日本儒教之多樣性

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СҐᏑఁϟӼኻܓ

ା৭ϰࢸ຀! ஼Ѡٺណ

ᄣ! ्

Ґ፤НϟԠ፹ԄίȈᜱܼᏑఁϟ౪၍ȂӶϜ୾ȃ්ᘁљ৭ІСҐήӵȂҦܼ ࣲ឵ᏑఁНϾ୽ϟΚᕘȂпЩၷࡧདྷϟِ࡚ࣽٿȂڐࣻϤϟ໣҇ดԥڐ᜹ծϟ೏Ȅ ดՅȂस्Ӥਣ஡ԫήӵϟᏑఁࡧདྷΚࢃՅ፤Ȃࠔԥڐ֩ᜳІޢᘉȄ঩ӱӶܼή ӵޠঢ়ఋښ࡚ȃડӒಋާȂཏ֊ܛᒞȶۡఋښ࡚ȷϟϛӤІԥณȄСҐԨφᏱள пȶ౵ۘᎵφȷȃȶӤۘϛகȷϟڎᢏᘉٿ౪၍Ϝ୾ϟȶۡఋȷȄดՅȂᄃርα ӶСҐޠᏑఁึ৥ႇโϜȂҦܼަཽαુнȶۡఋښ࡚ȷȂȶ౵ۘᎵφȷȃȶӤ ۘϛகȷ๊ϟୱᚡٯґڨ२ຝȂםӤ܈౲ȂᏑఁӶณۡఋښ࡚ϟࠊණίೞСҐ΢ ܛ౪၍֝ԞȄԄӤԨφᏱІ໩݃Ᏹϟލ፤ӶϜ୾ᄉ௹ݱᝣȂկӶСҐࠔณೞ݃ᡘ ୣրૢȂᏑఁӶСҐԥրܼϜ୾֖౫яڐϛӤޠึ৥८ᇽȄԫ጖፤НϟҭޠȂл ्֊ӶܼпڏᡞϟםᄙȃМࡼ໧ቺϟӼϰ๊Р८Ȃ፤ख़СҐᏑఁӶࡧདྷϲৡα֖ ౫яӼϰϾϟ঩ӱȄजϜϛ٘ޠ࢑Ҧܼ጖ൾܛ४Ȃԫ጖፤Н༊૗ଭᄈСҐᏑఁȃ СҐԨφᏱϟഌӌໍ՘፤ख़ȂСࡤוగ૗ԥᐡཽӕණٽࣻᜱϟःفІ።ࢦпٽᏱ ࣩःفϟңȄ ᜱᗥມȈᏑఁȃСҐԨφᏱȃӼኻܓȃۡఋȃఁي 2010/03/31׺ጉԚѓȂ2010/06/10 ቸࢦ೾ႇȂ2010/06/17 ঔॐጉԞӈȄ * ା৭ϰࢸ౫ᙜ࣐СҐ୾Ҵெ૰ЬυφτᏱНఁيᏱഌᄳτᏱଲ΢໣НϾ഻ԚऌᏱःفऌఁ ௳Ȅ஼Ѡٺ౫ᙜ࣐ெ૰ЬυφτᏱτᏱଲ΢໣НϾ഻ԚऌᏱःفऌःفҢȄ

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Diversity of Japanese Confucianism

Motohiro TAKASHIMA, Chang Ko-chia

Abstract

The thesis of this paper is as follows. Viewed from a comparative ideological perspective, the respective brands of Confucianism in China, the Korean Peninsula, and of course, Japan share a resemblance because they are all forms of Confucianism. However, it would be problematic to put them under the same rubric, treating them as one entity. It is due to family institution and ancestor worship ȞSozoku, or patrilineal descent groupȟ. In the discussions of the Japanese school of Confucianism, Shushigaku, it manifests itself in the permission for adopting someone of a different surname and the prohibition of marriage between those of the same surname. But the study of Confucianism in Japan is pursued with hardly any tribute to these issues. Moreover, the differences between Shushigaku and its offshoot, Yomeigaku, go largely unrecognized. This paper shall give an account of how Japanese Confucianism developed in its ideological diversity by paying special attention to the diversity of the concrete forms and of the supporting social classes. Although the paper represents but a portion of the discourse regarding Japanese Confucianism and Japanese Shushigaku, I plan to present a more thoroughly researched draft at a later date.

Keywords: Confucianism, Japanese Shushigaku, Diversity, Sozoku, Education

Professor, Department of Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University. Postgraduate, Department of Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University.

