Java Programming 2

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Java Programming 2

Zheng-Liang Lu

Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering National Taiwan University

Java 281 Spring 2017

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1 class Lecture7 {

2

3 // Objects and Classes

4 5 }

6

7 // Key words:

8 class, new, this, static, null, extends, super, abstract, final, interface, implements, protected

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Observations for Real Objects

Look around.

We can easily find many examples for real-world objects.

For example, a person and his/her bottle of water.

Real-world objects all have states andbehaviors.

What possible states can the object be in?

What possible behaviors can the object perform on the states?

Identifying these states and behaviors for real-world objects is a great way to begin thinking inobject-oriented programming.

From now, OO is a shorthand for “object-oriented.”

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Software Objects

An object keeps its states in fieldsand exposes its behaviors through methods.

Plus, internal states are hidden and the interactions to the object are only performed through an object’s methods.

This is so-callencapsulation, which is one of OO features.

Note that the other OO features are inheritanceand polymorphism, which we will see later.

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Classes

We often find many individual objects all of the same kind.

For example, each bicycle was built from the sameblueprintso that each contains the same components.

In OO terms, we say that your bicycle is aninstance of the class of objects known as Bicycle.

A class is the blueprint to create class instances which are runtime objects.

Classes are the building blocks of Java applications.

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Example: Points in 2D Coordinate

1 class Point {

2 double x, y; // fields: data member

3 }

1 public class PointDemo {

2 public static void main(String[] args) {

3 // now create a new instance of Point

4 Point p1 = new Point();

5 p1.x = 1;

6 p1.y = 2;

7 System.out.printf("(%d, %d)\n", p1.x, p1.y);

8

9 // create another instance of Point

10 Point p2 = new Point();

11 p2.x = 3;

12 p2.y = 4;

13 System.out.printf("(%d, %d)\n", p2.x, p2.y);

14 }

15 }

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Class Definition

First, give a class name with the first letter capitalized, by convention.

The class body, surrounded by balanced braces {}, contains data members (fields) and function members (methods) for objects.

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Data Members

The fields are the states of the object.

The field may have an access modifier, saypublicandprivate.

public: accessible from all classes

private: accessible only within its own class

You can decide if these fields are accessible!

In practice, all fields should be declared private.

However, this private modifier does not quarantine any security.1

What private is good formaintainabilityandmodularity.2

1Thanks to a lively discussion on January 23, 2017.

2Read http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9201603/

are-private-members-really-more-secure-in-java.

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Function Members

As said, the fields are hidden.

So we may need accessorsandmutatorsif necessary.

Accessors: return the state of the object

Mutators: set the state of the object

For example, getX() and getY() are accessors, and

setPoint(double,double) is one mutator in the class Point.

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Example: Point (Encapsulated)

1 class Point {

2 private double x;

3 private double y;

4

5 double getX() { return x; }

6 double getY() { return y; }

7

8 void setX(double a) { x = a; }

9 void setY(double a) { y = a; }

10 void setPoint(double a, double b) {

11 x = a;

12 y = b;

13 }

14 }

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Unified Modeling Language

3

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a tool for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems, as well as for business modeling and other non-software systems.

Free software:

http://staruml.io/ (available for all platforms)

3See http://www.tutorialspoint.com/uml/ and

http://www.mitchellsoftwareengineering.com/IntroToUML.pdf.

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Example: Class Diagram for Point

Modifiers can be placed before the fields and the methods:

+ forpublic

− forprivate

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Constructors

A constructor is called by the newoperator.

A constructor acts like other methods.

However, its names should be identical to the name of the classand it has no return type.

A class may have several constructors if needed.

Constructors can be overloaded.

Note that the constructors are usedonly during the objection creation.

Constructors cannot be invoked by any object.

If you don’t define any explicit constructor, Java assumes a default constructor for your class.

Moreover, adding any explicit constructor disables the default constructor.

