Basic Concept of In-depth Interview

在文檔中 中國上海之區域經濟發展及其知名EMBA關係 - 政大學術集成 (頁 25-0)

Chapter 3 Methodology

3.1 Basic Concept of In-depth Interview

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

3.1 Basic Concept of In-depth Interview

In this study, the acquisition strategy of primary data is in-depth interview.

In-depth interview is a method of face-to-face communication by which the interviewees and researchers discuss with each other about the research topics within the research scope to widely get the information they need, including the interviewees’ own experiences, cognitive and ideas. In-depth interview is applied broadly in a variety of qualitative research methods.

In the process of in-depth interviews, researchers should avoid to give excessive hints and guide questions as much as possible, but to encourage interviewees to freely express their views and ideas about the issues or topic in a restrictive environment. Therefore, in-depth interviews can not only increase the diversity of data collection, but can better understand the interviewees’ ideas and attitudes of the problems.

3.2 The Operational Procedure of In-depth Interview 3.2.1Sampling

According to Taylor and Bogdan (1984) view, exploratory qualitative research can not predict whether the information obtained is wide and comprehensive enough. As long as the collection and research continue, it seems to have new discovery, but we must base on rigorous research logic according to the research agenda. In general, qualitative research centrally and deeply studies a small number of samples which are carefully selected, even sometimes only from one case.

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

The logic and effectiveness of purposive sampling is to select information-rich cases for in-depth interview. Information-information-rich cases are those samples contain a lot of information essential to the research purpose. This sampling is called as purposive sampling.

This study hopes to probe the design and characteristics of the well-known Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Antai EMBA relating to Shanghai regional economic development from different angles, so EMBA manager is the main object in our sample.

3.2.2 In-depth Interview

Because the in-depth interview involves ethical issues, before interview, we first contacted interviewee by phone and through E-mail and informed him our research purposes. After asking and getting his permission, we made appointments with the interviewee.

It is worth mentioning that in order to make the interviewee can fully express his innermost thoughts and the real situation, we sent the interview questions to interviewee for understanding before departure. Before proceeding the interview, we first asked him whether fully understood the questions. After both reaching a consensus of problems awareness, interview would be able to focus.

In order to assure the reliability, we took notes shorthand through out the interview process. In-depth interview was kept open-ended questions to allow respondent to freely discuss his ideas and insights. Then, we could base on

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

interview transcripts and notes to analyze, and provide the analysis results to respondent for confirmation. This was also helpful to ensure the validity of the research.

3.2.3 Validity and reliability

Before the start of in-depth interviews, we selected two respondents as pre-interview objects, and tried to figure out the language patterns and suitable wording the interviewee most likely familia. During the formal interview, interview contents were recorded completely as much as possible; the answers of the questions were faithfully recorded to ensure the reliability and validity.

During the analysis stage, we encoded the transcript and the secondary data for the purpose of tracking original opinion and information source to enhance the reliability.

3.3 Design of the Interview Questions Outline

The interview outline was designed according to four main subjects:

Curriculum Design strategy (CD), Faculty Arrangements (FA), Student Feature (SF), and internal and external Cooperation Strategy (CS). This research developed the questions of each subject tightening with Shanghai economic development and so did the directional guideline of the interview process. Please refer to Appendix 1 for the Consent of Interview and Interview Questions.

3.4 Encoding of Materials

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

This research obtained the interviewee’s opinions, program documentary materials, and school website information after the interview and field survey, and then, we proceeded to content analysis. The "encoding procedure" is an important preparation work for content analysis of interviewee’s transcripts.

Table 3-1 Coding Rule

Pattern [Subject Dimension code]-[Meaning unit series number]

Example CD-9(The ninth meaning unit of Interviewee’s opinion for Curriculum Design dimension)

This research designed several interview questions under four dimensions, and sent to interviewee for prior understanding. During the process of the interview, because the interviewee expressed his opinions in a skeleton way for each dimension, rather than answered every question one by one under four dimensions. Therefore, as coding for the transcripts, we just used two character codes, the first one is "interview dimension code”, and the second is “meaningful unit code” which represents interviewee’s specific significant opinion. The following is a paragraph of the interviewee’s transcripts of “Curriculum Design”

dimension:

“The styles of Shanghai and Beijing environments and schools are quite different. We attach importance to the development of the financial environment (CD-1), business development (CD-2), and trend development (CD-3). Our school has three systems (CD-4), the first is China Europe International Business School (CEIBS), which was founded by Jiao Tong University commissioned by the Shanghai Municipal Government (CD-5). The second is AEMBA which was established by Jiao Tong University in cooperation with ING Group. The levels

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

of its curriculum content, faculty and student's grade are the highest (CD-6). The third one is Shanghai Advanced Institute of Finance which is because Shanghai wants to be an international financial center and this system is mainly for the financial policy research and fosters high level financial talents (CD-7).”