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ᏑఁഷԟԚҴܼϜ୾ȞԄЍφ՚ϰࠊ 551-479ȃԨᐺ 1130-1200ȟȄစ්ᘁᏑ ఁȞԄеϧȶԼᔽϟ΢ȷȃ؄ଞྪ 1501-1570ȟ࣐൭Ϯ༉ՎСҐȂึ৥Ԛ࣐СҐᏑ ఁȄڐࡤȂᏑఁпԫϜ୾ȃ්ᘁȃСҐϟ໸זȂԚӤЗ༬ޒӪѵึ৥ȂםԚܛᒞ ϟᏑఁНϾ୽ȄϜЗ࣐Ϝ୾Ȃ්ᘁІСҐ࣐ڐܛ༉ክϟӵȄӶԫᆎᐤѭनෂϟίȂ שউӶ౪၍СҐᏑఁਣȂծоѠᙥҦڐᇅϜЗࡧདྷȂη൸࢑Ϝ୾Ꮡఁϟ຾ᚕሊߗȂ ໍՅ຀Кᇴ݃Ȅ ดՅȂԫᆎ౪၍РԓࠔԥڐޢᘉȄڐୱᚡᝪ๗ȂӶܼп࢛Κࡧདྷ࣐ӤЗ༬༬ ЗȂՅ፤ख़ڐуፓ኶ࡧདྷࣻᄈܼԫ༬ЗܼӤЗ༬αϟ՞ဋਣȂԫٳࡧདྷ܂܂ԥೞ ΚϰϾȃ൑હϾ౪၍ޠ་ӪȄڏᡞՅّȂԫ೏ܛࡿਗ਼ޠ֊пϜ୾Ꮡఁ࣐ࡧདྷஆྦȂ Յ්ᘁᏑఁȃСҐᏑఁ࣐ԫஆྦίޠ౱ޑȂԫᆎΚϰϾϟ౪၍ݳȄӶԫᆎ౪၍ϟ ίȂпϜ୾Ꮡఁ࣐ȶ඾ႈȷȂՅСҐᏑఁ࣐ȶ੬ੇȷϟࡧՄዂԓᔗၽՅҢ1ȄՅҖ ఋϜЗлဏȞethnocentrismȂԫ೏ࡿȶϜ๽ࡧདྷȷȟϟܸᓟȂӶԫҼߓ៪ณᒹȄ ดՅ҂ЗՅ፤ȂӶСҐȂϜ୾Ꮡఁٯߩஆྦηߩ඾ႈȄӶࡧདྷР८Ȃᗷดٻ ңӔ೾ޠມᇮȞپԄȶϧȷȃȶׄȷȃȶဒ΢ȷ๊ȟȂկڐܛםᛳϟзࣩᢏѠᒞ τࣻഄ৴2ȄඳѰၘᇴȂӔ೾ޠມᇮᗷดᓎ຀Ꮡఁޠึ৥ȂпӤЗ༬ޒӪѵܦ৥ȃ ༉ክȃۢ຀ȂկӱᔗϛӤϟަཽᕘძȂᏑఁܼөӵܛ໡৥ϟзࣩᢏٯϛࣻӤȄٯ ߩԄӤαख़ϟᏑఁມᇮૢȂпӔ೾ΡԆܛ૗ᙐ൑྆ࢃȄ ҖఋϜЗлဏȞϜ๽ࡧདྷȟளпϜ୾Ꮡఁ࣐ȶ඾ႈȷȂСҐᏑఁ࣐ȶ੬ੇȷȄ ԫᆎ౪၍ݳԚҴϟࠊණȂӶܼࡧདྷϟϲৡІڐܛםᛳϟзࣩᢏӤ፵й֖ӤЗ༬ ޒ৥໡ȄดՅȂसమ஡СҐᏑఁဋܼӤЗ༬αଇ፤Ȃࠏ஽Ѭ࢑ӱ࣐ڐܛٻңϟ ᇮມᇅϜ୾ᏑఁࣻӤР૗ԄԫȄᄃር౐Τ௥ଇࡤȂཽึ౫ڎ޲ܛ֖౫ϟࡧདྷϲ ৡІзࣩᢏढ़౵ȄԄԫΚٿȂαख़ҖఋϜЗлဏȞϜ๽ࡧདྷȟϟ፤ख़ԥڐϛ٘ ϟ೏Ȃڐ౪፤ᜳпԚҴȄ౪၍СҐᏑఁȂ҇ሰӲᘫ࿌ਣСҐަཽϟ౫ݸϘ૗Ҕ ጃցᘟІϸݚȄ СҐᏑఁܛ֖౫я౵፵ޠзࣩᢏȂٯߩήّڎᇮܛ૗ᙐ൑ᇴ݃ȄҐН஡пԫ зࣩᢏޠΚഌӌȂη࢑СҐᏑఁ࿌Ϝ྄ڐཹ࢐ϟഌӌ࣐ϜЗໍ՘ՄᄇȄҦܼСҐ 1 ା৭ϰࢸȈȲȶࡧདྷѭȷᤠᤧեᤃᣵȶСҐঘ౪ࡧདྷѭȷᤣ ᤑ᥃Рݳ፤ޠЇࣹȳȂԞᓄܼ Ȯᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτ䗄ЩၷСҐ䗄ःفᥦᦞᥪᣵःفԒൣ˕഻ё ȯȞݎٶȈᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτ 䗄Ȃ2005 ԒȟȄ 2 ା৭ϰࢸȈȲСҐᏑఁᤦ੬ ȳȂԞᓄܼȮᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτ䗄τ䗄ଲఁي׾९Мනᦂᦘᥛᦔ ᦋȶСҐНϾःفᤦ㥾ርޠ௒ൣᩲႁᥤᥘᦖᤦيԚȷ˕˕҂Ԛ 20 Ԓ࡚ࣁ୞ൣ֚ਫ੖ѵఁي ࣃልٲཿጢȯȞݎٶȈᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτ䗄Ȃ2009 ԒȟȂॳ 187-204Ȅ

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ᏑఁпڐᑀՍޠӼኻܓึ৥ȂҦϜ୾Ꮡఁȃ්ᘁᏑఁޠҴൠࣽٿȂСҐᏑఁޠԫ ᆎӼኻܓആ൸Πڐᜳп౪၍Іᔫ࢐ϛ݃ϟΚ८Ȅпί஡ଭᄈԫᆎзࣩᢏܛє֥ޠ Ӽኻܓໍ՘௥ଇᇅϸݚȄ

ΚȃࡧདྷϟӼኻܓ

Ꮡఁࡧདྷᓎ຀ਣхϟᅌໍोҢᡑϾȄпСҐᏑఁ࣐پȂڐτयՅ፤ȂԥԨφ Ᏹȃ໩݃ᏱȃѡᏱȃ׸଀Ᏹ๊өᆎޠࡧདྷІᏱࣃഛ៊םԚ3ȄڐϜȂԨφᏱІ໩݃ ᏱԚҴܼϜ୾ȂҦϜ୾༉ΤȂԫᘉณஸဋᅹȄՅࣻᄈ්ܼᘁᏑఁѬᇰӤԨφᏱ֐ ᇰ໩݃ᏱȂСҐᏑఁєৡԨφᏱȃ໩݃ᏱȂٯུםԚ״ցڎ޲ϟѡᏱȃڦ௼Ԩφ ᏱڸѡᏱ፞ᇴϟ׸଀ᏱȂѠᒞӼϰึ৥Ȅ СҐᏑఁϟӼኻϾȂٻڐ౵ܼϜ୾ᏑఁІ්ᘁᏑఁȂ֖౫ϛӤ८ᇽȄดՅ ԫᆎࡧདྷϟӼኻܓҦեՅٿȂй൴ཏ࣐եȉ৽ܑϬᇅСҐᏑఁڐуР८ϟӼ ኻܓԥܛᜱഀȂሰ౐Τःف௥ଇȄ

Ρȃᐡ૗ϟӼኻܓ

ॷӒȂСҐᏑఁ൸ڐᐡ૗Յ፤ڏԥӼኻܓȄϜ୾ᏑఁІ්ᘁᏑఁޠᐡ૗ȂҦ ϭСःفܛޤȂᇅۡఋȃऌᖟ๊ަཽᄻആࣻϤڴᔗȄឌԄӒԥۡఋȞަཽᄻആȟȂ ՅࡤȶׄȷϟࡧདྷூпԚҴȄӒԥȶऌᖟȷȃȶςτЊȷȞަཽᄻആȟȂՅࡤ ԥȶဒ΢ȷȃȶঔϐݾ΢ȷȃȶϧȷ๊ࡧདྷ፜ҢȂᏑఁϟࡧདྷᇅۡఋᜱ߾ஞϹȄ ดՅࣻၷܼԫȂСҐަཽณۡఋȃऌᖟښ࡚ϟԇӶȄϛӤܼϜ୾ȃ්ᘁȂСҐ ᏑఁҦܼڴᔗ኉ώᄎۻᡞښȂ२ᐍަཽᄻആȂആ൸ུޠȶ΢ঘȷࡧདྷ፜ҢȂӶ ԫनෂϟίȂڐᐡ૗؂ᡘூፓᚖȃᔫ࢐йᅴ࿦Ȅ ȞΚȟСҐᏑఁϜȂ੬ր࢑ԨφᏱȂΚૢࣲᇰ࣐ڐϲৡӱ᠜ܼϜ୾ȂӶԱЙ ਣххߓᄎۻᡞښϟఁᏱРଭȃڏԥᆱࡼᡞښફזϟѓਞȄկᄃርαȂԨφᏱӶ СҐޠڨৡႇโϜȂ๗Ӭަཽښ࡚ȂҐ፵౱ҢᡑϾȂڐϲৡϑߩΚᆎڏМପܓȃ ൑હᆱࡼᡞښҔಜϟࡧདྷȄӱԫȂ௄ٿᄈԨφᏱϟڔݗӠຬȂϑೞϭСᏱ޲ϟः فܛࡿᄣ֐ۢ4ȄឌԄпίܛЖңޠࢳဤȂ࣐ڐл्ϟхߓ፤ख़ȄЖဵϲޠϲৡ࣐ ڐ्ԠȂڏᡞޠ፤ᜍӶԫࣹ౲Ȅ 3 ᜱܼԫϲৡȂၐُίНΡϟȞϥȟȄ 4 Ԅ෯ᜟਫ਼ȈȮߗзСҐަ ᤠ׉䗄ȯȞݎٶȈݎٶτ䗄яޏަȂ1985 ԒȟȂॳ 16ȃ27Ȅڸ৭ ߀عȈȮСҐ׉䗄ѭᤦःفȞቩ၅ޏȟȯȞݎٶȈӢώ҅НᓣȂ1988 ԒȟȂॳ 337 ۗȄ

