High-Level Language

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www.nand2tetris.org

Building a Modern Computer From First Principles

High-Level Language

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 2

Where we are at:

Assembler Chapter 6

H.L. Language

&

Operating Sys.

abstract interface

Compiler

Chapters 10 - 11

VM Translator

Chapters 7 - 8

Computer Architecture

Chapters 4 - 5

Gate Logic

Chapters 1 - 3 Electrical

Engineering

Physics Virtual

Machine

abstract interface

Software hierarchy

Assembly Language

abstract interface

Hardware hierarchy

Machine Language

abstract interface

Hardware Platform

abstract interface

Chips &

Logic Gates

abstract interface

Human Thought

Abstract design

Chapters 9, 12

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Some milestones in the evolution of programming languages

Machine language (binary code)

Assembly language (low-level symbolic programming)

Simple procedural languages, e.g. Fortran, Basic, Pascal, C

Simple object-based languages (without inheritance), e.g. early versions of Visual Basic, JavaScript

Fancy object-oriented languages (with inheritance):

C++, Java, C#

Jack

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 4

Programming languages

 Procedural programming (e.g. C, Fortran, Pascal)

 Object-oriented programming (e.g. C++, Java, Python)

 Functional programming (e.g. Lisp, ML, Haskell)

 Logic programming (e.g. Prolog)

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ML

 fun fac(x) = if x=0 then 1 else x*fac(x-1);

 fun length(L) =

if (L=nil) then 0

else 1+length(tl(L));

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 6

Prolog

 Facts

human(kate).

human(bill).

likes(bill,kate).

likes(kate,john).

likes(john,kate).

 Rules

friend(X,Y) :- likes(X,Y),likes(Y,X).

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Prolog

 Absolute value

abs(X, X) :- X>=0, !.

abs(X, Y) :- Y is –X.

?- abs(-9,R).

R=9

?- abs(-9,8).

no

 Length of a list my_length([], 0).

my_length([_|T],R) :- my_length(T, R1), R is R1+1.

?- my_length([a, b, [c, d], e], R).

R = 4

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 8

Programming languages

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The Jack programming language

Jack: a simple, object-based, high-level language with a Java-like syntax Some sample applications written in Jack:

procedural programming

Pong game

Space Invaders

Tetris

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 10

Disclaimer

Although Jack is a real programming language, we don’t view it as an end Rather, we use Jack as a means for teaching:

How to build a compiler

How the compiler and the language interface with the operating system

How the topmost piece in the software hierarchy fits into the big picture

Jack can be learned (and un-learned) in one hour.

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Hello world

/** Hello World program. */

class Main {

function void main () {

// Prints some text using the standard library do Output.printString("Hello World");

do Output.println();      // New line return;

} }

Some observations:

Java-like syntax

Typical comments format

Standard library

Language-specific peculiarities.

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 12

Typical programming tasks in Jack

Jack can be used to develop any app that comes to my mind, for example:

Procedural programming: a program that computes 1 + 2 + ... + n

Object-oriented programming: a class representing bank accounts

Abstract data type representation: a class representing fractions (like 2/5)

Data structure representation: a class representing linked lists

Etc.

We will now discuss the above app examples

As we do so, we’ll begin to unravel how the magic of a high-level object-based language is delivered by the compiler and by the VM

These insights will serve us in the next lectures, when we build the Jack compiler.

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Procedural programming example

Jack program = a collection of

one or more classes Jack class = a collection of

one or more subroutines Execution order: when we execute a Jack program, Main.main() starts running.

Jack subroutine:

method

constructor

function (static method)

(the example on the left has

functions only, as it is “object-less”)

Standard library: a set of OS services

(methods and functions)

organized in 8 supplied classes:

Math

,

String

.

Array

,

Output

,

Keyboard

,

Screen

,

Memory

,

Sys (OS API in the book).

class Main {

/** Sums up 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n */

function int sum (int n) { var int sum, i;

let sum = 0;

let i = 1;

while (~(i > n)) { let sum = sum + i;

let i = i + 1;

}

return sum;

}

function void main () { var int n;

let n = Keyboard.readInt("Enter n: ");

do Output.printString("The result is: ");

do Output.printInt(sum(n));

return;

} }

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 14

Class design and compilation procedure

 Use Square as an example.