"CD" represents the first dimension of "Course Design", and "1" represents the first meaningful message of interviewee’s opinion for this dimension.

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS

Before the case data analysis, this study suggests that it is necessary to briefly introduce Shanghai Jiao Tong University(SJTU), Antai College of Economics and Management(ACEM) which the Antai EMBA belongs to, and the Antai EMBA project.

4.1 Introduction of SJTU, ACEM and Antai EMBA

4.1.1 SJTU

Shanghai Jiao Tong University(SJTU) was founded in 1896 as Nanyang College. SJTU , as one of the higher education institutions which enjoy a long history and a world-renowned reputation in China, is a key university directly under the administration of the Ministry of Education (MOE) of the People's Republic of China and co-constructed by MOE and Shanghai Municipal Government.

With SJTU situated in Shanghai, the most dynamic city in East Asia, its students and faculty enjoy abundant offerings of this culturally rich and diverse city. The nearby Zizhu Science Park, with over 100 enterprise research centers, forms a strong atmosphere for innovation and R&D as well as promoting vigorous interaction between the academic community and industry through the fostering of innovative talents.

The five campuses of Xuhui, Minhang, Luwan, Qibao and Fahua of the university take up an area of around 400 hectares, housing a variety of activities

from student life, athletics, and entertainment to research with laboratory facilities among the best in China.

4.1.2 ACEM

Antai College of Economics and Management (ACEM), SJTU aims to develop the highest-level managerial talent, with thoroughly international perspectives and capacities, and the ability to compete in the global economy.

ACEM is the first and only China-based business school to be triply accredited by EQUIS1, AMBA2 and AACSB3.

ACEM's history can be traced back to the Business School of Nanyang Public University of the Qing Dynasty in 1903. After a century of changes and reforms, ACEM as a top-ranked school in China, is striving to become a top business school in Asia.

1 The EFMD Quality Improvement System (EQUIS) is a school accreditation system. It specializes in higher education institutions of management and business administration, run by the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD). The accreditation is awarded to business schools based on general quality. The process also takes into account the business school's level of internationalization, which is not a strict requirement for accreditation by the other two major international accreditation bodies: AACSB and AMBA.

2 The Association of MBAs (AMBA) is a global MBA-focused accreditation and membership organization founded in London in 1967. The London-based Association is one of the three main global accreditation bodies in business education (EQUIS, AMBA, and AACSB) and styles itself "the world's impartial authority on postgraduate management education". It differs from AACSB in the US and EQUIS in Brussels as it accredits a school's portfolio of postgraduate management programs but does not accredited undergraduate programs. AMBA is the most international of the three organizations, having accredited schools based in 53 countries, compared with 48 for AACSB and 38 for EQUIS.

3 The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International) was founded in 1916 to accredit schools of business. The current mission is to advance quality management education worldwide through accreditation, thought leadership, and value-added services. It is regarded as the benchmark for business school quality among the academic community.

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

1918 Set up the program of railway administration of Nanyang Public University

1979 Shanghai Jiao Tong University set the Department of Industrial Management

1984 School of Management was re-established with the approval of the China Ministry of Education

1996 Aetna International Inc. signed an agreement with SJTU to further develop the SJTU School of Management

2000 Renamed as the Antai School of Management

2006 Renamed as the Antai College of Economics and Management

Since 2008, ACEM has received AMBA (The Association of MBAs), EQUIS (European Quality Improvement System) and AACSB (The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) international certification, and was the first business school obtained simultaneously three top international certifications in Mainland China.

ACEM has developed a complete international education system and extensive cooperative relationships with over 70 business schools in renowned universities overseas, including Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), The University of Washington (USA), Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California (USA), Manchester Business School, University of

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

Manchester (UK), Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia (Canada) and so on.

4.1.3 Antai EMBA

In July 2002, ACEM of Shanghai Jiao Tong University became one of the first colleges allowed to have EMBA education. In August 2013, ACEM improved the innovation education system. As a result, ACEM launched the first

"EMBA of Innovation and entrepreneurial management", and "Dual Tutor"

constituted by academics and businessmen was designed. At present, ACEM EMBA provides directions of integrated management, financial management, family business succession management as well as innovation and entrepreneurship management.