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ȶ኉ώਣхਣȂᏑఁᅛڨ΢উ२ຝȄԥ΢஡ڐຝ࣐ၾ᛻ϟΚᆎȂՅᙥԫᏱಭ ѳਫȄτӫȃݢςȃᮇ΢ϟ໧ቺϜҼԥя౫૶ၗϟ׉Ᏹ߭ۉ޲ȄดՅȂԫᆎ௒ݸ ࣲ឵پѵȄΚૢՅّȂԱЙਣхϟ׉ᏱȂᜳп஡ڐᇅᆱࡼަཽફזϟѓਞђпഀ དྷȄ࿌ਣ኉ώᄎۻϟަཽᡞښȂҐӶᇅᏑᏱณӉեᜱ߾ϟίԚҴȄݔᛴύтۉܼ ஡ॗȂӱՅ࡛ᄻΠᄎۻᡞښϟཏᜌםᄙ๊ᇴݳȂᄃ࣐ᄈᛴύϟႇ࡚ຠቌȄԨφᏱȂ ٯߩ࣐ᄎ᛺ᡞښϟҔಜࡧདྷȄȷȞ෯ᜟਫ਼ȮߗзСҐަ㢸ᤠ׉ቇȯȟ ȶп܂ᗷԥ኉ώঢ়ஷ௄፞ӼᏑᏱࢻࣃϜᒶᐆԨφᏱϟᙠᇴȂկԫᇴݳ࣐రณ ਴ᐄϟّ፤ȂӶԫђп፤ຢЇሼȄȞ1ȟ᛾঩ඓᆑᗷᒝُঢ়ஷȂկᄈܼঢ়ஷٯณӉ եࡧདྷαϟኈ៫ȄȞ2ȟඓᆑϟכφᛴύȂٯߩӱఁᏳȃ༉௳ԨφᏱϟҐ፵Յூژ ᇅঢ়ஷཽ८ޠᐡཽȄΞӱڐീᏱ஽ଅϟϘ૗ȂՅூп௄ٲܼᄎۻښ࡚ȃ቉ᙅϟᐍ റϏձȄȞ3ȟ௄ঢ়ஷܛ໡ޏϟਫҭϜȂึ౫ԨφᏱٯณ੬րڨژݨҭȄȞ4ȟҦ Ȯҧφۈၘȯ๊ଅၸϟٲپϜȂѠூޤΚૢޠݢςᄈԨφᏱరณᜱЗȄᖃՅّϟȂ ܛᒞޠᄎ᛺ᡞښȂӶ࿌ਣٯߩҦԨφᏱܛлᏳȄȷȞڸ৭߀عȮСҐ׉ቇѭᤦः فȞቩ၅ޏȟȯȟ ȶՎϭܛُϟࡧདྷѭϜȂл्пϧᘎІᰬே״ցᏑఁлࢻϟԨφᏱ࣐л्ᄻ შȄӶԫᆎ౪၍ίȂԨφᏱ๊Ӥܼᇅᄎۻ᠍ΩಜӬϟࡍ࡛ࡧདྷȄดՅȂԫᆎᇴݳ ٯґೞщϸ፤ᜍȂԥڐୱᚡԇӶȄ੬ր࢑ԨφᏱᇅᄎۻ᠍Ω๗ӬϟࠊණȂԫᘉϲ ৡۧґೞᚅఽȄ኉ώᄎۻϟԚҴȂڐᄃ঩Ґ֊ߩྜՍܼᏑఁϟ࢈ݾࡧདྷȄȷȞ׏ ᛾ҔऽȮԱ㡭ਣхᤠᤧᤢᤣᤃȯȟ ౫ϭϟ೾ᇴȂࣲّԨφᏱᄻᑟΠᄎ᛺ᡞښϟཏᜌםᄙȄ೼Ѡᒞ၍មࡧདྷਣޠ ΚᆎР߰Ȃη൸࢑ϛױࡧདྷ࿌ձࡧདྷٿ౪၍ȂՅΚکӵ஡ڐ၍ម࣐ཏᜌםᄙȄ೼ ᆎ་Ӫഷڑ࠯η࢑ഷϛѠڦϟپφȂߩ଼ջࡧлဏȞ୳ޑѭᢏȟೄ឵Ȅ֊л஼ȶࡧ དྷȷȞαഌᄻആȟȂ๊ӤܼஆҐϟȶρѯȷȞҢ౱๊፞ᜱ߾ȟܛ೤ۢޠཏᜌםᄙ Ȟຏୄཏᜌȟ5Ȅᇅԫࣻߗϟّ፤ȂԄӤαख़ܛණІޠᄈܼСҐԨφᏱϟΚૢ౪၍Ȃ ᗷϛூّڐ๊Ӥ଼ܼջලлဏȂկՎϭࠔϬᄉُϛᘁȄӱԫȂשউसమᄈࢌۢϟ ೾ᇴђпЇሼȂٯߩ൑હӵ຀ಂܼᐤѭٲᄃୱᚡȂՅ҇໹Ҵܼ٘Ҕጃϟᐤѭᇰᜌ Рݳ፤ȂРϘூпԚҴȄ ȞΡȟԄαܛख़ȂѠޤСҐᏑఁ੬ր࢑ԨφᏱȂڐѓ૗ٯߩ࡛ᄻᄎ᛺ᡞښϟ ཏᜌםᄙȄԄԫΚٿȂСҐᏑఁϟᄃርѓਞ೤ዂᎡ෶Ȅڐॷ्ᐡ૗Ȃ๊Ӥܼϭ Сܛّߒ๊ȃϜ๊ఁيϟ௱ໍȄԄȶ᛺ਯȷȃȶԌφࡑȷ๊ȂпᎨ᠟ȃಭԆ๊ 5 ࠊථȲȶࡧདྷѭȷᤠᤧեᤃᣵȶСҐঘ౪ࡧདྷѭȷᤣ ᤑ᥃Рݳ፤ޠЇࣹȳȄ