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Parameterized Constructors

You can provide specific information to the parameterized constructor during the object creation.

For example,

1 class Point {

2 ...

3

4 Point() {} // restore a default constructor;

5

6 // parameterized constructor

7 Point(double a, double b) {

8 x = a;

9 y = b;

10 }

11 ...

12 }

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Self-reference

You can refer to any (instance) member of the currentobject within methods and constructors by usingthis.

The most common reason for using the this keyword is because a field is shadowed by method parameters.

You can also use thisto call another constructor in the same classby invokingthis().

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Example: Point (Revisited)

1 class Point {

2 ...

3 Point(int x, int y) {

4 this.x = x;

5 this.y = y;

6 }

7 ...

8 }

Note that thethisoperator cannot be used in staticmethods.

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Instance Members and Static Members

You may notice that, until now, all members are declared w/o static.

It means that each object has its own values with behaviors.

The aforesaid members are called instancemembers.

Note thatthese instance members are available only after the object is created.

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Static Members

The static members belong to the class4, and areshared between the instance objects.

In other word, there is only one copy of the static members, no matter how many objects of the class are created.

They are ready once the class is loaded.

They can be invoked directly by the class name without using any instance.

For example, Math.random().

4Aka class members.

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A static method can access other static members. (Trivial.)

However, static methods cannot access to instance members directly. (Why?)

For example,

1 ...

2 double getDistanceFrom(Point p) {

3 return Math.sqrt(Math.pow(this.x − p.x, 2) + Math.pow(

this.y − p.y, 2));

4 }

5

6 static double distanceBetween(Point p1, Point p2) {

7 // You cannot access to x and y directly!

8 return Math.sqrt(Math.pow(p1.x− p2.x, 2) + Math.pow(p1.

y− p2.y, 2));

9 }

10 ...

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Example: Count of Points

1 class Point {

2 ...

3 private static int numOfPoint = 0;

4

5 Point() {

6 numOfPoint++;

7 }

8

9 Point(int x, int y) {

10 this(); // calling the constructor with no input

argument; should be placed in the first line in the constructor

11 this.x = x;

12 this.y = y;

13 }

14 ...

15 }

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Exercise: Singleton

5

In some situations, you may create theonly instance of the class.

1 class Singleton {

2

3 // Will be ready as soon as the class is loaded.

4 private static Singleton instance = new Singleton();

5

6 // Do now allow to invoke the constructor by other classes.

7 private Singleton() {}

8

9 // Only way to obtain the singleton from the outside world.

10 public static Singleton getSingleton() {

11 return instance;

12 }

13 }

5See any textbook fordesign patterns.

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Garbage Collection (GC)

6

Java handles deallocation automatically.

Automatic GC is the process of looking at the heap memory, identifying whether or not the objects are in use, and deleting the unreferenced objects.

An object is said to be unreferenced if the object is no longer referenced by any part of your program.

Simply assignnullto the reference to make the object unreferenced.

So the memory used by these objects can be reclaimed.

6http://www.oracle.com/webfolder/technetwork/tutorials/obe/

java/gc01/index.html

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finalize()

The method finalize() conducts a specific task that will be executed right before the object is reclaimed by GC.

The finalize() method can beonly invoked prior to GC.

In practice, it must not rely on the finalize() method for normal operations. (Why?)

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Example

1 public class FinalizeDemo {

2 private static int numOfObjKilled = 0;

3

4 public void finalize() {

5 numOfObjKilled++;

6 }

7

8 public static void main(String[] args) {

9 double n = 1e7;

10 for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)

11 new FinalizeDemo(); // lots of unreferenced objects

12 System.out.println(numOfObjKilled);

13 }

14 }

You may try different number for instance creation.

The number of the objects reclaimed by GC is uncertain.

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HAS-A Relationship

Associationis a weak relationship where all objects have their own lifetime and there is no ownership.