 Design a class: think of its

States: data members

Behaviors: function members

 Square

x, y, size

MoveUp, MoveDown, IncSize, …

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Object-oriented programming example

/** Represents a bank account.

A bank account has an owner, an id, and a balance.

The id values start at 0 and increment by 1 each time a new account is created. */

class BankAccount { 

/** Constructs a new bank account with a 0 balance. */

constructor BankAccount new(String owner) 

/** Deposits the given amount in this account. */

method void deposit(int amount)

/** Withdraws the given amount from this account. */

method void withdraw(int amount)

/** Prints the data of this account. */

method void printInfo()

/** Disposes this account. */

method void dispose()  }

The

BankAccount

class (skeletal)

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 16

Object-oriented programming example (continues)

/** Represents a bank account. */

class BankAccount {

// class‐level variable   static int newAcctId;

// Private variables (aka fields / properties) field int id;

field String owner;

field int balance;

/** Constructs a new bank account */

constructor BankAccount new (String owner) { let id = newAcctId;

let newAcctId = newAcctId + 1;

let this.owner = owner;

let balance = 0;

return this;

}

// More BankAccount methods.

}

// Code in any other class:

var int x;

var BankAccount b;

let b = BankAccount.new("joe");

Explain

return this

The constructor returns the RAM base address of the memory block that stores the data of the newly created BankAccount object

Explain

b = BankAccount.new("joe") Calls the constructor (which creates a new BankAccount object), then stores in variable b a pointer to the object’s base memory address

Behind the scene

(following compilation):

// b = BankAccount.new("joe") push "joe" 

call BankAccount.new pop b

Explanation: the calling code pushes an argument and calls the constructor; the constructor’s code (not shown above) creates a new object, pushes its base address onto the stack, and returns;

The calling code then pops the base address into a variable that will now point to the new object.

2

3

1

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   class BankAccount {  

static int nAccounts;

field int id;

field String owner;

field int balance;

// Constructor ... (omitted) /** Handles deposits */

method void deposit (int amount) { let balance = balance + amount;

return;

}

/** Handles withdrawls */

method void withdraw (int amount){

if (~(amount > balance)) {

let balance = balance ‐ amount;      

}

return;

}

// More BankAccount methods.

...

var BankAccount b1, b2;

...

let b1 = BankAccount.new("joe");

let b2 = BankAccount.new("jane");

do b1.deposit(5000);

do b1.withdraw(1000);

...

Object-oriented programming example (continues)

Explain

do b1.deposit(5000)

In Jack,

void

methods are invoked using the keyword

do

(a compilation artifact)

The object-oriented method invocation style

b1.deposit(5000)

is a fancy way to express the procedural semantics

deposit(b1,5000)

Behind the scene

(following compilation):

// do b1.deposit(5000) push b1

push 5000

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 18

Object-oriented programming example (continues)

class BankAccount {   static int nAccounts; 

field int id;

field String owner;

field int balance;

// Constructor ... (omitted)

/** Prints information about this account. */

method void printInfo () { do Output.printInt(id);

do Output.printString(owner);

do Output.printInt(balance);

return;

}

/** Disposes this account. */

method void dispose () { do Memory.deAlloc(this);

return;

}

// More BankAccount methods.

}

// Code in any other class:

...

var int x;

var BankAccount b;

let b = BankAccount.new("joe");

// Manipulates b...

do b.printInfo();

do b.dispose();

...

Explain

do b.dispose()

Jack has no garbage collection;

The programmer is responsible for explicitly recycling memory

resources of objects that are no longer needed. If you don’t do so, you may run out of memory.

Explain

do Memory.deAlloc(this) This is a call to an OS function that knows how to recycle the memory block whose base-address is this. We will write this function when we develop the OS (project 12).

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Abstract data type example

/** Represents a fraction data type.