4.2 Curriculum Design Strategy of Antai EMBA

China has become the world's major economic power. Due to the global industry changes and rapid adjustment of industrial structure in China, Chinese entrepreneurs are facing a huge challenge. How to promote the development of corporate strategy transformation and innovation to enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises in order to grasp the international and regional economic trends, and accurately understand the status quo and future of China's economic development are the EMBA entrepreneur inevitable destiny. The purpose of Antai EMBA establishment is to "contribute management wisdom, and lead economic and social development"4.

4 SJTU EMBA admissions handbook(2015)

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

So that, the curriculum design of Shanghai Jiao Tong University EMBA has been guided by a pragmatic principle, and follow the direction of cultivating management talents for the need of industrial practice and Shanghai's economic development to plan (8, 9, 25, 30, CD -31, 32, 33, CD-34, CD-35). On the teaching methods, in addition to the case-based teaching which is the same as Taiwan MBA and EMBA often used (CD-18), SJTU EMBA further uses Module-teaching strategy(CD-17, CD-19) to construct their courses, including Methodology module (CD-20), Management Practice module (CD-21), International module (CD-22), SJTU features Integration module, etc(CD-23)(As table 4.1). First, SJTU EMBA designs their courses according to the macro environment, future trends ... etc.(CD-25), and then invites suitable teachers to teach (CD-26). Especially SJTU Features Module also includes Integrate Module, Exploration of STJU, Innovation series of courses, Finance series of courses, and Internet series of courses.

Antai EMBA will still base on the overall environmental trends each year, market demand to adjust curriculum (CD -10) to meet the students' needs and expectations (CD -11). The curriculum design primarily refers to the opinions of Professor Committee and Advisory Committee (CD-27). Professor Committee is composed by Jiao Tong University's teachers (CD-28), and holds three meetings a year. It can directly put forward the demand for courses (CD-29). For example, it currently focuses on the regional economy (CD-30), shipping economy 31), innovation 32), finance 33) and the Internet (CD-34) and so on. According to "Shanghai Strategic Emerging Industries Development in the Twelfth Five Year Plan", Shanghai municipal government issued new energy, biomedicine, new energy vehicles and other industrial

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

policies in 2012. It optimizes the policy environment of strategic emerging industrial development for software, information services, integrated circuits , new display, communications and network, internet of things, new energy, rail transportation, biotechnology, energy saving and environmental protection industries, etc. Besides, Shanghai's financial market and institution systems are also becoming more and more mature. Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai, hopes to construct Shanghai into four centers by 2020: International Economic Centre, International Financial Centre, International Trade Centre, and International Shipping Centre. This is not only the overall objective of the development of Shanghai, but also the important carrier of opening expansion and soft power upgrading5. Therefore, the current teaching foci of Antai EMBA are indeed consistent with the directions of Shanghai future development towards the realization of the "four centers".

In addition, we can find from the Table 4-1 that the teaching fields of

"International Module" and "STJU Features Module" of Antai EMBA are highly correlated with the fields of future national and Shanghai development (CD-35).

Moreover, Antai EMBA also functions based on the recommendations of the Advisory Committee (CD-36). The Advisory Committee is composed of students and teachers (CD-37), holding two meetings each year by exchange of ideas to make recommendations for courses design (CD-38).

On the right hand of Table 4-1, "Degree of the Relation of Shanghai Development" refers to the related degree of SJTU EMBA courses and the

5上海市政府網站(2012.2.14),上海市戰略性新興產業發展“十二五”規劃, 滬府發〔2012〕1 號。

資料來源:

http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/nw2/nw2314/nw2319/nw2404/nw29352/nw29353/u26aw30764.html

practical need of Shanghai regional development. According to the course introduction of each module in SJTU EMBA website6 and interviewee’s views, we assumed that if the course adopts the case study approach or just teaches some management concepts of organizational operation, the degree is low. If the course is associated with a particular industry or industrial case studies, then the intensity of relation is at least moderate. If the course name or description is for certain industries of the regional economic development, it is supposed to be highly correlated.

