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在秘魯城郊地區設立太陽能供應系統之社會企業企劃書 - 政大學術集成

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(1)國立政治大學商學院國際經營管理英語 碩士學位學程 International MBA Program College of Commerce National Chengchi University. 碩士論文 政 治. 大. 立Master’s Thesis. ‧. ‧ 國. 學 sit. y. Nat. 在秘魯城郊地區設立太陽能供應系統之社會企業企劃書. n. al. er. io. Social Business Plan: Solar Energy for Rural Peru. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Student: Abel Canchari de la Cruz Advisor: Professor Jack Wu. 中華民國一〇三年六月 June 2014.

(2) 在秘魯城郊地區設立太陽能供應系統之社會企業企劃書 Social Business Plan: Solar Energy for Rural Peru. 研究生:甘亞柏. Student: Abel Canchari de la Cruz. 指導教授:吳文傑. Advisor: Jack Wu. 國立政治大學. 學. ‧ 國. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. 商學院國際經營管理英語碩士學位學程 碩士論文. er. io. sit. y. Nat. A Thesis. n. a to International MBA Program Submitted iv l C n U NationalhChengchi University engchi. in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Master in Business Administration. 中華民國一〇三年六月 June 2014.

(3) Acknowledgement I cannot express enough thanks to the following: The ICDF Scholarship Program for its generous support; to Frank Chang, ICDF Program Manager for being so helpful, to Ms. Lichi Ho, the executive Secretary of the IMBA program, for her willingness to assist at all times; to my advisor professor Jack Wu who provided me valuable insights for modelling the social business. I offer my sincere appreciation for the learning opportunities provided to me. My completion of this project could not have been accomplished without the support of my. 政 治 大. classmates, Manuel Sieber and Kamoltip Jiravanichkul who walked me through the principles and practice of photovoltaic. To Wanchin Chen – thank you for allowing me time away from. 立. you to research and write. My heartfelt thanks.. ‧ 國. 學. Abel Canchari de la Cruz. ‧. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i. i n U. v.

(4) Abstract Social Business Plan: Solar Energy for Rural Peru By Abel Canchari de la Cruz This social business aims to achieve double bottom line: the social and the financial ones. The former is giving access to electricity to households out of the reach of the grid. The latter is being financially sustainable, running activities without needing external subsidy.. 治 政 Our Vision: “A rural Peru where every family has access大 to electricity in their homes.” 立to affordable and sustainable solar energy for poor families, as a Our Mission: “Enable access ‧ 國. 學. means for social inclusion and development in the rural Peru.”. Our objective: To provide access to photovoltaic energy for families in remote areas of the. ‧. Andean highlands of Ayacucho, Peru.. y. Nat. sit. Our economic model: We partner up with district, province or regional governments, and. er. io. private companies, to help them to promote social development or carry out their corporate. al. v i n C h in any national U households which are not considered rural electrification plan (they will not i e h n g cmore). We install the solar home systems in have electricity in the following 7 years or n. social responsibility mandate. We sell to them solar home systems to be installed in rural. households who are willing to be part of the project (so the families pay a fee for the operation and maintenance and cooperate with their labour force, small accessories, and local materials). The solar home systems are bundled with social engineering activities to ensure the sustainability of the project in the village. This entire task is carried out with local technician who are specially trained to solve any problem and provide the operation and maintenance service. Our target: Install solar home systems for 7700 households.. ii.

(5) TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Background, Vision, Mission, Objectives and Business Description ........ 1 1.1.. Overview of the Social Problem and Business Opportunity ...................................... 1. 1.2.. Vision of Success ....................................................................................................... 3. 1.3.. Mission ....................................................................................................................... 3. 1.4.. SMART Social Impact Objectives ............................................................................. 3. 學. 1.6.. ‧ 國. 1.5.. 政 治 大 Business Description 立.................................................................................................. 4 Core values ................................................................................................................. 4. ‧. Chapter 2. Target Market........................................................................................................ 6 Clients ......................................................................................................................... 7. 2.2.. End users: households ................................................................................................ 9. 2.3.. Market Size and Trends ............................................................................................ 10. n. al. er. io. sit. y. Nat. 2.1.. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. 2.3.1.. Size ................................................................................................................... 10. 2.3.2.. Trends ............................................................................................................... 11. 2.3.3.. Change in social awareness .............................................................................. 11. Chapter 3. Strategic Framework .......................................................................................... 12 3.1.. Business Assessment: Strengths & Weaknesses ...................................................... 12. 3.2.. Operating Environment: Opportunities and Weaknesses ......................................... 13. 3.3.. SWOT Analysis ........................................................................................................ 14. iii.

(6) 3.4.. Industry Attractiveness: Porter Model ...................................................................... 16. 3.4.1.. Threat of New Entrants..................................................................................... 16. 3.4.2.. Buyer’s Bargaining Power ............................................................................... 17. 3.4.3.. Supplier Power ................................................................................................. 17. 3.4.4.. Threats of Substitutes ....................................................................................... 18. 3.4.5.. Industry Rivalry ................................................................................................ 19. 3.4.6.. Industry Analysis ...................................................................................................... 20. ‧ 國. 學. 3.5.. 政 治 大 Synthesis ........................................................................................................... 19 立 Sensitivity to Government Regulation ............................................................. 20. 3.5.2.. Technological Change ...................................................................................... 20. sit. y. Nat. Competitive Analysis ............................................................................................... 20. io. n. al. er. 3.6.. ‧. 3.5.1.. v. Chapter 4. Marketing Plan .................................................................................................... 21. Ch. engchi. i n U. 4.1.. Marketing Objectives ............................................................................................... 21. 4.2.. Product Strategy ....................................................................................................... 21. 4.3.. Distribution Strategy ................................................................................................ 24. 4.4.. Price Strategy............................................................................................................ 25. 4.5.. Promotion Strategy ................................................................................................... 27. 4.6.. Sales Plan.................................................................................................................. 30. Chapter 5. Operations Plan ................................................................................................... 31. iv.

(7) 5.1.. Operations Process Mapping .................................................................................... 31. 5.2.. Research and Development ...................................................................................... 33. 5.3.. Equipment and vehicle ............................................................................................. 34. 5.4.. Social Impact Assessment and Monitoring Systems ................................................ 34. 5.4.1.. Base Line Studies ............................................................................................. 34. 5.4.2.. Case Studies...................................................................................................... 34. 政 治 大 Chapter 6. Governance and Human Resource Plan ........................................................... 36 立. Governance ............................................................................................................... 36. 6.2.. Roles, Responsibilities and Key People ................................................................... 37. 6.3.. Human Resource Budget .......................................................................................... 39. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. 6.1.. sit. y. Nat. io. n. al. er. Chapter 7. Financial Plan ...................................................................................................... 40. v. 7.1.. Budget ....................................................................................................................... 40. 7.2.. Projected Profit and Loss Statement......................................................................... 41. 7.3.. Projected Balance Sheet ........................................................................................... 42. 7.4.. Projected Cash Flow Statement ................................................................................ 42. 7.5.. Net Present Value ..................................................................................................... 43. 7.6.. Resource Acquisition................................................................................................ 43. Ch. engchi. i n U. Reference ................................................................................................................................. 44 Appendix ................................................................................................................................. 46. v.