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Рԓఁ௳ᄃርޠ᠟ቹ૗ΩȂٯఁᏳҴܼ٘ަ्ཽ҇ϟၿ኉ȞԄȶϧဏȷȃȶ܇ ׄȷ๊ȟȄ ᖟپՅ፤Ȃٕ঩ઊଗȞ1630-1724ȟϟȮڸߺ่φଌȯȞ1710ȟȂ࣐СҐഷԟ ޠڌ่ఁيਫȄл्Ӷᡞقӵ፤ख़ڌ่Ԓឮึ৥໧ࢳІఁيݳޠᜱ߾6ȄӶԫਫ ϜȂઊଗᇰ࣐Ȃȶϳ᛻ϜȂޤਫቹᆘ኶Ȃੇີ፯ѳҖȂࣲܛ࿌ಭȷȄȶНԆȃᆘ ೛ȷᄈСளҢࣁԥե२्ܓȂઊଗϛზڐྯӵၐђᇴ݃Ȅܛᒞȶϳ᛻ȷȂΞࡿȶᙅȃ ዆ȃৣȃெȞ଼೛ȟȃਫȃ኶ȷȞȮڻᙅȯȟȄઊଗᄈϳ᛻ϟ౪၍Ѡᒞ໋ژȄՅ ݢςϟφȂઊଗᇰ࣐ȶ࿌ܼᏱୱϟ໢Ȃٻڐಭϗ଼ȃቕඟȃ਋ݳȷȄၼϏ୧ϟφȂ ࠍȶ༊ఁڐਫቹȃᆘ኶Ȃцޤ஠ڐঢ়ཿȷȄϲৡᗷԥϛӤȂկಭூНԆᇅᆘ೛ڎ ໷ϛϸٙӌࣲೞ्ؒȄ Յᜱܼԫ೏ܛّϟȶϳ᛻ȷȂԨᐺӶȮτᏱതѰȯϜҼԥණІȄڐ၍មԄίȄ ѡхϟϜ୾ȂᏱਯښ࡚׈റȂࡇ่ܼ 8 ྒໍȶϊᏱȷȂಭூȶ᠏௮ȃᔗᄈȃໍଞ ϟ࿾Ȃᙅȃ዆ȃৣȃெȃਫȃ኶ϟНȷȂ15 ྒӶȶτᏱȷᏱಭȶጐ౪ҔЗঔϐݾ ΢ϟၿȷȄԨᐺᇰ࣐ȂӶȶτᏱȷܛᏱϟȶঔϐݾ΢ȷᏱୱ्૗ԚҴȂ҇໹Ӷȶϊ Ᏹȷ༖ᏱٙᡞϟఁيȄ֊ཏࡿޤᜌϟࠊණȂΞ࣐ٙᡞޠఁيȂԫΞᏱୱϟҐ፵Ȅ ดՅઊଗᗷԄαܛख़ّȶ᛻ȷȂկڐᇰ࣐ఁيޠஆҐΞпȶᏱୱ࣐ҐȂ᛻૗ ࣐ҒȷȄȶਫቹȷȃȶᆘ೛ȷϟᏱಭ࣐ȶҒȷȄڐϟҐȂ࣐ȶဏ౪ϟᏱୱȷȄȶ᛻Ȃ ༖ᏱୱϟᎸܛ࣐ϟնٲȷȄԫᆎ፤ᘉณஸՎᅹᇅԨᐺȶτᏱȷȃȶϊᏱȷϟ၍ម ࣻᄈȄϛӤܼԨᐺܛᇴȂઊଗл஼ȶϊᏱȷȞȶϳ᛻ȷ๊ȟᗷ࣐Ᏹୱࠊණܛ҇റ ϟᏱಭȂดᏱୱޠҐ፵ΞӶܼȶτᏱȷȞঔϐݾ΢ϟᏱȟȄ ઊଗᇰ࣐ȂȶѳҖȷ௄ϊ໡ۗᔗఁڐȶ՘ᄈЯъȃ֘ߞϟᙅ቉ȷȂᎨ᠟ȶဒ စȷٻڐᅛໍΠ၍ȶϧဏϟၿ౪ȷȄ΢௦ڨڐҐԥϟȶЉӵϟ኉ȷȂറڐЉҢԇ ܼȶЗȷϟȶϧȃဏȃᙅȃහȃ߭ϥܓȷȂඊڐܓՅ՘ȶЯφȃ֘ՌȃЊஐȃߞ ҃ȃ݊ЅϥঘϟၿȷȄկȶ΢ϟၿȷसณȶ΢ঘϟఁȷȂࠍณݳՍញйᄃ፻Ȅณ ݳᄃ፻ȶ΢ϟၿȷȂࠍ΢ᗷ࣐ȶ࿳ޑϟ᡺ȷȂᄃᇅȶ࿴ᛛȷณ౵Ȅ ӱԫȂࡇණਣ෉໡ۗȂఁي֊Ԛ࣐२्፟ᚡȄԫਣ෉໡ۗܛሰݨཏйߴԥϟ ϧནϟЗȂઊଗᇰ࣐ȂȶϊڌਣକȂᔗЗڸȃཐ΢ȃԥ௒ȂϽश߻у޲Ȃள዆๢ ན΢Ȃп՘ϧ࣐עȷȄйȶ՘ׄϟርȂ࿌ޤནིЗݳȷȄȶནȷȂΞȶཐ΢ȃϛ ౶ȷȇȶིȷȂΞȶི΢ȃϛ߻ȷȄȶׄכȷ࣐ঢ়ఋܛᒞ४ۢޠ΢ርᜱ߾Ϝܛԥ 6 ٕ঩ઊଗȈȮڸߺ่φଌȯȂԞᓄܼҰώᖿਯॐȈȮᎵҢଌȆڸߺ่φଌȯȞݎٶȈۮݱН ৳ȆۮݱਫۺȂ1961 ԒȟȂॳ 220ȃ237ȃ207ȃ214ȃ225Ȅ