A fraction consists of a numerator and a denominator, both int values */

class Fraction {  

/** Constructs a fraction from the given data */

constructor Fraction new(int numerator, int denominator)  /** Reduces this fraction, e.g. changes 20/100 to 1/5. */

method void reduce()     /** Accessors

method int getNumerator()  method int getDenominator()

/** Returns the sum of this fraction and the other one */

method Fraction plus(Fraction other)

/** Returns the product of this fraction and the other one */

method Fraction product(Fraction other) /** Prints this fraction */

method void print()

/** Disposes this fraction */

method void dispose()

The Fraction class API (method sigantures)

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 20

Abstract data type example (continues)

/** Represents a fraction data type.

A fraction consists of a numerator and a denominator, both int values */

class Fraction {  

field int numerator, denominator;

constructor Fraction new (int numerator, int denominator) { let this.numerator = numerator;

let this.denominator = denominator;

do reduce() // Reduces the new fraction return this

}

/** Reduces this fraction */

method void reduce () { // Code omitted  }

// A static method that computes the greatest common denominator of a and b.

function int gcd (int a, int b) { // Code omitted 

}

method int getNumerator () { return numerator;

}

method int getDenominator () { return denominator;

}

// More Fraction methods follow.  

// Code in any other class:

...

var Fraction a, b;

let a = Fraction.new(2,5);

let b = Fraction.new(70,210);

do b.print() // prints "1/3"

...

// (print method in next slide)

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Abstract data type example (continues)

/** Represents a fraction data type.

A fraction consists of a numerator and a denominator, both int values */

class Fraction {  

field int numerator, denominator;

// Constructor and previously defined methods omitted /** Returns the sum of this fraction the other one */

method Fraction plus (Fraction other) { var int sum;

let sum = (numerator * other.getDenominator()) +

(other.getNumerator() * denominator());        

return Fraction.new(sum , denominator * other.getDenominator());

}

// Similar fraction arithmetic methods follow, code omitted.

/** Prints this fraction */

method void print () {

do Output.printInt(numerator);

do Output.printString("/");

do Output.printInt(denominator);

return }

}

// Code in any other class:

var Fraction a, b, c;

let a = Fraction.new(2,3);

let b = Fraction.new(1,5);       

// computes c = a + b let c = a.plus(b);

do c.print(); // prints "13/15"

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 22

Data structure example

/** Represents a sequence of int values, implemented as a linked list.

The list consists of an atom, which is an int value,  and a tail, which is either a list or a null value.  */

class List {

field int data;

field List next;

/* Creates a new list */

constructor List new (int car, List cdr) { let data = car;

let next = cdr;

return this;

}

/* Disposes this list by recursively disposing its tail. */

method void dispose() { if (~(next = null)) {

do next.dispose();

}

do Memory.deAlloc(this);

return;

} ...

}  // class List.

// Code in any other class:

...

// Creates a list holding the numbers 2,3, and 5:

var List v;

let v = List.new(5 , null);

let v = List.new(2 , List.new(3,v));

...

v 5

3 5

v 2

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Jack language specification

Syntax

Data types

Variable kinds

Expressions

Statements

Subroutine calling

Program structure

Standard library

(for complete language specification, see the book).

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 24

Jack syntax

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Jack syntax (continues)

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 26

Jack data types

Primitive types

(Part of the language; Realized by the compiler):

int 16-bit 2’s complement (from ‐32768 to 32767)

boolean 0 and –1, standing for true and false

char unicode character (‘a’, ‘x’, ‘+’, ‘%’, ...)

Abstract data types

(Standard language extensions; Realized by the OS / standard library):

String

Array

... 

(extensible)

Application-specific types

(User-defined; Realized by user applications):

BankAccount

Fraction

List

Bat / Ball

. . .

(as needed)

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Jack variable kinds and scope

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 28

Jack expressions

A Jack expression is any one of the following:

A constant

A variable name in scope

(the variable may be static, field, local, or a parameter)

The keyword this, denoting the current object

An array element using the syntax arrayName[expression], where arrayNname is a variable name of type

Array

in scope

A subroutine call that returns a non-void type

An expression prefixed by one of the unary operators – or ~ :

‐expression

(arithmetic negation)

~expression

(logical negation)

An expression of the form expression op expression where op is one of the following:

+ ‐ * /

(integer arithmetic operators)

& |

(boolean

and

and

or

operators, bit-wise)

< > =

(comparison operators)

( expression )

(an expression within parentheses)