(8) List of Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1: Access to Electricity by Regions. 2. Figure 2: Map of Ayacucho Region. 6. Figure 3: Budget Under Spending by Local Governments. 7. Figure 4: Budget under spending by the Regional Government. 8. Figure 5: End Users Location. 9. Figure 6: A Solar Home System. 22. 政 治 大. Figure 7: Installation of the solar panel and the control board. 23. 立. 24. Figure 7: Product Positioning Map. 28. 學. ‧ 國. Figure 8: Our Logo. Figure 9: Organizational Chart. ‧. Tables. 36. 4. y. Nat. Table 1: Business Basic Information. Table 3: Target Market Size. 10. er. n. al. sit. 10. io. Table 2: Estimated Daily Energy Requirement of a rural Household. Table 4: Business Assessment. Ch. Table 5: Opportunities and Threats Table 6: SWOT Analysis. engchi. i n U. v. 12 13 14. Table 7: Barriers to Entry. 16. Table 8: Buyer Power. 17. Table 9: Supplier Power. 18. Table 10: Threats of Substitutes. 18. Table 11: Rivalry. 19. Table 12: Porter Five Forces Synthesis. 19. Table 13: Solar Home System. 21. Table 14: Unit Variable Cost Solar Home System (US$). 26. Table 15: Five “Fs”. 29. Table 16: Annual Sales Plan. 30. vi.

(9) Table 17: Operation Process. 31. Table 18: Roles and responsibilities. 37. Table 19: Payroll and Headcount. 39. Table 20: Start-Up Expenses. 40. Table 21: Projected profit and Loss Statement. 41. Table 22: Projected Balance Sheet. 42. Table 23: Projected Cash Flow Statement. 42. Table 24: Net Present Value. 43. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. vii. i n U. v.

(10) Chapter 1. The Background, Vision, Mission, Objectives and Business Description 1.1. Overview of the Social Problem and Business Opportunity While for many people, electrical power is available at the flick of a switch, for some 1.6 billion people around the world without access to grid electricity this remains a dream. Peru is a developing country with 29 million inhabitants. Multiple factors, mainly the geography shaped the Peruvian society, making it a dual society. There are urban areas. 治 政 transportation, information, electricity, etc. On the other 大hand there are rural areas whose population speak Quechua,立 or another dialect and they have been traditionally excluded whose population speak Spanish and have a fair access to education, health,. ‧ 國. 學. from development processes; therefore they lack access to basic services such as electricity, water and sanitation, and they are likely to live in poverty or extreme poverty. ‧. conditions.. sit. y. Nat. According to statistics, by 2012 approximately 3.8 million people cannot access to electricity, that is 771,000 households, or 12.8% of the total country population (INEI,. io. n. al. er. 2014) (OSINERGMIN, 2013). The figure below shows the access to electricity by. i n U. v. regions. Those regions located in the Andean highlands and in the amazon are likely to. Ch. engchi. have a low percentage of access to electricity.. Families with no access to electricity, opt to use candles, dry cell batteries, and sometimes kerosene or diesel oil that are dangerous, dirty and dim. According to a survey sponsored by the Word Bank, “among these kerosene users, about 83 percent use it exclusively for lighting.” Further “Dry cell batteries are used extensively in rural households, despite a very high cost per equivalent kWh.” (Meier, Tuntivate, Barnes, Bogach, & Farchy, 2010). 1.

(11) Figure 1: Access to Electricity by Regions Source: (OSINERGMIN, 2013). 學 ‧. ‧ 國. 立. 政 治 大. y. Nat. The lack of access to affordable electricity is caused by the low and varying amount of. sit. electricity consumption between inhabitants of the same village, the majority of. n. al. er. io. households consume small amounts, and the houses are spread out in remote areas. Thus,. i n U. v. making grid electricity projects unfeasible when evaluated from the economic perspective.. Ch. engchi. Energy is key for human well-being and a country’s development. Humans use energy in different forms in almost every aspect of their lives. One type of energy is electricity that is the most widely used. It is well known that access to electricity has a social benefit; it has a positive impact on the welfare of the society. It is a service valuable for maintaining a healthy and productive society. A nationwide survey of rural household energy use has revealed that “rural households in Peru have a significant desire, willingness, and ability to pay for electricity. Households without electricity from the grid frequently pay more for energy of lesser quality from kerosene lamps or batteries than they would pay for electricity service”. (Meier, Tuntivate, Barnes, Bogach, & Farchy, 2010). The same survey states that the use 2.

(12) of car batteries by 18% of rural households without electricity is a strong indication of unsatisfied demand for electricity in areas near to the grid. However, the upfront payment for purchasing the solar energy components for a household (solar home system) remains as the main barrier to be overcame. Therefore this social business plan is a response to a market failure in the energy and electricity sector. It aims to address this issue with a sustainable and innovative approach.. 1.2. Vision of Success “A rural Peru where every family has access to electricity in their homes.” It paints a picture of the social business direction and future. It is an uplifting philosophy. 政 治 大. that will energize our team and stakeholders to embrace this challenge.. 立. 1.3. Mission. ‧ 國. 學. “Enable access to affordable and sustainable solar energy for poor families, as a. ‧. means for social inclusion and development in the rural Peru.”. This is the heart of our social enterprise. It describes our central purpose and the basic. sit. y. Nat. principles that guide the actions of employees, partners, and management. It will help to. io. n. a l Objectives 1.4. SMART Social Impact Ch. engchi. er. articulate the strategy to be used to accomplish its goals and objectives.. i n U. v. By the end of year five, the social business aims to:. Install solar home systems for 7700 households located in the Andean highlands of Ayacucho in Peru.1 . That represents 23% of the rural households without electricity in Ayacucho, and 1% the total households without access to electricity nationwide.. . 3.3 mWh (megawatts) of clean energy produced per day. See the calculation spread sheet in Appendix 1. 1. We will work far away from the public grid, but along the national rural electrification plan. This means that our business will supplement the public rural electrification effort. We assume that, in the coming years, the National Rural Electrification Plan and other efforts will cover the remaining 77% of the households.. 3.

(13) Other spillover effects: . Reduce the incidence of lung impairment disease, TBC, asthma, and cancer risks caused by the use of kerosene and toxic fumes.. . Allow children to study up to 2 more hours at home during night-time and improve their performance at schools.. 1.5. Business Description Table 1: Business Basic Information Name. Inti-Power. “Inti” comes from Quechua language which means “sun”. It reflects our identity. It is easy to remember since our customer base is. 政 治 大 confuse with other organizations. 立. mostly in a Quechua speaking region. It is unique, so there is no chance to. Non-profit organization registered under Peruvian law. Therefore it is an. 學. ‧ 國. Legal. income tax-exempt entity.. Industry. Photovoltaic. Contact. Abel Canchari | (+51) 62-9663300 (+886) 0987255504. ‧. status. y. Nat. sit. abelcdc@icloud.com. al. er. io. Description Although registered as a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), it is. n. run as a for-profit enterprise in order to achieve financial sustainability.. Ch. i n U. v. The company’s PV project represents its principal business line.. 1.6. Core values . engchi. Integrity: by conducting business in a way that is honest, transparent and ethical. A Code of Ethics will be drafted to guide the actions of all employees. Integrity in the context of this social business is paramount specially dealing with the local and regional governments.. . Accountability: We will strive to be effective in achieving our mission and be accountable to all our stakeholders –community, donors, board, staff, volunteers, the government, etc. This will help to earn the public’s high regard for our work.. . Excellence: We are not only pursuing something significant, but we will do it well while keeping cost down.. 4.

(14) . Self-help: We will try to support people willing to improve their current situation. At any instance we will contribute with critical resources and technology not available locally. It is fundamental that customers contribute from the very beginning in order to sense their appreciation of the value of the solar home system. Installing systems free of charge should be absolutely avoided. Sustainability: We do more than provide a quick fix for an individual situation; we strive to solve larger systemic problems and empower people, families and communities to live a better life.. 立. 政 治 大. 學 ‧. ‧ 國 io. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. . Ch. engchi. 5. i n U. v.