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ϟ኉Ȅȶནིȷ࣐Κૢ΢ርᜱ߾Ϝܛԥϟ኉Ȅӱԫȶׄכȷϟ਴ۼ࣐ȶནིȷȄ ՅȶནིȷЗݳϟಭூӶܼఁيȄ ȞήȟၘᗷԄԫȂСҐᏑఁϟᐡ૗ٯߩ༊Ѭܼఁي൑ΚР८ȄӶԫȂȶఁي ϟᐡ૗ȷΚᇮཏک࣐եȂԥڐۢဏαϟୱᚡȄԱЙਣ෉ߒ๊ȃϜ๊ఁيϟनෂϜȂ ٯณϭСߗхఁيܛُϟȶᏱᐤަཽȷȃȶᝰލަཽȷԇӶȄߗхϟఁيΞ࣐Κ ᆎަཽಜښȄᏱਯԄӤҢ౱ᖴ๜ବڸᖴ๜ൿϟϏൠȂ።ఁࡇ่Ԛ೤ੀࠣ஡ڐଛΤ ަཽȄԫᆎ஽ښΩȂ֊߰Ӷఁيࡇ่ȂᔔֆڐᎵԚȶлᡞܓȷਣȂϬด௵ڦලВ ႁԓณܛϛఁȃณܛϛᆔȂԄӤएЍૢᅛԪ౐ΤȂٻࡇ่ԄԬџϟࡕȶె؞ȷϟ ޒȂদჵڐϟȶлᡞܓȷȂՅᇅ࿌ߒఁيϟҭޠनၿՅႼȂٗӪҮࣾ7ȄࣻၷܼԫȂ ӶߗзϟȶԌφࡑȷϜȂࡇ่ԄӤΚᆎࡕȶె؞ȷȄ਴ᐄ࿌ਣϟᛳฬၦਠᡘұȂ ፟இϜԥᇰ઎ᏱಭᖞҐȃጓҐϟࡇ่Ȃηԥ༰Ꮚޗޗڏȃ೿ᒦޕ๊ᜟޗᜟᏱಭޠ ࡇφȄѫѵȂ࿌ਣϟఁيРݳᇅߗхఁيढ़౵Ȅ፟இαٯߩҦΚ՞Ճ৲ಜΚ௳፟Ȅ ࡇ่ϟᏱಭ਺ณڿۢРӪȂйณᡞᆵ๊஽ښΩϟఁيРݳԇӶ8Ȅ ȞѳȟดՅȂᏑఁᗷᇅߗзСҐఁيึ৥ਁਁࣻᜱȂկСҐᏑఁϟᄃᄙȂԥ ఁيᐡ૗ܛณݳᇴ݃ϟΚ८Ȅαख़ٕ঩ઊଗϟ຀ձȂଷȺڸߺ่φଌȻѵȂѫԥ ȮτڸߺଌȯȞ1708ȟ9ȄȮڸߺ่φଌȯϟϲৡȂл्ΞଭᄈϛӤϟึ৥໧ࢳ஡ ڐఁيРݳಣᙒϾȄՅȮτڸߺଌȯ࣐೾ߺఁଌਫȂҭޠӶଭᄈΚૢ΢ϟఁᎵᏱ ୱໍ՘၍ᇴȄڐݨម޲Ұώᖿᇰ࣐ԫਫϟᄈຬΞ࣐ς΢Ȃ࿌ϜٯณණІၼϏ୧ή ҖϟఁيІᏱୱȄկᄃርαᎨ᠟ڐНȂึ౫ٯߩԄԫȄԄȲτڸߺଌזȞԽҥۢ ޣ຀ȟȳϜȂّ݃Ґਫٯߩ༊ଭᄈȶݢςߺӣȷܛձȄՅઊଗՍख़ϟȲτڸߺଌ ՍזȞٕ঩ઊଗ຀ȟȳϜҼّȂҐਫΞ࣐ȶз໣ณᏱϟ΢ȃϊڌϟᎇȃڡع፯υ ϟ֚ᒠȂҖңϟϊ၅ȷȂȶδ࣐΢ϟଡ଼Ȃܛ՘ϟ׭ԥήȂܛ᜺ϟܛҼԥήȄΚ࣐ ଡ଼ཿȂΡ࣐ᎵҢȂή࣐՘ဏȷȄҦԫّ๊፤ȂѠُȮτڸߺଌȯᄃпѳҖ࣐ᄈຬ ܛॐҴϟఁଌਫȄ ҐਫϟԠ፹Ȃл्Ѡпȶ΢пЉ࣐ЯȂӵ࣐ҕȂڨЉӵϟณ४τ਀Ȅࢉளٹ ۉЉӵп࣐΢ၿȷΚН्ङȄȶЉӵϟ਀ȷȂΞࡿȶЉӵҢ࿳ޑ࣐ڐ਴ҐȂ࢑τ 7 ߝْݾណݨȈȮೆφȞಒΚьȟȯȂȲ㟕ࡕе጖ȳȞݎٶȈۮݱН৳ȆۮݱਫۺȂ1975 ԒȟȂ ॳ 235Ȅ 8 Ҁώ㹁݃ȃҰώؿڸȈȮ᤭ᤇ᥅᣾ᤦҐ˕㞞䁃ȆԱ㛍ᤦ䗄ᤫȯȞݎٶȈݭяਫܙུަȂ2006 ԒȟȂॳ 27ȃ118 ๊Ȅ 9 ҰώᖿਯॐȈȮτڸߺଌȯȞݎٶȈۮݱН৳ȆۮݱਫۺȂ1938 ԒȟȂॳ 25ȃ39ȃ42ȃ73ȃ 153ȃ170ȃ44ȃ155ȄҰώᖿȲ၍ᇴȳ୥ྲȄ