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Jack Statements

let

varName

=

expression

; or

let

varName

[

expression

] =

expression

if (

expression

) {

statements

}

else {

statements

while (

expression

) {

statements

do 

function-or-method-call

;

return 

expression

; or

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 30

Jack subroutine calls

General syntax: subroutineName

(

arg0

,

arg1

,

where each argument is a valid Jack expression

Parameter passing is by-value

(primitive types)

or by-reference

(object types)

Example 1:

Consider the function

(static method)

:

function int sqrt(int n)

This function can be invoked as follows:

sqrt(17) sqrt(x)

sqrt((b * b) – (4 * a * c)) sqrt(a * sqrt(c ‐ 17) + 3)

Etc. In all these examples the argument value is computed and passed by-value Example 2:

Consider the method:

method Matrix plus (Matrix other);

If

u

and

v

were variables of type

Matrix

, this method can be invoked using:

u.plus(v)

The

v

variable is passed by-reference, since it refers to an object.

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Noteworthy features of the Jack language

The

(cumbersome) let

keyword, as in

let x = 0;

The

(cumbersome) do

keyword, as in

do reduce();

No operator priority:

1 + 2 * 3

yields

9

, since expressions are evaluated left-to-right;

To effect the commonly expected result, use

1 + (2 * 3)

Only three primitive data types:

int

,

boolean

,

char

; In fact, each one of them is treated as a 16-bit value

No casting; a value of any type can be assigned to a variable of any type

Array declaration:

Array x;

followed by

x = Array.new();

Static methods are called

function

Constructor methods are called

constructor

;

Invoking a constructor is done using the syntax ClassName

.new(

argsList

)

Q: Why did we introduce these features into the Jack language?

A: To make the writing of the Jack compiler easy!

Any one of these language features can be modified, with a reasonable amount of work,

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 32

Jack program structure

A Jack program:

Each class is written in a

separate file (compilation unit)

Jack program = collection of one or more classes, one of which must be named

Main

The

Main

class must contain at least one method, named

main() class 

ClassName

{

field

variable declarations;

static

variable declarations;

constructor 

type

parameterList

) {

local variable declarations;

statements

}

method 

type

parameterList

) {

local variable declarations;

statements

}

function 

type

parameterList

) {

local variable declarations;

statements

} }

About this spec:

Every part in this spec can appear 0 or more times

The order of the

field

/

static

declarations is arbitrary

The order of the subroutine declarations is arbitrary

Each type is either

int

,

boolean

,

char

,

or a class name.

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Jack standard library aka language extensions aka Jack OS

class Math {

function void init() function int abs(int x)

function int multiply(int x, int y) function int divide(int x, int y) function int min(int x, int y) function int max(int x, int y) function int sqrt(int x)

}

Class String {

constructor String new(int maxLength) method void dispose()

method int length()

method char charAt(int j)

method void setCharAt(int j, char c) method String appendChar(char c)

method void eraseLastChar() method int intValue()

method void setInt(int j) function char backSpace() function char doubleQuote() function char newLine() }

Class Array {

function Array new(int size) method void dispose()

}

class Output {

function void moveCursor(int i, int j) function void printChar(char c)

function void printString(String s) function void printInt(int i)

function void println() function void backSpace() }

Class Screen {

function void clearScreen()

function void setColor(boolean b)

function void drawPixel(int x, int y) function void drawLine(int x1, int y1,

int x2, int y2)

function void drawRectangle(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) function void drawCircle(int x, int y, int r) }

class Memory {

function int peek(int address)

function void poke(int address, int value) function Array alloc(int size)

function void deAlloc(Array o) }

Class Keyboard {

function char keyPressed() function char readChar()

function String readLine(String message) function int readInt(String message) }

Class Sys {

function void halt():

function void error(int errorCode) function void wait(int duration) }

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Elements of Computing Systems, Nisan & Schocken, MIT Press, www.nand2tetris.org, Chapter 9: High-Level Language slide 34

Perspective

 Jack is an object-based language: no inheritance

 Primitive type system (3 types)

 Standard library

 Our hidden agenda: gearing up to learn how to develop the ...

Compiler

(projects 10 and 11)

OS

(project 12).

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :