledge Contexts in Technology
• Process in Technology
• Impact of Technology
Different Modes of School-based TE Curriculum Development
Student Learning Planning Learning,
Teaching and Assessment Activities Generic
Values and Attitudes
Strands refer to the categories of Knowledge and Concepts that should be acquired by students in a Key Learning Area (KLA).
In TE, students achieve the aims of TE learning, develop their generic skills and nurture their values and attitudes through the study of the following three strands:
(A) Knowledge Contexts in Technology (B) Process in Technology
(C) Impact of Technology
(A) Knowledge Contexts in Technology
Knowledge Contexts refer to a broad base of learning elements in TE which could be updated as necessary to keep students abreast of the rapidly emerging changes in technology. They provide the contexts for the development of technological capability, understanding and awareness in students. These contexts should preferably be:
• related to local business, industries or daily life,
• updated and in line with current scientific and technological development,
• related to the experiences and interests of students, etc.
In the current Hong Kong context, the following six knowledge contexts are considered essential for TE:
(i) Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
ICT has become the prime tool for learning and is now part of our daily life.
(ii) Materials and Structures:
Whether as a consumer or technologist, an understanding of materials and resources is essential and constitutes an important first step in the design process.
(iii) Operations and Manufacturing:
It is important that students acquire the necessary skills to manage the resources and
of the region, it is essential that our students be equipped with the concepts of business and management.
(v) Systems and Control:
Systems, both at the micro and macro levels, are all around us - in the home, in education, at work, etc. Our students need to have a good understanding of the concepts, applications and implications of systems.
(vi) Technology and Living:
Technology affects our lives and enhances the nurturing of quality people and quality homes.
The six knowledge contexts of TE learning provide the platforms for the organization of student learning. In Basic Education, Primary 1 to Secondary 3 (P.1-S.3), after taking the TE learning targets and the curriculum of existing subjects into consideration, a list of learning elements under the six knowledge contexts are developed for schools' reference.
Of these learning elements, five, i.e. "Technology and Society", "Safety and Health",
"Information Processing and Presentation", "Design and Applications" and "Consumer Education" are considered common to the six knowledge contexts. Details are depicted in Figure 3.
Knowledge contexts are vehicles for student learning. Through study in various knowledge contexts and through engaging in a range of learning activities, students will acquire technological concepts and knowledge and develop an understanding of the process of technological development and an awareness of the impact of technology on individuals, family, society and the environment.
Technology & Society
• Legal issues
• Ethical issues
• Environmental issues
• Health issues
• Changes in lifestyle Safety & Health
• Protective clothing
• Choice, use and care of tools, equipment and chemicals
• Working attitude
• Good housekeeping of work area Information Processing & Presentation
• Computer and computer operation
• Application of information technology (IT)
• Information processing and information processing tools
• Issues related to the use of IT Design & Applications
• Basic elements of design
• Design process
• Design consideration
• Fashion design
• Product design
• Cost-benefit analysis Consumer Education Information &
• Hardware and software
• Properties and functions of usual components
• Usual components of a computer network
• Use of computer networks
• Internet activities
• Problem- solving procedures and techniques
• Ideas of a stored programme
• Data manipulation
• Types and nature of common materials
• Material properties and testing
• Appropriate application of resources for design work
• Reuse and recycle of resources
• Processing of materials - removal, forming, joining and finishing
• Appropriate choice and use of material process
• Simple properties of structure and movement
• Different structural design for various needs
• Use of mechanisms for
transmission and control of movements
• Safe use of tools and equipment
• Appropriate choice and use of tools, equipment and machines for realization of design solutions
• Production process in various fields
• Factors and constraints in choosing production process
• Skills, procedures and resources for production process
• Planning and organizing work in steps or procedures
• Cooperation and coordination with individuals in projects:
decision- making, planning, organization, control and evaluation procedures
Business Environments, Operations &
• Business environments- economic, technological, cultural &
physical, social- political-legal
• Different types of business organizations
• Decision making, planning, organization, control, evaluation, and quality assurance in business operations and projects
• Financial budgeting (personal &
company) and reporting
• Scheduling of resources
• Human resources
• Market research
• Promotion campaigns
• Customer services
• Quality assurance
Concepts of System
• Input, process and output
• Open loop and closed control system
• System components
Application of Systems
• Mechanical, electrical, electronic and pneumatic control systems
• Model control systems
• Interconnection of systems and sub-systems
• Contemporary products
• Control for automation
• Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Food & Nutrition
• Food groups
• Dietary goals &
• Meal planning
• Hygiene &
• Principles of food preparation &
• Skills in food preparation &
Fabric & Clothing Construction
• Choice of fabric in relation to the design &
• Pattern and garment construction
Fashion & Dress Sense
• Fashion trend &
• Choice of clothing for different considerations
• Family relationship
Home Management &
• Management of family resources
• Food technology
• Energy saving devices
The Process in Technology enables students to gain experiences in developing, evaluating, and refining ideas to solve technological problems. It also encourages the creation of innovative designs and the realization of these designs to meet human needs.