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ЯҕȷϟཏȄ࿌ϜȂ੬ّȶ΢ȷ࣐ȶ࿳ޑϟ᡺ȷȂڨȶЉӵϟҔ੊ȷՅҢȄԫ೏ ԥܛᒞȶ΢пЉ࣐Яȃӵ࣐ҕȷϟᇴݳȄȶ΢ȷϟȶЯҕȷ࣐ȶЉӵȷȂӱԫȶ΢ ၿȷӶܼȶٹۉЉӵȷȄȶЉӵٹۉϟၿȷ࣐ȶϧȷȂȶϧϟ౪ȷ࣐ȶඐ΢ኖޑȷ ϟȶ኉ȷȄԫȶ΢ၿȷϟȶϧȷڏᡞޠ໡৥ࡤԚȶϥளȷȞϧȃဏȃᙅȃහȃ߭ȟ ІȶϥঘȷȞ֘ՌȃЯφȃЊஐȃߞ҃ȃ݊ЅȟȄ ࣻᄈܼԨφᏱҦȶЉ΢ӬΚȷȃȶܓ֊౪ȷٿ၍មȶϧȷȂઊଗпȶЉӵϟ τ਀ȷȃȶѳ਀ȷٿ౪၍ȶϧȷȄԫᆎᄈܼȶϧȷϟ౪၍ৰ౵Ȃ݃ᡘѠُڎ޲ࡧ དྷᄻആϟϛӤȄดҐጉᛥܼ጖ൾܛ४Ȃϭኸϛ౐Τ௥ଇԫୱᚡȄ Ҧαख़ϟϲৡȂѠُȮτڸߺଌȯϟѓ૗ٯߩڨ४ܼڌ่ఁيᐡ૗Ȃڐл् Ξ࣐пѳҖ࣐ᄈຬϟΚૢఁऌਫȂٯচڏНϾٵڨІఁᎵڨৡϟѓਞȄҦԫѠޤȂ СҐᏑఁΚР८ጃҴఁيښ࡚Ȃٻڐఁيᐡ૗຃߄Ȃႁژߗх୾ঢ়ަཽಜښϟਞ ݏȂѫΚР८ȂڐщᄃΠঐ΢ϟᑺ፹ఁᎵȂচڏНϾٵڨȃఁᎵڨৡϟѓ૗ȂѠ ᒞңഋኅހȄ ӱԫȂᏱୱҦࡤ޲ϟᐡ૗Յ፤ȂҼೞ౪၍࣐ȶၾ᛻ȷȄܛᒞȶၾ᛻ȷȂΞࡿ ᅉᇇȃॲԣ๊ϟၾᔜȞၾᑺȟȂٯ࣐ᏱୱȃН᛻ϟఁᎵ10ȄѠ࣐ঐ΢ϟᑺ፹ȂҼ ࣐ަཽһርϟϏڏȄၘᗷԄԫȂঅூݨཏޠ࢑Ȃڐٯߩ༊࣐αቺҀҖϟᑺ፹ȃ৐ ዆ȂІᅗ٘уউޤᜌమȃຏᄹЗϟޑȄԱЙਣхȂȶၾ᛻ȷӶѳҖ࿌Ϝࣲԥኅހ ޠМࡼထȄՅڴᔗԫᆎሰؒȂ഻ആН᛻ϟᙜཿНϾ΢ӱᔗՅҢȂ༉ႁН᛻௒ൣϟ ಣᙒᆪҼᅛԪםԚȄ Ӷଭᄈϛ੬ۢӼ኶ϟ΢ȂఁᏳڐᅌ᛻Р८ޠ׭೛ᇅోᎵȂܗණٽڐᏱୱȃН ᛻ਫᝳ๊౫ຬϟϜȂשউѠпூُ࿌ਣ௒ൣНϾȃяޏНϾಣᙒᆪϟԇӶȄᖟ پՅّȂΚҐਫޠ፜ҢȂሰӒԥձ޲ՅࡤϘԥձࠣȄկ༊ԥձ޲ȂձࠣϬґ૗ яޏȄяޏϟࠊȂۧሰစҦӠږձࠣϟӠږཿ޲ȃԞڨӠږޑϟਫޑࡑȞਫနȟȂ ᆔ౪୧ࠣȃ೰፳ȃጃߴࢻ೾ȃᕖւ๊ϟᖆᅴ୞ձРϘѠ૗׈Ԛ11ȄܛᒞяޏȂ֊ Ӷԫᆎࢻ೾ϟίۗூпԚҴȄ Ӷԫᆎ௒ൣНϾȃяޏНϾޠಣᙒᆪϟίȂᏱୱȃ᛻૗ࣲѠຝ࣐௒ൣϟΚᆎȂ йڎ޲ᄃ឵Ӥኻܓ፵ȄॷӒȂᏱୱೞ౪၍࣐᛻૗Ȃܗ࢑ၾ᛻ϟΚഌӌȄԫᇅઊଗ ȶᏱୱ࣐Ґȃ᛻૗࣐ҒȷȞȮڸߺ่φଌȯȟϟึདྷढ़౵ȄҦίНϟЖңȂשউ ѠᑜُȶѳਫΝਫȷȃȶѳਫНԆ᠟ȷȃȶᏱୱȷ๊ມᇅ፞᛻૗ٯӗٻңȄ 10 ᛻૗ѭःفཽጢȈȮСҐ᛻૗ѭȯ5ȞݎٶȈݳ࢈τᏱяޏ׌Ȃ1986 ԒȟȂॳ 102Ȅ 11 ϭҥࢸήȈȮԱ㛍ᤦҐࡑᤍ᥋ᣵߗхНϾѭᤦ୐८ȯȞݎٶȈСҐяޏڟཽȂ1977 ԒȟIVȂ ॳ 150 ۗȄ

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ԄᓽφϟȮѠ઱ଅȯಒѳȞ1642 ёȟϜȂّȶ࣐΢ϟᒒȂτٙȃϊٙȂ೵൳ ᇅӔȄٹφԒ۪ΝΥȂٻಭНԆȄԫࡤစԒՅٻᏱϗ଼ȃսݳȃᙅ቉ȃ២ࣖȃၒ ᅉϟၿȃѳਫΝਫȷ12Ȅ൲ݭԱҔᒒȮφ৙ᠧȯȞ1673 ёȟϜّȂȶЊҢܼݢঢ় ϟ΢ȂٻڐΝΥྒКಭߒНȄΫΚΡήȂѳਫНԆ᠟Ȃڂ૰෾ȃтрРȞᙅ቉ձ ݳȟȃᗂȃჃȄέΫѳϥϳΝȂ۩ࣻȃቕ೛ȃ匈ȃ଼ȃϗȃ២ࣖȞᅂࣖȟȂԪ࣐ ᢂȃዻϟၾȄέΫΥΟྒۗȂॗݳȃս೛ȃၒᅉȂпՎᚃၿȂඊזпጌѡȷ13Ȅ ѫԄЋ৛ࢍѯϟȮᑀᇮȯȞ18 зखࠊљȟϜҼѠُȂȶܾς֘φᏱୱȂຟᅉձၒ ഀᅉȂܗޗᆔಛȄเίࠣ޲Ȃࠍኇรฤᇮ҂ঢ়Ȃ዆ಭ๓๚ᆛȃ۸सϟᇇȄȞϜ౲ȟ ϭϏ΢୧ၧϜเ൳޲ȂᏱୱޗၒᅉᆔಛȂเίࠣ޲Ȃ዆ಭ࿀዆ϟ᜹ȂґѠߗ౒㨁 ዮȃήکጤȷ14ϟ፤ख़Ȅ ϛӤܼࠊख़ϟᏑఁఁيᐡ૗ȂСҐᏑఁӶщᄃঐ΢ᑺ፹ఁᎵȂচڏНϾٵڨ ϟᐡ૗Р८ȂȶᏱୱȷ֊๊Ӥܼȶ᛻૗ȷȄՅઊଗȶᏱୱ࣐Ґȃ᛻૗࣐ҒȷϟҴ ൠࠍೞϡп֐ۢȄᜱܼԫᘉȂԱЙਣхϟᏑᏱ޲ೋҢᰬேȞ1666-1728ȟ؂п౪፤ ђп݃ጃ೤ۢȄᰬேᇰ࣐Ȃȶ᛻૗ȷȞϳ᛻ȟ֊࣐ȶᏱୱȷȞၿȟȄܛᒞȶϳ᛻ ҼӒеϟၿηȷȞȮ҄ӫȯၿ 9ȟȃȶӒеϟၿȄѡ޲ᒞϟၿ೛Ȅᙅ዆࢑ηȄࡤ Ꮡϟᒗ೛ԆՅᜳّϟȷȞȮ҄ၿȯ20ȟȂ֊࣐ԫဏȄՅԄઊଗૢϟࡧདྷঢ়Ȃᰬே пȶၿᏱӒҢȷђп״ցȄّȶᏱᄀ࣐፞φԼঢ়ԣ᛻ϟςȄՅϛ᜺࣐ၿᏱӒҢȷ ȞȮᏱࠍȯȟ15ȄҦԫѠُȂСҐᏑఁҦܼڐᐡ૗ϲ֥ӼኻܓȂٻூ࿌ਣᏱ޲ᄈ ܼȶᏱୱȷΚມϟۢဏณಜΚዀྦȂՅȶᏱୱȷϟϲৡفഥ࣐եȂҼӱ΢Յ౵Ȃ ֖౫я྄ڐӼϰȃፓᚖІ㨙࢐ϟΚ८Ȅ Ȟϥȟ໸ழΚණȂСҐᏑఁԫᆎȶᏱୱȷᇅȶ᛻૗ȷޠᜱ߾ȂשউҼѠҦᏑ ఁѭϟϜђпᐍ౪ȂпᑜޤΚΡȄ ԄኅᛒసๆϟȮᏑݔຠȯϜȂϸԱЙਣ෉ϟȶᏑॴȷ࣐ѳ෉ђпᐍ౪ᇴ݃16Ȅ ഷߒ࣐ȶᏑၿϟϜᑺȷȂّІ᛾঩ඓᆑȃݔᛴύϟ໡ఃโԨᏱȞԨφᏱȃ׉ᏱȟȂ 12 ԄᓽφȈȮѠ઱ଅȯȂԞᓄܼȮ኉ώН᛻᜹௄ಒΡఁଌϊᇴȯȞݎٶȈ୾ਫё՘ཽȂ1914 ԒȟȂ ॳ 104Ȅ 13 ൲ݭԱҔᒒȈȮφ৙ᠧȯȂԞᓄܼϜ؇۸࡞ਯݨȈȮСҐࡧདྷτق 59 ߗзᮇ΢ࡧདྷȯȞݎ ٶȈۮݱਫۺȂ1975 ԒȟȂॳ 82Ȅ 14 Ћ৛ࢍѯȈȮᑀᇮȯȂԞܼȮӫঢ়ᓎ์໲αȯȞݎٶȈԥ݊இȂ1926 ԒȟȂॳ 356Ȅ 15 ೋҢᰬேȈȮ҄ӫȯȃȮ҄ၿȯȃȮᏱࠍȯȂԞᓄܼӢώ۸Ԫॣȃγύ઎عȃ՚ҥЋΚॣȃ 㫉ႁηਯݨȈȮСҐࡧདྷτق 36 ೋҢᰬேȯȞݎٶȈۮݱਫۺȂ1973 ԒȟȂॳ 47ȃ28ȃ197Ȅ 16 ኅᛒసๆȈȮᏑݔຠȯȂԞᓄܼᜱ቉ΚॣጢȈȮСҐᏑݔᘏਫȯಒήڣȞݎٶȈቄяޏȂ1978 ԒȟȂॳ 1Ȅ