(15) Chapter 2. Target Market Inti-Power has targeted the region of Ayacucho. 2 The main criterion is the quantity of households without electricity. This region comprises 11 provinces and 100 districts. See the map below:. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Figure 2: Map of Ayacucho Region. 2. Ayacucho will be the region of market test. In the long run the business may expand to other 6 neighboring regions where there is a potential market of 167,000 households.. 6.

(16) Clients We will have 2 kinds of clients: Subnational governments and businesses. We will start operations after securing a partnership/contract agreement with them. Subnational Governments: . District Municipalities: It is a local government comprising a defined territory and its population. Their mandate is to promote local development. To do so they manage a budget transferred from the national government. In Ayacucho there are 100 of this kind. The mayor and the council members are the decision makers, and they are elected every 4 years.. 政 治 大 least 4 districts. There are 11 of this kind in Ayacucho. 立. . Province Municipalities: They are much larger local governments comprising at. . Regional Government: It is a public institution that enjoys political, economic and. ‧ 國. 學. administrative autonomy in matters within its competence. They manage a budget transferred from the national government. They promote development region-wide.. ‧. It is composed of two bodies: a regional council and a regional president. There is. sit. y. Nat. one regional government in Ayacucho.. al. er. io. As for District and Province Municipalities, it is a common pattern to have large. n. underspent budget, as the figure below shows, from 2009 to 2013 it appears that local. Ch. i n U. v. governments in Ayacucho underspent considerable amount of budget. For instance, last. engchi. Millions US$. year (2013) US$ 140 million were not spent (34%), out of US$ 410 million. 200 150 100 50 0 2009. 2010. 2011. 2012. 2013. Figure 3: Budget under Spending by Local Governments Source: (Ministry of Economy and Finance, 2014). 7.

(17) Regarding the Regional Government. It manages large amount of economic resources and has shown inefficiency and lack of responsiveness. As the figure below shows, the Regional Government of Ayacucho has not spent over time a great deal of money, despite gaps in basic public services and infrastructure. As for last year, US$ 31 million were not spent from a total budget of US$ 384 (8%) This pattern is repeated over time. Millions US$. and also among other regional governments. 60 50 40 30. 政 治 大. 20 10. 立. 0. 2009. 2010. 2011. 2012. 2013. ‧ 國. 學. Figure 4: Budget under spending by the Regional Government. ‧. Source: (Ministry of Economy and Finance, 2014). sit. y. Nat. io. er. In general, local and regional governments face social pressure from citizens to have more expenditure in social projects. Going over lengthy process and red tape is normal. n. al. Ch. i n U. v. in budgeting and project execution. They are not price sensitive, however they are prone. engchi. to have employees and authorities’ wit rent-seeking behavior. Businesses Specially businesses involved in the extraction of raw materials. In Ayacucho and nearby regions chief examples are mining and gas extraction. We targeted one potential client: The Camisea Gas Project which is one the most important gas projects in America. It has Ayacucho is part of the influence area. Based on other similar projects financed by this company we consider to approach them with a proposal targeting villages where the company has gas pipelines.. 8.

(18) Rationale for selecting clients: Profit margins are high when products are sold to this kind of clients (institutional sales). They have as mandates to solve the problem of access to electricity for their constituencies or area of influence (in the case of the extractive industry business). Selling directly to them in high volumes reaches fewer customers, and higher prices might be charged, since most of these types of customers command larger budgets.. End users: households The actual end users of the solar home systems are households. They will have to pay a reasonable fee and contribute with labour force, and accessories for installing the solar home systems. Products cannot have a full subsidy from the government or any other organization.. 立. 政 治 大. They are families living in rural areas without access to electricity. Most of them are in. ‧ 國. 學. relative poverty conditions. Their daily income range varies from US$1 to 3 US$. Illiteracy is common among them; some have completed primary or secondary. ‧. education. They are subsistence farmers living above 2500 meters above sea level. The villages where they live are not included in the National Rural Electrification Plan, nor. y. Nat. sit. in any other project undertaken by the government, NGOs or international cooperation. n. al. er. io. agencies. Therefore they are unlikely to have electricity in the following 7 years.. Ch. engchi. i n U. Figure 3: End Users Location. 9. v.

(19) According to the Master Plan Study for Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in the Republic of Peru, a typical rural family has an average monthly current energy expense of US$ 6.1, and their willingness to pay is US$ 4.3 (JICA, Electric Power Development Co, Nippon Koei Co., 2008). Generally they are price sensitive and do not have enough knowledge about solar home systems. This profile will be refined over time, as additional information will be collected. Typical rural home energy consumption is as follows: Table 2: Estimated Daily Energy Requirement of a Rural Household Quantity. Bulbs. 3. Radio. 1. 40. 1. 5. 2. 30. 108 200. 3. 15. 2. 120. y. 443. er. io. sit. Calculation based on data from the National Survey. n. Market Size anda Trends 2.3.1. Size. Consumed. 5. Nat. Total. 立. working 政 9治 大 4. Watts. ‧. Other. Hours. Nominal Power (W). 學. Mobile charger. ‧ 國. Energy load. iv l C n hengchi U. The market size for a social business is the actual number of families lacking access to electricity. Below is the information for Ayacucho: Table 3: Target Market Size Target Region. Ayacucho. Total households without access to electricity. 32,695 Source: (INEI, 2014). 10. Quantity. %. 7700. 23.0.

(20) 2.3.2. Trends Although that over time there is a reduction of number of families without access to electricity, that reduction is not significant. Inti-Power plan to reach 7,700 out of 32,695 households in the targeted region. We can safely assume that the remaining portion of households might be reached by the ongoing rural electrification plan. We can predict that the coverage of the electricity grid will expand in the following years. The government planned to reach 95% of the households countrywide by 2016. However, the experience of past rural electrification projects tells us that the government development project targets are unlikely to be achieved.. 政 治 大. 2.3.3. Change in social awareness. 立. It is likely that potential clients will value more the social benefit that renewable energy. ‧. ‧ 國. io. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. business.. 學. brings to rural families. This could be advantageous for the objective of this social. Ch. engchi. 11. i n U. v.

(21) Chapter 3. Strategic Framework This section will analyze Inti-Power relative to its operating environment, industry, and competition. The information gathered will enable the social enterprise to ascertain its comparative advantages and subsequently craft the business strategies.. 3.1.. Business Assessment: Strengths & Weaknesses. In this section it is analyzed the strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) of the social enterprise as they relate to the ability to carry out enterprise objectives. Table 4: Business Assessment S W. of solar modules.. S. Nat. Socially conscious, however unknown for clients and users.. S. al. n efficiencies/. economies of scale Strategic alliances. sit. Comment. Infrastructure/capacity Operating. Inti-Power as a new social business is largely unknown.. It articulates our central purpose.. er. io. Resources. ‧. W. II. Internal Operations Mission statement. Relatively high price of products.. High quality control. Outsourced to top worldwide producers. S. Reputation/ name recognition Social image. top 10 worldwide producers) W. ‧ 國. Quality. S. 學. Value for Money. Comments. Products will be outsourced from Taiwan (Moltech and Delta,. 立. Product/service features. 政 治 大. y. I. Customer Perceptions. As start-up will be difficult to gain social investors. Inti-Power. v i n C hIn the early stage we U will have a basic infrastructure and i e W h n c g equipment. W. does not enjoy a large working capital.. We will keep cost down, reduce time of installations of solar. S. home systems. Operations will run at full capacity.. S. Partnership with key suppliers and clients. S: Close from target markets. It offsets distance and reduces. Location. S W. operating cost. W: It is relatively away from suppliers (Taiwan). Some households might be located at remote areas.. Structure. S. Client relationships. S. Product/service mix. Ownership and legal issues will be well defined. Strong relations with households via local technicians. Also strong relationship with decision makers in the government. W. Products according to the real energy load of a rural household. Local implementing partners will be able to. 12.

