Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Job Satisfaction
Balzer et al. (1997) defined job satisfaction as “the feelings a worker has about his or her job experiences in relation to previous experiences, current expectation, or available alternatives”. Hence, employees’ feelings and reactions which to their job experiences are satisfaction level. Job satisfaction has been an area of popular for employers for many years since it’s important to evaluate satisfaction level for employees. Hundreds of studies have examined the various dimensions of the job satisfaction and the relationships between job satisfaction and other variables. In 1935, Hoppock was the first one to publish topic of job satisfaction who found that job satisfaction was related to gender, age, and occupational level. Naumann (1993) noted that the amount of energy spent studying job satisfaction is based upon the idea that satisfied workers, at all organizational levels, are important contributors to an organization’s effectiveness and ultimately to long-term success.
2.1.1 The Concept of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is an emotional, affective response. Affect refers to feelings of like or dislike. Therefore, job satisfaction is the extent to which a person derives pleasure from a job. Locke (1976) defines it as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state
resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. Job satisfaction is strictly an individual response.
It was initially thought that people could have an overall feeling or liking for a job, ranging from very low to very high. Later, it was learned that many factors contribute to how a person feels about a job. People can have different feelings about their co-workers, their pay, their promotion, their supervision, and present job to oveall feelings about their jobs.
2.1.2 Theoretical Classifications of Job Satisfaction
Campbell et al., (1976) have divided job satisfaction theories into two distinct categories, content theories and process theories. Content theories are based on various factors which influence job satisfaction. These theories also consider an individual’s needs and values. They indicate what content motivates an individual to engage in a specific behavior (Chelladurai, 1999). The main content related theories include Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs Theory, Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygience Theory etc.
Process theories take into account the process by which variables such as expectations, needs and values, and reference groups interact with the job to produce job satisfaction. The major concern of process theories is to consider not only the nature of the job and its context, but to analyze individual needs, values, and expectations. Chelladurai (1999) also classified theses studies as Discrepancy Theories, where a psychological comparison takes place between what one receives and a standard of comparison. In essence, process theories take the next logical step and analyze various reasons that might determine job satisfaction. The main process theories include Equity Theory, Need Fulfillment Theory, and Expectancy Theory.
According to Gruneberg (1979), it is likely that no one single theory of job
satisfaction accounts for all the phenomena all the time. Each theory of job satisfaction has added to the base of knowledge and is intertwined in the developing construct. Because of this, a review of both content and process theories will be given.
2.1.3 Theories of Job Satisfaction
Several theories have been proposed to explain why people are satisfied with their jobs. This research has introduced several significant and most popular theories of job satisfaction. These theories are given as under:
1. Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs Theory
Maslow (1954) emphasized that human behavior resulted from “need”, and human needs have five levels form low to high as physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization. When lower level needs become satisfied, it will pursue the next higher need. Hence, the need is step by step not cross function on the pyramid. But it’s still existence that the lower level need decrease when it move into the next higher need. Lower level needs could use salary or employee welfare to gain satisfied and higher level needs choose the other way to gain satisfied such as delegation, respect, or promotion.
2. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygience Theory
Herzberg (1959) found this was necessary that general employees thought corporate polices, administrate management, interpersonal relation, and salary, it was not felt satisfied when these conditions existence, but if one was not existence that will feel dissatisfied called hygiene factors. On the contrary, he found these conditions such a sense of achievement, responsibility, or promotion that it was felt satisfied
3. Expectancy Theory
Vroom (1964) emphasized that motivation relied on three constructs like expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy is the probability that effort will be followed by personal accomplishment. Instrumentality is the probability that performance will lead to outcomes. And valence is associated with value of an individual to an outcome. For example, when an individual is faced with a choice being promoted to a new position with more responsibility and authority, it is expected that increased compensation will follow. The behavior of the individual is affected by his belief that there is a probable outcome.
However, the research on consequences of job satisfaction has shown its relationship with positive outcomes such as organizational commitment, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior. Numerous studies have also analyzed the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover. In general , more dissatisfied employees are likely to leave the working environment and likely to be absent form work more than satisfied employees (Dittrch & Carrell, 1979). Some studies have found that turnover is more predictable than absenteeism when related to job satisfaction (Hulin, 1966；Ilgen & Hollenbach, 1977).
2.1.4 Measurement of Job Satisfaction
There are several popular measure scales for job satisfaction as follows:
The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) has short form (20 items) and long form (100 items) developed by Weiss et al., (1964, 1967). The MSQ was developed as part of a work began in 1957 in a study know as the Work Adjustment Project (WAP). The objective of the WAP was to assess worker personality and the
work environment for specific outcomes, namely satisfaction ( Weiss et al., 1967).
The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) was used to measure with employee’s satisfaction with their jobs. After 40 years of studies and application it remains one of the most widely used measures of job satisfaction (DeMeuse, 1985). The five specific dimensions of JDI are work on present job, present pay, opportunities for promotion, supervision, and coworkers. The Job in General (JIG) scale was designed to evaluate overall, global satisfaction with the job (Ironson et al.,1989).