For example, teacher ↔ student; doctor ↔ patient.

If A uses B, then it is anaggregation, stating that B exists independently from A.

For example, knight ↔ sword; company ↔ employee.

If A owns B, then it is acomposition, meaning that B has no meaning or purpose in the system without A.

For example, house ↔ room.

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Example: Lines

+2: two Point objects used in one Line object.

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More Examples

Circle, Triangle, and Polygon.

Book with Authors.

Lecturer and Students in the classroom.

Zoo with many creatures, say Dog, Cat, and Bird.

Channels played on TV.

More.

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More Relationships Between Classes

Inheritance: passing down states and behaviors from the parents to their children

Interfaces: grouping the methods, which belongs to some classes, as an interface to the outside world

Packages: grouping related types, providing access protection and name space management

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First IS-A Relationship

OOP allows classes to inheritcommonly used states and behaviors from previously defined classes.

This is calledinheritance.

Furthermore, the classes exist in some hierarchy.

A class can be declared as asubclass of some class, which is called thesuperclass, by using theextends keyword.

Hence, we can say that a subclass specializesits superclass.

Equivalently, one subclass is aspecial case of the superclass.

For example, human and dog are two specific types of animals.

Note that a class can extend only one other class, while each superclass has the potential for an unlimited number of subclasses.

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Class Hierarchy

7

7See Fig. 3-1 in p. 113 of Evans and Flanagan.

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Example

1 class Animal {

2 String name;

3 int weight;

4

5 Animal(String s, int w) { name = s; weight = w; }

6

7 void eat() { weight += 1; }

8 void exercise() { weight −= 1; }

9 }

10

11 class Human extends Animal {

12 Human(String s, int w) { super(s, w); }

13 void writeCode() { System.out.println("Write codes..."); }

14 }

15

16 class Dog extends Animal {

17 Dog(String s, int w) { super(s, w); }

18 void watchDoor() { System.out.println("Watch my door..."); }

19 }

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super

Recall that the keywordthisis used to refer to the object itself.

You can use the keyword superto refer to (non-private) members of the superclass.

Note thatsuper() can be used to invoke the constructor of its superclass, just similar to this().

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Constructor Chaining

As the constructor is invoked, the constructor of its superclass is invoked accordingly.

You might think that there will be a whole chain of

constructors called, all the way back to the constructor of the class Object, the topmost class in Java.

So every class is an immediate or a distant subclass of Object.

Recall that the method finalize() and toString() are inherited from Object.

toString(): return a string which can be any information stored in the object.

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Example

1 class A {

2 A() { System.out.println("A is creating..."); }

3 }

4

5 class B extends A {

6 B() { System.out.println("B is creating..."); }

7 public String toString() {

8 return "This is inherited from Object."

9 }

10 }

11

12 public class ConstructorChainingDemo {

13 public static void main(String[] args) {

14 B b = new B();

15 System.out.println(b);

16 }

17 }

The println() method (and similar methods) can take an object as input, and invoke toString() method implicitly.

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Method Overriding

The subclass is allowed to change the behavior inherited from its superclass, if needed.

If one defines an instance methodwith its method name, parameters, and its return type, all identical to the previously defined method in its superclass, then this newly defined methodoverrides the one in the superclass.8

Compared to overridden methods, method overloading occurs only in the same class.

Note that you can invoke the overridden method through the use of the keyword super.

8The static methods do not follow this rule.

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Example

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Binding

Association of the method definition to the method call is known as binding.

The binding which can be resolved at the compilation time is known as static binding or early binding.

They are thestatic,privateorfinalmethods.9

If the compiler is not able to resolve the binding, such binding is known as dynamic bindingor late binding.

For example, method overriding.

When there are multiple implementations of the method in the inheritance hierarchy, the one in the “most derived” class (the furthest down the hierarchy) always overrides the others, even if we refer to the object through a reference variable of the superclass type.10

9We will see thefinalkeyword soon.

10An overridden method in Java acts like a virtual function in C++.

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Polymorphism

11

The word polymorphismliterally means “many forms.”

Java allows 4 types of polymorphism:

coercion (casting)

ad hoc polymorphism (overloading)

subtype polymorphism

parametric polymorphism (generics)

Modeling polymorphism in a programming language lets you create a uniform interface to different kinds of operands, arguments, and objects.

11Read http://www.javaworld.com/article/3033445/learn-java/

java-101-polymorphism-in-java.html.

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Subtype Polymorphism

For convenience, let U be a subtype of T.

Liskov Substitution Principle states that T-type objects may be replaced with U-type objects without altering any of the desirable properties of T (correctness, task performed, etc.).12,13

12See

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liskov_substitution_principle.

13Also see

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOLID_(object-oriented_design).

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Casting

Upcasting(widening conversion) is to cast the U object to the T variable.

1 T t = new U();

Downcasting (narrow conversion) is to cast the T variable to a U variable.

1 U u = (U) t; // t is T variable reference to a U object.

Upcasting is always allowed, but downcasting is allowed only when a U object is passed to the U-type variable.

This involves type compatibility by JVM during program execution.

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instanceof

The operator instanceofallows us to test whether or not a reference variable is compatibleto the object.

If not compatible, then JVM will throw an exception ClassCastException.14

14We will see the exceptions later.

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Example

1 class T {}

2 class U extends T {}

3

4 public class InstanceofDemo {

5 public static void main(String[] args) {

6 T t1 = new T();

7

8 System.out.println(t1 instanceof U); // output false

9 System.out.println(t1 instanceof T); // output true

10

11 T t2 = new U(); // upcasting

12

13 System.out.println(t2 instanceof U); // output true

14 System.out.println(t2 instanceof T); // output true

15

16 U u = (U) t2; // downcasting; this is ok.

17

18 u = (U) new T(); // pass the compilation; fail during execution!

19 }

20 }

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Abstraction by Method Overriding and Polymorphism

JVM invokes the appropriate method for the current object by looking up from the bottom of the class hierarchy to the top.

These methods are also called virtual methods.

This mechanism preserves the behaviors of the objects and the super-type variables play the role of placeholders.

We manipulate objects in an abstract level; we don’t need to know the details when we use them.

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Example

Imagine that we have a zoo with some animals.

1 class Animal {

2 void speak() {}

3 }

4 class Dog extends Animal {

5 void speak() { System.out.println("woof"); }

6 }

7 class Cat extends Animal {

8 void speak() { System.out.println("meow"); }

9 }

10 class Bird extends Animal {

11 void speak() { System.out.println("tweet"); }

12 }

13

14 public class PolymorphismDemo {

15 public static void main(String[] args) {

16 Animal[] zoo = {new Dog(), new Cat(), new Bird()};

17 for (Animal a: zoo) a.speak();

18 }

19 }

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The final Keyword

A finalvariable is a variable which can be initialized once and cannot be changed later.

The compiler makes sure that you can do itonly once.

Afinalvariable is often declared with statickeyword and treated as a constant, for example, Math.PI.

A finalmethod is a method whichcannot be overridden by subclasses.

You might wish to make a methodfinalif it has an

implementation that should not be changed and it is critical to the consistent state of the object.

A class that is declared finalcannot be inherited.

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Abstract Class

An abstract class is a class declared abstract.

The classes that sit at the top of an object hierarchy are typically abstractclasses.15

These abstract class may or may not haveabstract methods, which are methods declaredwithout implementation.

More explicitly, the methods are declared without braces, and followed by a semicolon.

If a class has one or moreabstractmethods, then the class itself must be declaredabstract.

Allabstract classes cannot be instantiated.

Moreover, abstractclasses act as placeholders for the subclass objects.

15The classes that sit near the bottom of the hierarchy are calledconcrete classes.

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Example

Abstract methods and classes are in italic.

In this example, the abstract method draw () and resize() should be implemented depending on the real shape.

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Another IS-A Relationship

Not all classes share a vertical relationship.

Instead, some are supposed to perform the specific methods without a vertical relationship.

Consider the class Bird inherited from Animal and Airplane inherited from Transportation.

Both Bird and Airplane are able to be in the sky.

So they should perform the method canFly(), for example.

By semantics, the method canFly() could not be defined in their superclasses.

We need ahorizontal relationship.

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Example

1 interface Flyable {

2 void canFly(); // public + abstract

3 }

4

5 abstract class Animal {}

6

7 class Bird extends Animal implements Flyable {

8 public void canFly() {

9 System.out.println("Bird flying...");

10 }

11 }

12

13 abstract class Transportation {}

14

15 class Airplane extends Transportation implements Flyable {

16 public void canFly() {

17 System.out.println("Airplane flying...");

18 }

19 }

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1 public class InterfaceDemo {

2 public static void main(String[] args) {

3 Airplane a = new Airplane();

4 a.canFly();

5

6 Bird b = new Bird();

7 b.canFly();

8

9 Flyable f = a;

10 f.canFly(); // output ‘‘Airplane flying...’’

11 f = b;

12 f.canFly(); // output ‘‘Bird flying...’’

13 }

14 }

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Interfaces

An interface forms acontract between the object and the outside world.

For example, the buttons on the television set are the interface between you and the electrical wiring on the other side of its plastic casing.

An interface is also a reference type, just like classes, in which only method signatures are defined.

So they can be the types of reference variables!

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Note that interfaces cannotbe instantiated (directly).

A class implementing one or multipleinterfaces provides method bodies for each defined method signature.

Thisallows a class to play different roles, with each role providing a different set of services.

For example, combatants in RPG are also the characters who can trade in the market.

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Example

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Properties of Interfaces

The methods of an interface are implicitlypublic.

In most cases, the class which implements the interface should implement allthe methods defined in the interface.

Otherwise, the class should beabstract.

An interface can declare onlyfields which are staticand final.

You can also definestatic methods in the interface.

A new feature since Java SE 8 allows to define the methods with implementation in the interface.

A method with implementation in the interface is declared default.

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An interface can extend another interface, just like a class which can extend another class.

However, an interface can extend many interfaces as you need.

For example, Driveable and Updateable are good interface names.

Common interfaces are Runnable16, Serializable17, and Collections18.

16Related to multithreading.

17Aka object serialization where an object can be represented as a sequence of bytes that includes the object’s data as well as information about the object’s type and the types of data stored in the object.

18Collections are related to data structures.

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Timing for Interfaces and Abstract Classes

Consider using abstract classes if you want to:

share code among several closely related classes

declare non-static or non-final fields

Consider using interfaces for any of situations as follows:

unrelated classes would implement your interface

specify the behavior of a particular data type, but not concerned about who implements its behavior

take advantage of multiple inheritance

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Wrapper Classes

To treat values as objects, Java supplies standard wrapper classes for each primitive type.

For example, you can construct a wrapper object from a primitive value or from a string representation of the value.

1 ...

2 Double pi = new Double("3.14");

3 ...

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Autoboxing and Unboxing of Primitives

The Java compiler automatically wraps the primitives in their wrapper types, and unwraps them where appropriate.

1 ...

2 Integer i = 1; // autoboxing

3 Integer j = 1;

4 System.out.println(i + j); // unboxing; output 2

5

6 System.out.println(i == j); // output true

7 System.out.println(i.equals(j)); // output true

8 ...

The method equals() inherited from Object is used to compare the contents of two objects.

Herein, the values of wrapper objects.

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Immutable Objects

An object is considered immutableif its state cannot change after it is constructed.

Often used for value objects.

Imagine that there is a pool for immutable objects.

After the value object is first created, this value object is reused if needed.

This implies that another object is created when we operate on the immutable object.

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For example,

1 ...

2 k = new Integer(1);

3 System.out.println(i == k); // output false (why?)

4 System.out.println(k.equals(i)); // output true

5

6 Integer q = 2;

7 i++;

8 System.out.println(i == q); // output true

9 System.out.println(i.equals(q)); // output true

10 ...

Good practice when it comes to concurrent programming.19

Another example is String objects.

19See http://www.javapractices.com/topic/TopicAction.do?Id=29.

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enum Types

20

An enum type is an reference type limited to an explicit set of values.

An order among these values is defined by their order of declaration.

There exists a correspondence with string names identical to the name declared.

20The keywordenumis a shorthand for enumeration.

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Example

1 ...

2 enum Weekday {Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday}

3 ...

Actually, Weekday is a subclass of enum type with seven static andfinalobjects corresponding to the seven enumerated values.

The Weekday instances which really exist are the seven enumerated values.

So this mechanism enhances type safety!

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1 public class EnumerationDemo {

2 public static void main(String[] args) {

3 Weekday[] weekdays = Weekday.values();

4 // The method values() returns a Weekday array.

5

6 for (Weekday day: weekdays) {

7 System.out.println(day);

8 }

9

10 Weekday today = Weekday.Sunday;

11 Weekday tomorrow = Weekday.Monday;

12

13 System.out.println(today == tomorrow); // output false

14 }

15 }

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Exercise: Colors

1 enum Color {

2

3 Red, Green, Blue; // three options

4

5 static Color randomColor() {

6 Color[] colorSet = values();

7 int pickOneColor = (int) (Math.random() ∗ colorSet.

length);

8 return colorSet[pickOneColor];

9 }

10 }

11

12 public class EnumDemo {

13 public static void main(String[] args) {

14 for(int i = 1 ; i <= 3; i++)

15 System.out.println(Color.randomColor());

16 }

17 }

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Exercise: Size

1 enum Size {

2

3 Large("L"), Medium("M"), Small("S");

4

5 private String abbr;

6 private Size(String abbr) { this.abbr = abbr; }

7

8 public String getAbbr() {

9 return this.abbr;

10 }

11 }

12

13 public class EnumDemo {

14 public static void main(String[] args) {

15 System.out.println(Size.Small.getAbbr()); // output S

16 }

17 }

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Packages

We organize related types into packages for the following purposes:

To make types easier to find and use

To avoid naming conflicts

To control access

For example, fundamental classes are in java.lang and classes for I/O are in java.io.

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Access Control

Scope \ Modifier private (package) protected public

Within the class X X X X

Within the package x X X X

Inherited classes x x X X

Out of package x x x X

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Nested Classes

A nested class is a member of its enclosing class.

Non-static nested classes, akainner classes, have access to other members of the enclosing class, even if they are declared private.

Instead, static nested classes do not have access to other instance members of the enclosing class.

Timing of usage:

Logically grouping classes that are only used in one place

Increasing encapsulation

Leading to more readable and maintainable code

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Family of Nested Classes

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Inner Classes

Inner classes can be classified depending on how and where you define them:

Inner class

Method-local inner class

Anonymous inner class

Unlike a normal class21, an inner class can be declaredprivate.

Note that the creation of inner-type objects is available after the outer-type object is created.

In other words, you cannot invoke the constructor of the inner type without having the outer type object.

For static members in the inner classes,

you can declare a static member which is supposed to befinal;

however, static methods can only be declared in a static or top level type.

21We call these thetopclasses.

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Example: Inner Class

1 class OuterClass {

2 private int x = 1;

3 InnerClass y = new InnerClass();

4

5 class InnerClass {

6 public void print() {

7 System.out.println(x); // ok!

8 }

9 }

10 }

11

12 public class InnerClassDemo {

13 public static void main(String[] args) {

14 OuterClass outer = new OuterClass();

15 outer.x.print(); // output 1

16

17 InnerClass inner = new InnerClass(); // oops

18 // Since InnerClass type cannot be resolved out of OuterClass.