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৥໡СҐᏑఁᄊུϟΚॳȄՅࡤᏑॴΚᡑȂϜԱ᛾ᐚȃύ஧ㅝᘎȃᅫᐪᒂύȃٕ ঩ઊଗȃФί໸஺ܛᒞȶҐܓ౪ȃлଖ՘ȷϟॴᑺକȂጸ࣐ॴዙȄڐࡤᏱॴӕᡑȂ ҦӁ᛾ϧᘎȃೋҢᰬே࣐ॷȂ״ց׉ᏱȂණএȶѡဏȷඉᑺϟᏱܸᓟȄԫਣϟᏑ ॴȂѠпȶᆡଌຣȃлၒНȃϛևଖ՘ȷΚᇮ्ङȄดՅԫᆎЇ୞ՅࡤࠔԚ࣐ȶή ᡑȷȄл्ӶܼϧᘎȃᰬேϟѡᏱ౿ԨφᏱ૿ࡤȂӼ኶ϟᏑ޲ȶࢻܼਜ਼๽ܺᒁȂ ณଡ଼ଖ՘޲ȷȄԫਣᗷԥЇࣹమӲᘫԨφᏱϟ৷ȂկܛԚϟᄓড়ϑ౫ȄӱԫȂڦ ௼ȃᒶᐆԨφᏱІѡᏱ፞ᇴϟᛨ࿌ᏱୱӱᔗՅҢȄԫ֊࣐ȶήᡑȷȂܛᒞ׸଀Ᏹ ϟีൠȄՅసๆᗷ݃ᕤԫᆎ׸଀Ᏹϟ҇ดܓȂࠔϬϛռ״ຠȄຠڐᗷณȶਜ਼๽ܺ ᒁȷȂȶดڐٗւ྄ࣦȷȄ αख़ϟϲৡȂ࣐సๆᏑఁѭ౪၍ϟᙐϮȄҦԫȂשউѠጃޤޠ࢑ȂȶΚᡑȷ ϟઊଗᏑॴȂ࣐ȶҐܓ౪ȃлଖ՘ȷȄȶӕᡑȷϟᰬேᏑॴȂ࣐ȶᆡଌຣȃлၒ Нȃϛևଖ՘ȷȄ ઊଗܛّϟᏱୱȂڐϲৡӶܼȶлଖ՘ȷ17ȄԄαܛख़ȶᏱୱȞτᏱȟ࣐ҐȂ ᛻૗ȞϊᏱȟ࣐ҒȷૢȂȶϊᏱȷȞϳ᛻๊ȟ࣐ᏱୱࠊණϟᏱಭȂᏱୱޠҐ፵Ӷ ܼȶτᏱȷȞঔϐݾ΢ϟᏱȟȄҦԫѠޤઊଗϟܛпّȶଖ՘ȷϟҭޠȂл्Ӷ ܼഀೲȶϊᏱȷІȶτᏱȷȄ ѫΚР८Ȃᰬே፤Ᏹୱޣّȶϛևଖ՘ȷȄܛᒞȶϳ᛻Ҽ࣐ӒеϟၿȷȄ᛻ ૗Ȟȶϳ᛻ȷȟ࣐ȶၿȷȂᏱୱ֊࣐ȶၿȷϟᏱಭȄӶԫȂᏱୱณȶϊᏱȷȃȶτ ᏱȷϟୣϸȄҼϛ्ؒȶଖ՘ȷȂ֊ᗬྱՍϐԚΚዀྦ࠯ᄙȞԄԨφᏱܛᒞϟȶဒ ΢ȷȟȄᰬேᇰ࣐Ȃ΢ҢӶзȂөঐ΢ࣲԥϛӤኻࣻȂȶܓȷȞ੊፵ȟҼԥȶߞ ฼ூѷȷȄөঐࣲ࣐ȶࣁޑȷȂࠔϛܴݬܼȶ࠯ȷȄȶၿȷȂ֊ܛᒞᙅ዆Ә࢈Ȃ л्ӶܼȶߞᎵȷӼኻ΢ϟԫᆎӼኻܓȄȶߞᎵϟၿȷȂ࣐㿡ৡєৡȶࣁޑȷϟ ᎵيȄկঅூݨཏޠ࢑Ȃᰬேϟȶϛևଖ՘ȷȂᗷޣّϛܴݬܼ࠯ϟࣁޑӼኻϾȂ կࠔηӱԫՅٻڐҒࢻȶࢻܼਜ਼๽ܺᒁȷ18Ȅ 17 సๆϟכ ᛒԢೆȮΟਵ૪இᓎ์ȯȞڣϟΚȟϜȂණІઊଗ࣐ᆌ۬ϟԀՌҴ߇ϥॣѿፐߟ ܛܤᡨҴٙȂߩᜳȶᆎᆎඍॏȷȂӱՅᓺϣࢎ໩ຠઊଗ࣐ȶᆼᏑȷȄ 18 ᜱܼᰬேϟНᏱࣁ୞ȂѠ୥ྲСഐᓹЊȈȮᰬேᏱࣃȯȞݎٶȈ๓ኟਫܙȂ1975 ԒȟȄ