(22) provide after sale services. Human resources. S. Leadership. S. 3.2.. Competent team with the necessary skills, background, and passion for social development. In charge of championing the venture and support the accomplishment of the social enterprise’s mission.. Operating Environment: Opportunities and Weaknesses. Opportunities (O) and threats (T) are external forces outside the social enterprise and beyond its control. Table 5: Opportunities and Threats. O. 治 A report of the Peruvian National 政 Environment Fund – FONAM, estimates that Peru 大 has advantageous conditions for the development of solar立 energy projects. The report argues that, the country’s solar High solar irradiation in the highlands:. ‧ 國. 學. potential has not been exploited yet. In the mountain ranges located in the South and Throughout the central belt of the highlands, solar energy reaches average levels above. ‧. 5-6 kWh/m2/day3, which are among the highest worldwide (FONAM, 2014). See the irradiation map at Appendix 2.. Large scale of the problem: there is a problem to be solved: 32,695 households with no. y. Nat. O. n. al. er. Advance in photovoltaic technology: Ongoing researches are focused on how to. io. O. sit. access to electricity in Ayacucho.. i n U. v. increase the efficiency of solar photovoltaic technology, controllers, batteries, and light. Ch. emitting diodes (LED) bulbs. O. engchi. Low electricity consumption of rural families: Households in rural areas typically consume between two and 200 Watt hours a day, which can be easily be generated by small solar home systems.. O. Growing experience with solar energy systems in various parts of the world, and lessons could be learnt from these experiences. An evidence-based approach on the project definitively will help to apply the best practices, and avoid the mistakes.. O. Increased consciousness of the importance of renewable energy, especially by the government.. O. Existence of local organizations as potential partners: For instance JUNTOS, a cash. 3. KWh = kilowatt-hour, is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours. It is commonly used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electricity utilities. A 50-watt light bulb operating for 100 hours uses 5 kilowatt-hours.. 13.

(23) transfer program, provides a US$ 35 monthly subsidy to rural families to improve their living conditions. Most of them do not have electricity in their home. O. Existence of a National Photovoltaic Project: managed by the Ministry of Energy and Mining.. T. Photovoltaic technology not available locally: technicians lack knowledge and expertise.. T. Low income of households: reduced purchasing power is a barrier for the upfront payment for a solar home system.. T. Scattered household: which drives the cost up and may hinder actions of operation and maintenance.. T. Corruption and rent-seeking in the government: authorities and officials are prone to ask for 10% of the total cost of projects awarded or purchases.. T T. 學. SWOT Analysis. ‧. 3.3.. 政 治 大 Price sensitivity and lack of resources for upfront payment. 立 Poor families are used to receive subsidy from the government via social programs. Households with low awareness of benefits of solar energy.. ‧ 國. T. y. Nat. The matrix below helps to identify the business comparative advantages and build. io. sit. strategies that emphasize these and maximize opportunities while minimizing its. n. al. er. weaknesses and the risks of potential threats.. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Table 6: SWOT Analysis. Strengths . Weaknesses. High quality product outsourced from  . partners in Taiwan.. Relatively expensive products. Weak. brand. recognition,. . Strong image as socially responsible.. financial. . Key partnerships and alliances (local,. infrastructure as start-up. . national and international) . Location, and well-targeted market.. . Leadership, management team and human. 14. and. limited. Distant location relative to key suppliers (Taiwan).. resources.. resources. scarce.

(24) Opportunities . High solar irradiation.. . Large scale of the problem.. . Technologies. to. Threats . end. locally. poverty . energy. . already exist.  . Low income of households. Scattered households.. Advance in the photovoltaic technology . Corruption and rent-seeking in the. reduces cost.. government.. Low electricity consumption of rural . Households with low awareness of. families.. benefits of solar energy.. . Lessons from solar energy projects.. . Increased consciousness of the importance. . of renewable energy by decision makers. . Photovoltaic technology not available. Existence. of. local. for upfront payment. . Poor families are used to receive. from the government via social 政 as治 subsidy 大 programs.. organizations. 立. potential partners.. Price sensitivity and lack of resources. ‧ 國. . 學. Strategies for maximizing strengths and opportunities. Secure contracts with district, province, and regional government who manage large. ‧. budgets for social projects.. Develop a partnership with Juntos (a Cash Transfer Program) to attend their target families.. . Develop a low cost social marketing campaign focused on the potential of solar energy.. . Secure agreement for sharing information with the National Photovoltaic Project and. al. n. coordinate targeted and uncovered areas.. Ch. engchi. Strategies for mitigating weaknesses and threats. er. io. sit. y. Nat. . i n U. v. . Examine possibilities of having a joint venture with a recognized local NGO.. . Subsidize products when is the case, however local resources and sweat equity must be required from households.. . Develop a network of technicians who will be in charge of promoting the benefits of solar energy in local markets, fairs, local radios, or other public spaces.. 15.

(25) 3.4.. Industry Attractiveness: Porter Model. The Porter Five Forces analysis will give us information on the business environment and determine whether it will be hospitable or hostile to the social business. It will also give us insights on the strategic implications of these forces for the business model.. 3.4.1. Threat of New Entrants In the table below it is shown what barriers to entry exist in the photovoltaic industry, in the targeted area. It will allow determining the potential attractiveness of the industry, and also drawn strategic implications.. 政 治 大. Table 7: Barriers to Entry Measure of Barriers to Entry. Rating. 立. The time to establish the. Medium. Lack of suppliers or distributors. High. X. Nat. Low High. X. Medium. a l High Ch High. X. n. Lack of high-quality personnel Customer resistance Attractiveness rating. X. X. sit. io. Restrictive regulations. y. X. X. ‧. High. Changing technology. Attractive. Unattractive. Substantial expertise required. Market saturation. Neutral. er. enterprise. ‧ 國. Medium. Unattractive. 學. High investment costs. Highly. i n U X. X en gchi. v. X. Strategic implications: . The lack of suppliers present potentially barriers to entry for another enterprise.. . To handle importing and logistics from Taiwan, there is a need to build capacity at administrative and operation level.. . Should exist many competitors, Inti-Power must target a different market (or consider to move to another region).. 16.

(26) 3.4.2. Buyer’s Bargaining Power If clients have considerable power over the price of our offering, this can seriously restrict profitability and sustainable growth. Table 8: Buyer Power Measure of Buyer Power. Rating. Highly. Unattractive. Neutral. Attractive. Unattractive Number of customers. Medium. X. Availability of competitors’. Medium. X. like product or services Switching costs. Medium. Threat of backward integration. Low. The seller competes on a cost. Medium. 立. basis. Unprofitable business. X. 政 治 大. X X. Medium. X. ‧ 國. 學. Attractiveness rating. Secure contracts directly from institutional sales. This is a more cost-effective. sit. y. Nat. . ‧. Strategic implications:. X. approach than selling to individuals, who exercise more buyer power. This may. io. al. n. . er. include bundling the projects (hardware provision and social engineering activities).. i n U. v. Inti-Power can leverage its social position to market its products, differentiating. Ch. engchi. them as “socially responsible” or “community development oriented.” Businesses may consider buying from a social enterprise as a means to improve their image or strengthen their relations within a community. . Emphasize low cost marketing strategy is important to succeed in an industry with relatively medium buyer power.. 3.4.3. Supplier Power The flip side of buyer power. The Photovoltaics Industry has powerful suppliers which can substantially reduce the profitability of an enterprise by raising prices. Inti-Power may be susceptible to supplier control because of the low volume of purchase and lack formal market connections.. 17.