Table 4-1 The Relationship between SJTU EMBA Curriculum System and Shanghai’s Regional Development

Module Curriculum Intensity of Relation to

Shanghai Development Opening  Team Building

 Business Ethics

 Techmark

 720 Leadership Evaluation

None None Medium

None Methodology  Economics Theory and

Analysis Management Practice  Corporate Finance

 Marketing International  USA: Innovation &

Leadership

 EU: Industry /Economy &

High High

6 SJTU EMBA Academic website:

http://emba.sjtu.edu.cn/curriculum/set.html#p1

Module Curriculum Intensity of Relation to

Shanghai Development Culture

 Emerging Economy:

Opportunity and Challenge

High SJTU Features  Exploration of SJTU

 Integrate Module Source: Compiled from Antai EMBA website, Shanghai municipal government

website, and interviewee’s opinion

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

In addition, Antai EMBA has a feature that is Residential module at the beginning of the semester and before graduation (24, 40, 41, CD-42). EMBA of Shanghai Jiao Tong University considers leadership development as the main line, and offers courses around the recognition, generation, development, consolidation, introspection and application of leadership. By using residential module at the beginning of the semester to recognize leadership from the students. By using residential module before graduation to introspect and apply students' leadership7.

4.3 Faculty Arrangement of Antai EMBA

The qualification of SJTU EMBA faculty members is very high (FA-1).

Professor of each course not only holds domestic and international well-known universities PhD and has extensive teaching experiences in business schools, but also owns some industrial experiences(FA-2, FA-3). They should have the strategic thinking of combining advanced management theories with Chinese management practices and form a unique teaching model and tailored China-based international curriculums for EMBA students8

Percentage wide, SJTU ACEM teachers constitute approximately fifty percent (FA-4), special-appointed professors account for another fifty percent (FA-5), mainly from domestic and foreign academia, practitioners, government and well-known business schools in Europe and America, such as the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Harvard University, MIT, Columbia University,

7 SJTU EMBA Academics website:

http://emba.sjtu.edu.cn/en/academics/curriculum.html

8 As footnote 4.

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

University of Southern California, United States West Point, France INSEAD, etc.9

If the course belongs to international or practical areas, Antai EMBA will invite outside industry experts to teach (FA-6, FA-16), because of their rich industry expertise (FA-7) and relatively close relationship with the government (FA-8), so that they can bring to students with different ways of thinking (FA-9).

If the nature of the course is academic or theory-oriented (FA-10), it will be taught by SJTU teacher (FA-11). These teachers are long engaged in research and teaching, and have profound insights of the issues about China's economic reform and Chinese business.10 Therefore, Antai EMBA teacher’s profession is also highly supported and endorsed by the government (FA-14, FA-21), and some teachers also serve as government advisers (FA-15, FA-16). Government and school offer a number of resources to them (FA-17, FA-18, FA-19), because this is also regarded as honor for the school (FA-20).

According to the official 2015 website of Antai EMBA and recruiting brochure, Antai EMBA has thirty-one professors. From the background of their expertise, Antai EMBA faculty group includes many professors, whose major studies are regional economic development and Chinese economy, for example Xianzhong Meng, Xian Chen, Gang Fan, and Xiaomin Liang, etc.11 In addition, since the focus of future Shanghai development direction is towards the realization of the "four centers", namely, International financial center, International economic center, International trade center, and International trans

9 As footnote 4.

10 As footnote 4.

11 As footnote4 and Antai EMBA website

立 政 治 大 學

N a tio na

l C h engchi U ni ve rs it y

shipping center. Table 4-2 shows the relationship of the professional fields of Antai EMBA faculty group and Shanghai's future development. 12 The interviewee mentioned that Antai EMBA professors tend to link up some cases and the practical problems, demand, and management challenges of Shanghai in their teaching process (FA-12) in order to stimulate students thinking and applying what they have learned (FA-13). The research expertise fields of Antai EMBA Professors are quite diverse, but we can see from Table 4-2 that the main fields are Financial and Economic Research. If the professor's course or research

shipping center. Table 4-2 shows the relationship of the professional fields of Antai EMBA faculty group and Shanghai's future development. 12 The interviewee mentioned that Antai EMBA professors tend to link up some cases and the practical problems, demand, and management challenges of Shanghai in their teaching process (FA-12) in order to stimulate students thinking and applying what they have learned (FA-13). The research expertise fields of Antai EMBA Professors are quite diverse, but we can see from Table 4-2 that the main fields are Financial and Economic Research. If the professor's course or research

在文檔中 中國上海之區域經濟發展及其知名EMBA關係 - 政大學術集成 (頁 25-0)