Technological development always starts with a purpose in mind: to create a hunting tool, a shelter to keep away from bad weather, a system to store a large amount of information which can be retrieved easily, etc.; followed by the design of artefacts and systems; the search for appropriate materials and the trying out of the design to see whether it fulfills the intended purpose. In most cases, more than one solution will emerge and we have to assess the effectiveness of each so as to make the best choice.
This "Process in Technology" is at the heart of TE, enabling students to acquire generic and transferable skills to develop further innovative technologies.
(C) Impact of Technology
Studying the Impact of Technology develops an awareness of the consequences of technological development and their applications. Students come to see how the beliefs, social values and ethics of individuals and groups influence and are influenced by such development.
Students should not be blind followers of new technologies. They should be provided with opportunities to assess the "Impact of Technology" on themselves, their families, society and mankind; and to cultivate a global outlook towards innovative technological development.
The Learning Targets
Through various stages of schooling, students will develop their technological literacy by studying the three strands of TE learning and using the six knowledge contexts as the platform for their learning. It is anticipated that:
• On completion of the primary level (i.e. Key Stages 1 & 2), students will have:
- developed an interest and curiosity in exploring everyday needs and in thinking of ways to respond to these;
rights and responsibilities
• On completion of the junior secondary level (i.e. Key Stage 3), students will have:
- mastered basic skills in the use of their minds and hands to solve everyday problems and developed an understanding of how to use technologies appropriately - adopted a healthy lifestyle and maintained good family relationships
- developed a basic understanding of the business world and of how to manage their personal finances
- become socially aware decision-makers who care about public morality and the environment
• Students who have a special interest in technology and a talent for it will have:
- developed a more in-depth understanding in particular areas of technology, such as control and automation, project management, computer networks, etc.
- integrated various TE learning elements within their knowledge framework and understood their inter-relationships
- mastered the knowledge and concepts underpinning some applications of technology
The Learning Objectives
The six knowledge contexts are the platforms to organize student learning aiming at developing students' concept and knowledge of technologies, process in technology, impact of technology, generic skills, values and attitudes. The proposed learning objectives categorized under the six knowledge contexts at Key Stages 1 - 3 (KS1 - KS3) are outlined in Figure 4.
As a short-term development, these proposed learning objectives would be tried out and further modified in schools through various school-based projects. Good practices would be disseminated to schools from time to time. For KS1 and KS2, references can be made to the General Studies for Primary Schools Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (2002).