19 outer.new InnerClass().print(); // output 1

20 }

21 }

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Example: Method-local Inner Class

1 class OuterClass {

2 private int x = 1;

3

4 void outerClassMethod() {

5 class MLInnerClass { // should be in the beginning

6 int y = 2;

7 static int z = 3; // implicitly final

8

9 void print() {

10 System.out.println(x);

11 System.out.println(y);

12 System.out.println(z);

13 }

14 }

15

16 MLInnerClass w = new MLInnerClass();

17 w.print();

18 }

19 }

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Anonymous Inner Class

Anonymous inner classes are an extension of the syntax of the new operation, enabling you to declare and instantiate a class at the same time.

However, these do not have a name.

Use them when you need to use these types only once.

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Example

1 abstract class A {

2 void foo();

3 }

4

5 public class AnonymousClassDemoOne {

6 public static void main(String[] args) {

7 A a = new A() {

8 public void foo() { /∗ different implementation ∗/ }

9 void helper() { /∗ a subroutine for foo ∗/ }

10 };

11

12 a.foo();

13 }

14 }

You may invoke a.foo() but not a.helper() because helper() is not defined in class A.

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Exercise

1 interface B {

2 void foo();

3 }

4

5 public class AnonymousClassDemoTwo {

6 public static void main(String[] args) {

7 B b = new B() {

8 public void foo() { /∗ different implementation ∗/ }

9 };

10

11 b.foo();

12 }

13 }

An interface can be used to instantiate an object indirectly by anonymous classes with implementing the abstract methods.

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Iterators

An important use of inner classes is to define anadapter class as a helper object.

Using adapter classes, we can write classes more naturally, without having to anticipate every conceivable user’s needs in advance.

Instead, you provide adapter classes that marry your class to a particular interface.

For example, an iterator is a simple and standard interface to enumerate objects in many data structures.

The java.util.Iterator interface defines two methods: public booleanhasNext() andpublicObject next().

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Example: An Iterator

1 class Box implements Iterable {

2

3 int[] arr = {1, 2, 3};

4 Iterator iter = new Iterator() {

5 int count = 0;

6

7 public boolean hasNext() {

8 if (count < arr.length)

9 return true;

10 else

11 return false;

12 }

13

14 public Object next() {

15 return arr[count++];

16 }

17 };

18

19 public Iterator iterator() {

20 return iter;

21 }

22 }

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1 import java.util.Iterator;

2 import java.util.Scanner;

3

4 public class IteratorDemo {

5 public static void main(String[] args) {

6 Box b = new Box();

7 for (Object x: b) {

8 System.out.println(x);

9 }

10 }

11 }

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Static Nested Class

A staticinner class is a nested class which is a static member of the outer class.

So they can access to otherstaticmemberswithout instantiating the outer class.

Just like static members, astatic nested class does not have access to the instance members of the outer class.

Most important, a static nested class can be instantiated directly, withoutinstantiating the outer class object first.

Static nested classes act something like aminipackage.

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Example

1 class OuterClass {

2 static int x = 1;

3 int y = 2;

4

5 void OuterClassMethod() {

6 System.out.println(y);

7 }

8

9 static class StaticNestedClass {

10 int z = 3;

11 void StaticNestedClassMethod() {

12 System.out.println(x);

13 System.out.println(y); // Oops, static members cannot access to instance members.

14 System.out.println(z);

15 }

16 }

17 }

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1 public class StaticNestedClassDemo {

2 public static void main(String[] args) {

3 OuterClass.StaticNestedClass x = new OuterClass.

StaticNestedClass();

4 x.StaticNestedClassMethod();

5 }

6 }

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Figure

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References

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