(27) Table 9: Supplier Power Measure of Suppliers. Rating. Power. Highly. Unattractive Neutral Attractive. Unattractive. Number of suppliers. Medium. X. Availability of substitutes. Medium. X. Switching costs. Low. Threat of forward integration. Medium. Differentiated products. Low. “Purchaser value” to the. Low. X X X X. supplier. Attractiveness rating. X. 政 治 大. Strategic implications:. 立. In the future, after gaining experience in the industry, Inti-Power may increase. 學. ‧ 國. . purchaser value by acquiring solar cells, and components of devices for solar home systems and assemble them to locally produce (backward integration) key . ‧. components like solar modules, controllers, etc.. Securing partnership agreements with key suppliers is another way to reduce their. y. Nat. sit. power (for instance Delta Electronics and Delta Foundation or Motech) highlighting. n. a. er. io. the social side of the commercial transaction.. l 3.4.4. Threats of Substitutes. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. When clients or end users are price sensitive, they may turn to substitutes. Table 10: Threats of Substitutes Measure of Substitutes. Rating. Highly. Unattractive Neutral Attractive. Unattractive Availability of close. High. X. substitutions Perceived value. High. User’s switching costs. High. X X. Attractiveness rating. X. 18.

(28) Strategic implications: . In the long run diversification could be an option. Other services: feasibility study, engineering, procurement, construction, operation and maintenance.. 3.4.5. Industry Rivalry Assessing the intensity of competition helps to determine the potential attractiveness of the chosen industry. Table 4: Rivalry Measure of Rivalry. Rating. Number of competitors. Medium. X. Medium. X. Low. X. ‧ 國. Diversity among competitors. 學. Excess capacity. Unattractive Neutral Attractive. Unattractive 政 治 大. 立. Industry growth. Highly. Low. Attractiveness rating. X. ‧ sit. y. Nat. Strategic implications:. al. er. An option is to fill an untapped niche through a product diversification strategy. io. . X. v. n. targeting new or underserved markets (neighboring regions).. 3.4.6. Synthesis. Ch. engchi. i n U. Table 5: Porter Five Forces Synthesis Measure of the Five Forces. Rating. Highly. Unattractive Neutral Attractive. Unattractive Barriers to entry. High. Buyer power. Medium. X. Supplier power. Medium. X. Threat of substitutions. High. Industry rivalry. Medium. X. X X. Attractiveness rating. X. It appears that this market is attractive.. 19.

(29) 3.5.. Industry Analysis. 3.5.1. Sensitivity to Government Regulation There is a positive effect of regulation regarding the promotion of renewable energy. Also it is priority for the government to achieve the target of 95% of the total households with access to electricity by 2016. There are technical regulations regarding solar home systems and components for rural electrification (Ministry of Energy and Mines, 2007). This must be taken into account when supplying to the government. When preparing projects in order to apply for grants from the International Cooperation, we must comply with the World Bank’s guidelines. 政 治 大. for photovoltaic projects or the Quality Standards for Solar Home System and Rural Health Power Supply developed by the German Agency for International Cooperation. 立. 學. ‧ 國. (GTZ).. 3.5.2. Technological Change. ‧. This business sells a high technology product. Therefore is somewhat vulnerable to change. Sales can fall off dramatically if competitors introduce technology innovations. y. Nat. sit. that result in a better product or lower costs. However technological innovations might. n. a. er. io. provide new business opportunities.. 3.6.. l Competitive Analysis. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. There are small and medium sized companies selling solar home systems to end users. Most of them are located in Lima, capital of the country. A few of them are located in the capital of the Region. It appears that their products are of low quality (Chinese brands), they do not enjoy a name recognition nor social image. NGOs implementing similar projects are not considered as competitors because they are implementing project in targeted communities with grants from international organizations. Should they have a similar business model, they may become competitors. There is a possibility that new competitors might enter the market.. 20.

(30) Chapter 4. Marketing Plan 4.1.. Marketing Objectives. . Raise awareness on the advantage of solar energy of a minimum of 7700 households.. . Sell 7700 solar home systems.. 4.2.. Product Strategy. The product we sell is called solar home system. Features: Its main components are:. 治 政 Table 6: Solar Home System 大 立 Details Function. Components. ‧ 國. Output:. Generates electricity.. 100Wp. 學. A solar PV module. 12V 10A. Regulates the Voltage and Current.. Battery. 65Ah 12V. Stores the surplus electricity for using during. ‧. A charge controller. Nat. n. al. er. io. sit. y. the night or rainy days.. i n U. v. See the figure below for a layout and see Appendix 3 for a description of the main. Ch. engchi. components, Appendix 4 for the principles of photovoltaic systems, and Appendix 5 for technical specifications of the main components. The systems are stand-alone, meaning they are not connected to other electrical infrastructure. They are designed to be modular, which means that they can be adapted and changed over time as demand for electricity changes.. 21.

(31) 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學 Figure 4: A Solar Home System. ‧ y. Nat. sit. The solar module will be installed over a pole, like shown in the picture below. The. n. al. er. io. control board will have a controller.. Ch. engchi. 22. i n U. v.

(32) Figure 7: Installation of the solar panel and the control board Source: (LUTW, 2014). 政 治 大 Benefits: The PV module of 100Wp will generate a nominal power of 450W/day 立 (considering 5.5 hours of light, and working at 90%of its capacity, to be conservative in. ‧ 國. 學. our calculation). The household demand as shown in section 2.2. is 443W/day. 4 Our product design follows the frugal engineering approach 5 , while maintaining quality,. ‧. longevity and functionality.. Nat. sit. y. Technology: Inti-Power will use innovative technology to bring sustainable energy to. io. er. those living off the grid. We will work with local technicians and communities to install solar energy systems that provide electricity to power light bulbs, radios, TV, and charge. al. n. cell-phones.. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. Inti-Power will work with solar home systems responsive to the particular energy needs of families in off-grid rural villages. The solar photovoltaic systems, will be appropriately designed, will require fewer resources, will be easy to maintain, and will have less impact on the environment when compared to other services, such as using kerosene for lighting.. 4. Families with more energy consumption are likely to have more income and therefore they can access in the market to a solar home system of larger capacity and buy by themselves. 5 Frugal engineering is “achieving more with fewer resources.” It removes non-essential features from the system, while maintaining quality and durability. The product does not need to be an inferior good, just cost-efficient.. 23.

(33) Product Positioning: We are a provider of high quality solar home systems at affordable prices. We achieve this competitive advantage thanks to our key suppliers based in Taiwan.. 政 治 大. 立. ‧ 國. 學. Figure 8: Product Positioning Map. ‧. Bundling: Different studies suggest that a solar home system has a relative high price. Nat. sit. y. (upfront payment from households), adoption may take time, when implemented it may. io. er. be unsustainable if there is no training to the user might misuse the system and shorten its longevity. Therefore an integral approach to this product is to be sold together with. n. al. i n U. v. the implementation of a social engineering package6. Bundling allows the convenient. Ch. engchi. purchase of the products and the service from just one business.. 4.3.. Distribution Strategy. The social business will approach directly to potential clients, propose a partnership agreement whereby we sell the solar home systems (hardware) bundled with the social engineering package which is the differentiator of our offering. Before approaching our potential customers we will conduct a screening to assess the likelihood of that customer to sign a partnership agreement with Inti-Power. The variables to be screened are:. 6 Social engineering: contains activities to influence communities and households attitudes towards the new technology in order to facilitate its adoption, and to lay the foundation for its sustainability.. 24.