Knowledge Contexts Learning Elements KS1 Primary 1-3 Technology & Society
Safety & Health
Information Processing &
• Be aware that technology is closely connected to activities in daily life
• Be aware of the functional and aesthetic aspects of
• Know the importance of and the ways of maintaining personal hygiene and safety
• Exercise self-discipline in managing one's hygiene and safety in daily life situations
• Show concern about the safety issues when using technology
• Know how to operate computers and the related devices
• Be aware of the wide applications of IT in our everyday life
• Be aware of and concerned about the beneficial and harmful effects of the use of technology to mankind and the environment
• Accept that it is one's responsibility to make sound judgments on the use of technology
• Be aware of the latest developments in technology
• Know the factors affecting one's health and safety, and ways to maintain health and manage risks
• Analyse relevant information and make informed decisions on personal health
• Understand the importance of community health
• Develop skills to access, process and present information, including sending and retrieving e-mail, and accessing information on the Internet
• Use IT tools or software packages to support learning
• Show concern about issues related to the use of IT
• Appraise the impact of technology
(direct and indirect, short-term and long- term, etc.) on our personal and social lives, the structure and economy of society, the natural and man-made world, etc.
• Understand issues related to the use and advancement of technology, including legal, ethical, environmental and health issues, as well as issues related to a change in life style
• Understand and apply safety precautions and regulations in handling tools,
equipment and resources in technological process
• Be aware of the need to take into consideration safety precautions in planning the design process
• Be aware of current issues on health
• Know the responsibilities of a business in providing a safe environment to its employees, customers, and third parties
• Know how to release stress and physical fatigue in the office environment
• Understand basic concepts related to the use of information technology and the computer
• Develop the capability to process and present information independently or collaboratively with peers
• Be aware of the validity and reliability of information, and be able to verify and evaluate the accuracy and reliability of information
Design & Applications
• Design and make artefacts with commonly available resources
• Develop interests and curiosity in knowing how things work
• Be aware of the functional and aesthetic aspects in a variety of designs and products
• Be aware of consumers’ rights and responsibilities
• Be aware of the different components of a computer and their functions
• Be aware of intellectual property rights, data privacy issues, etc. and observe the rules and regulations in handling information
• Know how to apply good communication and presentation skills to influence and obtain the desired responses from the intended audience
• Develop and evaluate a product or a system according to the functional, aesthetic and other standards
• Know how to apply cost-benefit principles to technological processes
• Recognize the role and functions of the Consumer Council
• Make rational consumer decisions
• Choose the appropriate hardware and software to perform specific tasks
• Develop skills to perform a variety of Internet activities
• Be aware of the approaches used in solving problems
• Develop skills to solve problems systematically
• Know how to develop simple programmes to solve problems
• Recognize the concepts used in the design cycle and apply them in solving problems
• Understand the functional and aesthetic requirements in design and project work
• Design and build models by using different materials and test the selected functional characteristics of the models built
• Identify the rights and responsibilities of a consumer
• Be aware of the impact of advertising and other forms of promotion
• Know the meaning of hardware and software and be able to make a distinction between them
• Know the meaning of a computer network
• Appreciate the importance and the wide applications of computer networks
• Know the meaning of programmes and data and be able to make a distinction between them
• Identify some common materials and know their uses in daily life
• Design and make artefacts with common materials
• Recognize some characteristics of movement
• Be aware of the importance of working with tools safely
• Understand how to use small hand tools properly
Materials & Resources
Structures & Mechanisms
Tools & Equipment
Production Process Materials & Structures
• Understand the physical properties of a range of materials
• Choose and make use of suitable materials and resources for design and project work
• Be concerned about the use and disposal of materials that may affect the natural environment
• Understand the importance of reusing and recycling resources for the sustainable development of our society
• Choose and use appropriate tools and machinery for material processing
• Understand common material processing procedures such as cutting, forming and finishing
• Be aware of the need to minimize damage to the environment during processing of materials
• Make use of structural and mechanical properties of different materials and devices for design and project work
• Understand that different structural designs can lead to different loading capacities
• Make use of different mechanisms to enhance the functionality of various designs
• Use tools, machines or equipment to process various materials, energy and information
• Apply tools, machines or equipment for the realization of design solutions
• Understand the factors in selecting various process for designing and making products
• Understand a range of materials in the forming and removal processes
• Classify materials by their properties and sources
• Explore the physical properties of different materials
• Understand that different materials and resources could be processed to suit various needs
• Be aware that different structures and mechanisms can enhance the functionality of various designs to suit different needs
• Choose and use the appropriate tools and equipment for working with common materials and information
• Be aware of the production process in various fields
• Be aware of various factors and constraints in the production process
• Be aware of the importance of planning and organizing work into steps or procedures for given tasks Project Management
Business Environments, Operations & Organizations
• Understand a range of materials in the joining and finishing processes
• Manipulate the tools and equipment in various production processes
• Cooperate with individuals in projects and in decision-making, planning, organization, control and evaluation
• Know the business environments and different types of business organizations
• Be aware of how to set up a business after identification of its missions and long-term objectives
• Understand the importance and procedures of decision making, planning, organization, control, evaluation, and quality assurance in business operations and projects
• Know how to handle money, e.g. bank notes, electronic money, etc. wisely for self and the accounts of organizations such as class associations
• Understand how to prepare and control simple budgets and reports for managing one's own resources and business projects
• Be aware of the importance of effectiveness and efficiency in sourcing and deploying resources, including human resources, to pursue business goals
• Understand the basic tools used in market research and know how to find out others' needs
• Be aware of how to plan and implement a promotion campaign
• Be aware of the importance of always providing quality customer service and obtaining feedback from customers
• Understand and apply concepts related to planning and organizing the working procedures in
• Be aware of how innovative ideas could serve others via businesses
• Be aware of how innovative ideas could be commercialized and protected by law
• Be aware of the importance of effective and efficient deployment of resources in achieving the specific goals of a project
• Be aware of how innovative ideas could be developed to be commercial products by means of venture capital
• Be aware of the difference between technical feasibility and commercial viability of development projects
• Be aware of the importance to communicate with end users and business partners
Concepts of System
Application of Systems
Control & Automation Systems & Control
• Identify the stages of a control system as input, process and output
• Understand the concept of open loop and closed loop control system
• Understand the functions of system components
• Understand the use of mechanical,
electrical, electronic and pneumatic tools in control systems
• Use construction kits to model control systems
• Design systems and sub-systems
• Explain how different types of systems and sub-systems can be interconnected to achieve a particular function
• Identify and illustrate ways for combining interrelated systems (software applications, structures and/or mechanisms) to create a new system which may also be connected with other systems
• Recognize various applications of control and automation technologies in existing products, e.g. robotics, pollution monitoring systems, automation, remote sensing, etc.
• Use electronics, microprocessors and computers to control automation
• Appreciate the advantages and limitations of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
• Recognize some patterns and phenomena related to light, sound, electricity and movement
• Be aware of the importance of food to health
• Treasure harmonious relationships with family members, peers and others
• Be aware of the use of technology in solving problems at home Food & Nutrition
Food Preparation &
Fabric & Clothing Construction
Fashion & Dress Sense
Home Management &
Technology Technology & Living
• Be aware of the importance of a healthy lifestyle, including nutrition and a balanced diet, to personal development
• Understand the principles of food preparation and processing
• Apply skills in food preparation and processing
• Identify the characteristics, care and suitability of different fabrics
• Generate ideas and process materials to make simple products to meet identified needs
• Appreciate the functional and aesthetic aspects of a design
• Know how to equip one's wardrobe for different activities
• Participate actively and responsibly as individuals and family members
• Promote and maintain harmonious relationships in the family
• Manage time, human and physical resources to make a quality home
• Take actions in conserving resources
• Develop healthy eating habits
• Be aware of the importance of food preparation and processing in daily life
• Explore the properties of fabric in relation to their suitability for different purposes
• Be aware that one's action may have positive or negative consequences on oneself or others
• Enhance relationships with family members and peers while developing assertiveness skills
• Show concern and readiness to take care of the home
Generic skills2 are transferable skills that can help students in the learning of different subjects or contexts, and more importantly, enable them to develop themselves as efficient life-long learners and workers. It is important to note that students develop their generic skills through learning TE. Generic skills should not be something to be added on to the learning and teaching of TE.