(34) . Quantity of households without electricity, not to be covered by the national rural electrification plan.. . Political will of decision makers towards renewable energy.. . Budget availability.. . Not involved in corruption scandals.. During the implementation of the partnership the products must reach the end users. The social engineering package will comprise awareness-building activities and sensitization in order to: i) increase the likelihood of families for paying a fee for the operation and maintenance of the solar home system, and ii) guarantee its personal contribution with miscellaneous items (pole, cable, switches, tape) and sweat equity. This job will be done. 政 治 大. by the local technician who will get appropriate training.. Price Strategy. 立. 學. ‧ 國. 4.4.. Research into purchasing behavior of local and regional governments suggest that they are not price sensitive. In terms of distribution channels, partnership agreements offer. ‧. the greatest room for higher profitability given that purchasers are willing to pay extra. y. Nat. for the convenience of having the product installed in the home of the end users.. n. al. er. io. sensitivity of households runs high for solar home systems.. sit. However, this advantage is offset by the lower disposable income of the end users. Price. Ch. i n U. v. The pricing strategy for our product reflects the following considerations:. engchi. Competitors’ price: According to a research done asking quotations via Email we got the following price points: . Small business in Ayacucho selling a low quality (Made in China) solar home system of a PV module of 100Wp, a controller, and a battery (without the social engineering and training), the price is: US$ 700 (tax included). . Small business in Lima (Everblue) selling a medium quality solar home system with a PV module of 125Wp, a controller of 12ah, battery of 12V 100Ah, Inverter 600watts, 3 LED bulbs of 5watt, cable 10 m), without social engineering and training, the price is: US$ 838 (tax included). See Appendix 6.. . Small business (OMP Servicios y Contratistas Generales) is offering a 90Wp solar 25.

(35) module, controller 10ah, inverter 300W, accessories, battery 12V 100Ah, without installation and social engineering: US$ 501 (tax included). See Appendix 6. Our Variable cost: It covers unit variable costs and a percentage markup to spread over fixed costs. Table 7: Unit Variable Cost Solar Home System (US$) Items. Total Cost. Cost to. Cost to end. Client. User (Family contribution). PV Module 100wp polycrystal 40 cells. 150. 150. 50. 50. 110. 110. 80. 80. 6. 6. Charge controller 12v 10A. 治 政 controller) Shipping to Peru and customs (PV Module, 大 Angle and screw for fixing PV 立module Battery 12v 65Ah. ‧ 國. LED DC Light bulbs (2 units) Switch (2 units). 10. 20. 20. 2. 2. ‧. 10. Wooden control board. 2. 2. Wood battery protector. 2. 2. 7. 7. io. Assistant - family sweat equity (Installation) 3 hours. al. sit. y. Nat. 10. er. Pole. 10. 學. Connection part & wiring (fuse w/ switch 30m wiring). v n i 25. 10. 5. 5. Social Engineering activities. 70. 70. Operation & maintenance fee. 50. 10. n. Technician (Installation) 3 hours Transportation to site. Label for signalling the project. Ch. engchi U. Total cost. 609. 25. 50 506. Mark up. 194. Price. 700. The cost to family is estimated based on their “market value”. Fixed cost: or “overhead” (also referred to as direct costs), are the expenses that do not vary according to production volume. Total fixed costs are found in the Profit and Loss Statement on line item “total operating expense” (See Financial Plan).. 26. 103.

(36) Price: Including a markup of US$ 194 for each product, the final price is US$ 700 (includes the social engineering and operation and maintenance). Sales prices will remain competitive, but competing on price is not the most important basis of competition. The comparative advantages of our solar home systems lie in characteristics and benefits other than price, and these will be the most important factors in positioning the product: A lower price is not always the best strategy. Our pricing strategy combines penetration pricing and “Cost-plus” pricing. Our price involves taking the total cost (fixed + variable) per unit and adding a % mark-up, which represents a “fair” margin. (We are still below competitor’s pricing, and the product has a good value to consumers). Break-Even Point:. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. 𝑈𝑆$ 50515 = 260 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑈𝑆$ 700 − 𝑈𝑆$ 506. sit. y. Nat. io. er. According to our sales plan (see below) that figure will be achieved within the first year.. al. n. v i n install them in the families thatC agree h etonbegpart c hofi theUproject. Therefore the end users Subsidy: We will sale the solar home systems to our corporate clients, and then we will. have a significant subsidy. However there is a family contribution as shown in Table 14. However, the subsidy to families is justified on the grounds that electricity projects to be viable need certain amount of subsidy. See Appendix 7 for level of subsidies in grid electricity projects for selected countries.. 4.5.. Promotion Strategy. Without an organized promotion strategy, customers will not automatically become conscious of our products, and of the benefits they offer. Since money in social enterprise programs is always limited, our promotion strategy will be developed with care and creativity. Much of the information gathered on the characteristics of our target market and how to reach clients will help us with developing our promotional strategy. 27.

(37) Regarding branding and communications, we consider the following: Messaging and brand standard: This messaging conveys the promise of our work — the vision that we are working towards: “A rural Peru where every family has access to electricity in their homes.” We believe that this has a potential to capture the attention of our customers and other stakeholders. We will have guidelines for a consistent use of the logo and colors associated with the brand to be used in documents: brochures, templates for memos, slide presentations, and other materials that will ensure consistent branding and messaging. See the logo below:. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學 er. io. sit. y. Nat. Figure 9: Our Logo. al. v i n the energy (the sun). It has a distressed C h design becauseUthe ultimate populations we work e n g“Noteworthy c h i Light” was chosen because its with are in the rural area. The typography n. The rationale behind the logo is simple: the icon conveys the message of the source of. simplicity matches with the drawing of the sun. From the perspective of color psychology, orange represents affordability, creativity, enthusiasm, lighthearted and high-spirited. All of them are related to our vision and core values. Green represents natural, sustainable, renewable, and growth. Our slogan is “Empowering Prosperity”: It conveys our values and mission. We empower families via our social engineering strategy and we want to contribute to a more prosperous family, community and society. Promotional messages: Our message to motivate customers to purchase our products and service will attempt to trigger a customer emotions, self-image and political 28.

(38) aspirations. Below are the core messages to be used when we address our clients. Actually they may become the titles of the projects: . “Creating the first solar district / province / region”. . “Reaching the families in the last kilometers via solar energy”. . “Solar energy for social inclusion”. . “Empowering families”. We will use the “five F’s” formula as a way to remember advantages of our product: Table 15: Five “Fs”. Inti-Power provides the adequate. The solar home system is what they need for. solution for a key problem in the. lighting in the night and listening to the radio,. district/province or region.. charging the cell phone or watching TV.. Affordable and high quality solar. It will help them to avoid wasting money in. home systems.. fuels and candles that damage their health.. Inti-Power will implement the. Having electricity at home! No need to buy. project on behalf of the client. fuel or candles every time.. n. acknowledging the source of the funding. Feeling. Ch. Fosters the idea of: “good. er. io. al. sit. y. Nat. Freedom. 治 政 When deciding to reach an When大 deciding to partake in the project 立with us agreement ‧. Financial. For End User/Consumers. 學. Function. For Actual Customers. ‧ 國. Five “Fs”. i n U. v. e n g cThe h ientire family can have light when flipping. governance”, “concerned leaders. the switch. They can see themselves as having. taking action against a serious. a key public service.. problem” or “companies taking care of communities welfare” Future. The decision maker is likely to. Increase their sense of security. If the grid does. win the support from population if. not reach their house, they will have the. they run for another period. Or. service available for at least 25 years.. companies’ image will improve. If there is a problem they will have access to technicians for operation and maintenance.. 29.

(39) Promotional vehicles: Including but not limited to: . Direct mail and information meetings: with prospective clients to introduce our enterprise, product and complementary service.. . Cause-related marketing: exploiting the social value of the enterprise via local media with no charge for it.. . Practical Demo: Will be done in the communities or districts where the project is to be implemented (after signing the partnership agreement).. . Radio-short drama/comedy: As part of the social engineering activity to promote the benefits of having a solar home system. Will be done with a local comedian utilizing the local language. In previous similar projects (water and sanitation) we. 治 政 A Web site: The following domain will be acquired: 大 www.intipower.org.pe 立 public documents that showcase the organization’s Brochures and other. tested the effectiveness of this strategy. It is very cost effective.  . ‧ 國. . 學. perspective on the social problem and how our solution can make an impact. A conference in partnership with a prestigious university will be hosted annually. ‧. from the 2nd year onwards. This will be dedicated to raising awareness of the target social issue and positioning Inti-Power as a leader in its field.. y. er. Sales Plan. sit. Social media: a Facebook fan page will be arranged.. io. 4.6.. Nat. . al. n. v i n C h and provinces U In the first year we will target districts e n g c h i closer to our headquarters in order. to gain operational efficiency. The manager will identify potential customers and will make the initial client contact. The follow up procedure is to send a blue print with basic information and a draft of a partnership agreement. We do not plan to have a sales team. Table 16: Annual Sales Plan Year. Number of Clients. Purchase in Units. Total Sales (units). 2015. 7. 70. 490. 2016. 10. 76. 760. 2017. 12. 100. 1200. 2018. 15. 150. 2250. 2019. 15. 200. 3000. Total. 59. 7700. 30.

(40) Chapter 5. Operations Plan 5.1.. Operations Process Mapping. The operation lasts 12 months. Table 17: Operation Process Stage. 1 month. Description. Check information on. Quantify the number of families lacking. Executive. electricity coverage and. access to electricity, and target the. Director. rural electrification plan. communities.. Screening of potential. Assess willingness to get involved in a PV. 政 治 大. client Prepare proposal. 立. Executive. (number of families, specific communities,. Director. ‧ 國. strategies of implementation).. Approach potential client. Send a mail and schedule a meeting.. Executive Director. Show the benefits of solar energy, explain schedule and budget.. y. Nat. io. Show a demo module.. er. al. Drat it taking into account the terms and. n. Agreement. Draft a blueprint with key information. total budget, timeline, social objectives, and. Send a Partnership 2 months. Director. ‧. Acquisition. Executive. project.. 學. Client. Responsible. sit. Targeting. Steps. i n U. Admin & Financial. e n gitscprogress. hi Monitor. Manager. In a public ceremony.. Executive. Agreement Collection first deposit. Manager. conditions discussed in the meeting.. Ch. Sign Partnership. v. Engineering. Director And then deposit into the Bank account.. (50%). Admin & Financial Manager. Procurement. Get quotation from. At least 2 quotations.. partners in Taiwan. Executive Director. Decide the best supplier. Double check quality standards and national rules. Assess the time it 3 months. takes to be sent to Peru. Purchase. Money transfer (100%). Admin & Financial Manager. 31.

(41) Store in warehouse. Double check conditions.. Admin & Financial Manager. Implemen-. Hire & train local. According to terms of reference to be drafted.. Eng. Manager. tation. technician (promoter) Approach village. Explain the purpose, timeline and community. Executive. authorities. involvement.. Director & Eng. Manager. 4 months. Start social engineering. Produce the content, contract local radio. Executive. activities. stations, broadcast them.. Director. Showcase samples of solar home systems.. Local Technician. Registration of end users. 立. Training to end users. 政 治 大. According to criteria to be drafted.. Local Technician. On-site training.. Local. 學. ‧ 國. Technician Equivalent to US$ 50 and the list of items to. Local. of local contribution. be purchased by the home-owner.. Technician. Installation. Following guidelines to be drafted.. Eng. Manager, Local Technician.. y. Nat. n. Opening ceremony. Local. problems.. Technician,. sit. io. al. Collection 50% deposit. To make sure that there is no installation. er. Test. ‧. Collection/double check. When the project is completed.. Ch. engchi U. v ni. With representative of customers.. Admin & Financial Manager Executive Director & Eng. Manager. Post Service. Evaluation. Assessment of the work done in the village.. / Follow up. Executive Director & Eng. Manager. Report to customer. Technical and financial report.. Executive Director. 2 months. Report to the society. Press release, video and social media.. Executive Director. 32.

(42) 5.2.. Research and Development. It will allow continual product development, improvement and responsiveness to the changing conditions of the market and technology. Expenses associated to it will be budgeted separately. New ideas will be tested as a pilot project and if there is evidence of success, it will be scaled up and will become part of our product portfolio. In some cases, proposal will be submitted to foundations, NGOs and funding partners who sponsor innovation in the renewable energy sector. Documents will contain projected costs, technical assistance needed, development of prototypes, further studies, product tests, etc. The following is a list of probable ideas of new product development: Pay as you go Solar Home System: Although the solar home system will be the “star”. 政 治 大 you go solar home systems” 立 which will work with a device attached to the charge of our product line. The social enterprise proposes to introduce a pilot project of “pay as. ‧ 國. 學. controller that works with prepaid cards bought from local electrician (business partners in the future). A family that reaches a total consumption of US 100, at any time, will be able to unlock the system and become the owner of the solar home system. With the pay. ‧. as you go system we will be able to avoid the upfront payment which is a barrier for a. y. Nat. mass adoption of solar home systems. By validating this model which makes the solar. io. sit. home system more affordable Inti-Power will be able to access to previously untapped. er. market with a revolutionary product.. al. n. v i n Portable Solar Home System:CIn the market exists U h e n g c h i this kind of products, however its effectiveness has not been tested yet. It is mainly used for camping because its power output is limited since it works with a solar module of 15Wp or 40Wp. It comes with a controller, battery, and an inverter to 220V output inside a metallic or plastic box, plus USB cables for charging cell phones, and some LED bulbs. Its price in Taiwan is approximately US$ 110. Although its portability works as its advantage, it may become its disadvantage in the rural area where it could be easily stolen. The lower power output and 220V output may lead to overuse and continuous discharge of the battery, which may affect its longevity. Therefore a pilot test could be suitable. There is a supplier already. identifies. for. this:. Martac. Enterprises. Ltda.,. based. in. Taoyuan. www.martac.com.tw, which belongs to a former Imba fellow Adolfo Aguilar. See Appendix 8 for a couple of samples of this product.. 33.

(43) Moving up in the value chain: There might be opportunity for creating local employment by moving upstream in the value chain. An important finding that emerged from photovoltaic experiences is that there are more viable opportunities further upstream (module manufacturing locally by purchasing photovoltaic cells). By partnering with public bodies that foster innovation, this could be a possibility to explore in the long run. The efficiency lost in the production of solar modules may be compensated with skills and jobs created locally. Important: We have not considered R&D and grants in the financials, for not distorting the financial performance of the enterprise. They will have their own budget as a separated proposal.. 5.3.. 政 治 大. Equipment and vehicle. 立. We will purchase two solar modules for the demo to prospective clients.. ‧ 國. 學. From year 2 we will consider to invest in a vehicle 4X4 pick up which will be useful for. ‧. operational efficiency since the solar home systems are installed in sometimesinaccessible rural areas.. sit. y. Nat. Social Impact Assessment and Monitoring Systems. io. er. 5.4.. 5.4.1. Base Line Studies. al. n. v i n Ch Promoting development in disadvantaged e n gpopulations c h i Uthrough a social enterprise is a means to have a deep positive impact on their lives. Measuring social impact is. important for managers to evaluate effectiveness in reaching enterprise social goals. Therefore we will develop a baseline study to measure end users condition before they partake in the social enterprise program. Questionnaires, and interviews may be used to capture responses and ensure we are getting an accurate picture. This task will be performed by the technician.. 5.4.2. Case Studies Stories of families who improved their living conditions will be published in our website, social media and other promotional vehicles. It will give to our clients a human face and create empathy, support and understanding that statistics cannot. They also make the 34.