At the present stage, the priority will be on the development of three generic skills, namely communication skills, creativity and critical thinking skills. As technology itself involves a problem-solving process, TE will be the most appropriate platform to develop problem-solving skills as well. Suggestions on how students' generic skills are developed through the learning of TE are given below.
(i) Communication Skills
In TE, students learn the language of technology and how to communicate ideas, possible solutions and reflections of their work in a variety of ways (e.g. verbal explanations and drawings, graphical representation, demonstration models, charts, etc.) to different target groups such as peers, teachers, parents and the public, etc. Through these activities, students develop their communication skills.
Example 4 Developing Communication Skills
In a business project of organizing and running a vending stall selling dry goods on the Open Day of the school, students source and select suitable products for the event. In the process of gathering and disseminating information of the products, students have to negotiate with local suppliers as well as to communicate with other classmates and schoolmates.
Through participating in the activity, students develop better communication skills. They become aware that appropriate protocols, manners and tone have to be used in verbal (e.g. face to face and telephone calls), written (e.g. writing reports and letters) as well as visual communication (e.g. using graphical images and mock-up models). They learn how to phrase their messages so as to obtain the desired responses.
In TE, the cultivation of creativity is reflected in students' learning to generate ideas of their own, make new combinations of old elements, use different strategies to solve a technology problem, work out the different design features of a technology product, etc.
Example 5 Developing Creativity
In a design and application lesson, the teacher gives the class a challenging task of designing and making a concept model of a mobile phone. The model does not have to be a working prototype but should convey the key features of the intended design ideas.
In this activity, students have to use their imagination to create a new look or add new functional features to the mobile phone. They could experiment with different materials, rearrange the control dial, etc. when making the prototype.
From conceptualization of initial ideas to realization of the final design, students are encouraged to generate more than one design solutions and then critically appraise the aesthetic value and functional characteristics of each design.
(iii) Critical Thinking Skills
In TE learning, students have to reflect regularly on their ideas, designs, choices of materials and tools in relation to the task. Students develop their critical thinking skills through such processes.
Example 6 Developing Critical Thinking Skills
In Technology Fundamentals lessons, students are asked to design a physical aid for patients who have difficulties in walking up the staircases. In the task, students investigate the needs of the patients and provide solutions that could help the patients to walk up the staircases more easily.
In the process of developing the solutions, students' critical thinking skills would be nurtured through the following activities:
• analyzing the problems and difficulties in walking up the staircases;
• examining the application of technologies in their designs to see if their designs are feasible and effective;
• appraising the various aspects of the solutions against the design specifications;
• evaluating critically the overall process for further improvement; and
• considering the applications and impact of their design on helping people in need and the support that the community should render.
In TE learning, students are regularly provided with the opportunities to plan, select strategies, make decisions and solve problems cooperatively to complete a task in a small group or a team. Students have the opportunities to liaise, negotiate and compromise with others in the process of attempting the tasks to develop their collaboration skills.
Example 7 Developing Collaboration Skills
In a food technology lesson, students work in groups to investigate the characteristics of different raising agents. They design, conduct experiments, analyse the results and apply the findings in other meal planning activities.
Through the activity, students learn how to develop a good working relationship.
They learn to be open and responsive, and appreciate, encourage and support the ideas and efforts of others. They also have to participate actively and coorperatively in discussing as well as in exchanging, asserting, defending and rethinking ideas.
Example 8 Developing Information Technology Skills
In a control and automation lesson, students could use the robotic construction system to design a positive and a negative feedback system. They design the circuitry, conduct experiments, analyze the results and understand the applications of the feedback systems in real-life situations. They use a variety of IT skills and tools for the investigation.
(v) Information Technology (IT) Skills Information Technology (IT) is both a means and an end in TE learning. Students learn about the tools and systems of IT in TE. They further improve their understanding and competency in IT through applying IT skills in various knowledge contexts in TE.