(44) story and challenges of our social enterprise vivid to a larger audience. Case studies serve dual purposes: anecdotal measures of impact for our customers, and as marketing and public relations vehicles. Case studies also validate statistical data. This information will be collected when visiting villages as part of the monitoring and evaluation process. I will be done by the Engineering Manager or Executive Director.. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. 35. i n U. v.

(45) Chapter 6. Governance and Human Resource Plan 6.1.. Governance. Inti-Power will benefit from a strong governing board. The role of the Board of Directors is to supervise and advise the management of the business, doing everything in its power to ensure that the organization carries out its mission in the most efficient and productive manner possible toward the accomplishment of its vision. The Board of Directors meets bi-monthly, and it will comprise the following members: . The founder.. . A person from the academia, in the area of photovoltaic energy.. . A person with expertise in growing NPO and marketing.. 立. 政 治 大. They all work ad-honorem.. ‧ 國. 學. A management team will be assembled and staff positions will be put in place to carry. Nat. sit. y. ‧. out the operating model. See the chart below.. io. n. al. er. Board Members. Ch. i n U. Executive Director. engchi. Engineering Manager. v. Adm. & Finance Manager. Local Technicians Local Local. Figure 10: Organizational Chart. 36. Fund Development Manager.

(46) The following table summarizes the roles and responsibilities for every position and key people.. 6.2.. Roles, Responsibilities and Key People. Table 18: Roles and responsibilities Executive Director | Abel Canchari . In charge of strategic planning, financial management and budgeting, compliance, communications and human resources management.. . Co-leads the implementation of the business plan, reporting to the Board of. . Leads the development of all partnerships.. . Identifies and investigates potential sources of funding prepares grant applications. 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. . 學. for R&D initiatives.. Monitors, reviews, and acts on organizational performance indicators to ensure. . ‧. efficient and effective operation. Primary spokesperson for Inti-Power to the public.. sit. y. Nat. Engineering Manager | Roger Alvarez. io. In charge of the design and implementation of solar home systems in off-grid rural. n. al. er. . communities.. Ch. engchi. i n U. v. . Researches and tests technologies and products applicable to projects.. . Builds the capacity of local technicians with skills and information about solar home systems.. . Revises and develops training manuals, maintenance programs, and guides to be used for final users and local technicians.. . Logistics management including procurement, international and national transport, customs clearance and inventory management.. . Carry out monitoring and evaluation visits.. . Assists with the development of Inti-Power policies related to all aspects of project implementation.. . Provides inputs for partnerships and grant applications.. 37.

(47) Administrative & Finance Manager | Josue Canchari . In charge of the accounting, other financial statements.. . Manages relationships with international and national funding partners for R&D.. . Helps ensure national office solvency and overall financial health through sound financial record-keeping, analysis, and decision-making.. . Monitors cash flow and establishes processes to approve expense.. . Reviews relevant dashboard indicators with Executive Director monthly.. Fund Development Manager | Claire Peng . In charge of diversifying the funding sources for R&D projects.. . Identifies opportunities for funding.. . Leads fundraising activities overseas for pilot projects.. . 學. ‧ 國. . 政 治 大 Builds a long-term relationship with funding partners. 立 Work closely with donors for R&D and pilot projects to monitor and conduct field visits for evaluation purposes.. ‧. Local Technicians | To be hired in due time In charge of representing Inti-Power in the terrain.. . Promotes the solar home system in a particular community.. . Works closely with local authorities in order to explain the objective of the. al. er. io. sit. y. Nat. . n. intervention, and the methodology of work (roles and responsibilities).. Ch. i n U. v. . Selects the final households partaking in the project.. . Monitors use of the photovoltaic system in a regular basis, to ensure its adequate. engchi. utilization. . Provides operation and maintenance for one year.. . Important: Inti-Power will support the technicians to become independent solar energy service providers (they can sell other items needed by families such as more batteries, liquid for batteries, more solar modules, inverters, LED bulbs, etc.). 38.

(48) 6.3.. Human Resource Budget Table 19: Payroll and Headcount. Staff. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2017. 2018. Executive Director. 12000. 21000. 28000. 28000. 28000. Engineering Manager. 12000. 21000. 28000. 28000. 28000. 5000. 10000. 10000. 10000. 10000. Local technicians. 12250. 19000. 30000. 56250. 75000. Total (US$). 38265. 63016. 88017. 114267. 133018. Management. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Local technicians. 7. 15. 15. Fund Development Manager. Headcount. 立. 10 12 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學. Executive Director and Engineering Manager earn 12 wages per year in the first year. After the second year salary increases and earn 14 wages per year, in compliance with. ‧. national labor regulation.. Nat. sit. y. The Fund Development manager will enjoy retribution at the end of the year, coming. io. er. from revenue generated by business operations. The rationale is that the new funds will be instrumental for generating new products and for business growth.. al. n. v i n C be output/product Ubased, earning US$ 25 per every Local Technicians’ payment will h engchi connected household. After the installation they will earn a fee up to US$ 50 per household for keeping the system operating and giving assistance to families to operate and maintain the system accordingly.. 39.

(49) Chapter 7. Financial Plan The social enterprise will need capital for capacity building at early stage to achieve viability, however it will not need subsidies for sustaining operations. Assumptions: Financial projections are based on: i) depreciation of vehicle straight line on a 10 years scenario; ii) exchange rate: 1 US$ = S/. 2.8. Annual inflation rate 4% (according to the Peruvian Central Bank) over time for Office rent and utilities; iii) taxes: Non-for-Profits pay general sales tax (18%), property and payroll taxes. However they are exempt from income tax.. 7.1.. Budget. costs, or nonrecoverable costs of launching the business.. 學. ‧ 國. 政 治 大 The following is the budget for the first four months start-up expenses to determine total 立 capital requirements needed for fixed assets and working capital. Start-up costs, or sunk ‧. Table 20: Start-Up Expenses. 800.00. Deposits (water, utility, internet, other hook-ups). 300.00. Improvements/refurbishing/fixtures. 300.00. io. y. Rent office (x 4 months). al. v i n Computers/software (x2) & laser printer Ch U Furniture e n g c h i. n. Equipment. er. Nat. Facilities. Solar Home Systems (x2). Telephones Cash (first 120 days). materials/Supplies. Professional services/fees. US$. sit. Start-up Expenses. 1200.00 2600.00 400.00 100.00. Salary (first 120 days). 0.00. Reserves—unanticipated costs (first 120 days). 1000.00. Reserves—operating expenses (first 120 days). 1000.00. Promotional materials (brochures, displays, etc.). 100.00. Office and packing supplies. 200.00. Training supplies. 100.00. Legal fees. 300.00. Domain name registration/website. 250.00. Licenses/permits/registration Total. 1000.00 9650.00. 40.

(50) Inti-Power needs US$9650 to open its doors and run its operations for the first 120 days. The largest expense is for computer/software. This amount will come from savings of the funder, family contribution and potentially from sources introduced in section 7.6.. Projected Profit and Loss Statement Table 8: Projected profit and Loss Statement. 立. 政 治 大. 學 ‧. ‧ 國 io. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. 7.2.. Ch. engchi. 41. i n U. v.

(51) 7.3.. Projected Balance Sheet Table 22: Projected Balance Sheet. 學. Projected Cash Flow Statement. ‧. Table 23: Projected Cash Flow Statement. io. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. 7.4.. ‧ 國. 立. 政 治 大. Ch. engchi. 42. i n U. v.

數據

Figure 1: Access to Electricity by Regions  Source: (OSINERGMIN, 2013)
Table 1: Business Basic Information
Figure 2: Map of Ayacucho Region
Figure 3: Budget under Spending by Local Governments  Source: (Ministry of Economy and Finance, 2014)
+7

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