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ήȃᐡ૗ϟڏᡞםᄙȃМࡼ໧ቺϜܛُϟӼኻܓ

19 СҐᏑఁϛ༊Ӷᐡ૗Р८ڏԥӼኻܓȂӶڐᐡ૗ϟڏᡞ࠯ᄙȂឌԄ᛺ਯȃ໑ ਯȃԌφࡑȃؾც๊ȂІМࡼԫᆎᐡ૗ϟ໧ቺԄݢςȃᮇ΢ȃၼҖ๊๊ҼѠُڐ ӼኻܓȄ ᜱܼᐡ૗ϟڏᡞםᄙȂឌԄ۬ύ᛺ܼ 1641 Ԓ഻࡛߇㨎ఁൠȞ᛺ਯȟȃٯܼ 1668Ԓ೪Ҵ໢ْᏱਯȞ໑ਯȟȄпԫ࣐⿸үȂө᛺ձ࣐᛺ςϟఁيᐡᜱኅ೪᛺ਯȂ ܼ 18 зखࡤљߕӪഷ౿෉Ȅ๗ݏȂ᛺ਯϟ኶໕Ӷኁ᛺ϟࠊାႁ 250 ਯпαȄйԫ ఁيዦҼӤਣᅥഇՎஹҖϟ໣Ȃٻூө؇ԌφࡑݔҴȂዦᏄߩளȄڐᛂτϟ኶໕ ᗷّΚ࿳ᎸȂկᄃርα൸ϭܛՄᜍᖃ኶ົႇϳ࿳Ȅԫᆎ౫ຬϟםԚȂٯߩఁيዦ ዙҦ᛺ਯ۾ᐷՎஹҖܛᏳयȄڐл्ϟ঩ӱȂӶܼަཽӓᡞᄈԫᆎఁيԥܛሰؒ ϘூпԚҴȄ Յᜱܼᐡ૗ϟМࡼቺ઼Ȃ৭ҥ૶Ԫ෇ӶȮԨφᏱІ໩݃ᏱȯϜȂّȶܛᒞ׉ᏱȂ ࣐ςτЊϟᏱȂ࣐ςτЊϟࡧདྷȷȂϡڐᎍϹۢဏ20ȄϜ୾ᏑఁஆҐα࣐пऌᖟ࣐ ҭޠϟᏱୱȃԚ࣐ାۣϟᏱୱȄՅࣻᄈܼԫȂСҐᏑఁϜٯณऌᖟȂςτЊϟ྆܉ ҼϛԇӶȄ ϲ᛾෺ࠓӶȮఽ්ѭ೾፤ȯϜȂ஡СҐІϜ୾ϟᏱୱձЩၷȄڐᇰ࣐ȂӶϜ ୾ȶႳڿڿԥϟН݃ȷϟίȂᏱୱΞȶ֘лܗີఋϟ᜹αࢻϟ΢ܛ஠ԥȷȄՅѫ ΚР८ȂȶӶСҐᏱ޲ٯߩԥᓁ΢ηٯߩեР΢ޑȂτӼ࣐೵޲ጐᅿΚҢևΩձ Ᏹୱϟ৷ȷ21ȄӱԫȂשউѠூޤȂӶԥऌᖟϟϜ୾ȂᏱୱӶҖ໣ٯϛึႁȄᄈ ܼҖ໣ȂᏱୱΞ࣐ഭྯйӼᎸϟޑȄկӶСҐȂᏱୱӶӵРϟᒂਯІҖ໣ࣲፁࠐ ึ৥ȄၗԄ෺ࠓܛّȂӶСҐ࿌ਣަཽȂ೵޲ҼձᏱୱȄ ԄԫࣽٿȂСҐᏑఁϟᏱಭ޲ٯߩ༊ЦܼݢςȂၼҖІҀҖࣲ๊є֥ڐϜȄ ڏᡞםᄙІМࡼ໧ቺϟӼϰȂആ൸СҐᏑఁܛᒞ౵ܼϜ୾ȃ්ᘁᏑఁȂՅ֖౫Ӽ ኻܓึ৥ϟ८ࣻȄឌԄӶСҐԨφᏱϲഌȂ֊ӱᔗϛӤٙӌՅोҢяϛӤМࣃȄ ԥԄτ㢧ᛅ኉இϟ୧΢ᏑఁȂҼԥԄξဩαᖃၿᏱϟ᜹ޠၼҖᏑఁԇӶȄСҐᏑ ఁϟӼኻܓȂҦԫѠُΚරȄ ȪೱӉጢਯȈዟཐኌȫ 19 ୥Մݨ 2 ା৭ϰࢸȈȲСҐᏑఁᤦ੬ ȳȄ 20 ৭ҥ૶ԪȈȮԨφ䗄ᤠ໩݃䗄ȯȞݎٶȈۮݱུਫȆۮݱਫۺȂ1967 ԒȟȂॳ 14Ȅ 21 ϲ᛾෺ࠓȈȮఽ්ѭ೾፤ȯȞݎٶȈݎࢸН৳Ȃ҂δަȂ1993 ԒȟȂॳ 129Ȅ

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л्୥Մਫҭ

஠຀ ϲ᛾෺ࠓȈȮఽ්ѭ೾፤ȯȂݎٶȈݎࢸН৳Ȃ҂δަȂ1993 ԒȄ ೋҢᰬேȈȮ҄ӫȯȃȮ҄ၿȯȃȮᏱࠍȯȂԞᓄܼӢώ۸Ԫॣȃγύ઎عȃ՚ ҥЋΚॣȃ㫉ႁηਯݨȈȮСҐࡧདྷτق 36 ೋҢᰬேȯȂݎٶȈۮݱਫۺȂ 1973ԒȄ ٕ঩ઊଗȈȮڸߺ่φଌȯȂԞᓄܼҰώᖿਯॐȈȮᎵҢଌȆڸߺ่φଌȯȂݎ ٶȈۮݱН৳ȆۮݱਫۺȂ1961 ԒȄ ൲ݭԱҔᒒȈȮφ৙ᠧȯȂԞᓄܼϜ؇۸࡞ਯݨȈȮСҐࡧདྷτق 59 ߗзᮇ΢ࡧ དྷȯȂݎٶȈۮݱਫۺȂ1975 ԒȄ ߝْݾណݨȈȮೆφȞಒΚьȟȯȂݎٶȈۮݱН৳ȆۮݱਫۺȂ1975 ԒȄ ϭҥࢸήȈȮԱ㡭ᤦҐࡑᤍ᥋ᣵߗхНϾѭᤦ୐८ȯȂݎٶȈСҐяޏڟཽȂ 1977ԒȄ Ҁώቷ݃ȃҰώؿڸȈȮ᤭ᤇ᥅᣾ᤦҐ˕㤾䇣ȆԱ㡭ᤦቇᤫȯȂݎٶȈݭяਫܙ ུަȂ2006 ԒȄ ҰώᖿਯॐȈȮτڸߺଌȯȂݎٶȈۮݱН৳ȆۮݱਫۺȂ1938 ԒȄ Ћ৛ࢍѯȈȮᑀᇮȯȂԞܼȮӫঢ়ᓎ์໲˕αȯȂݎٶȈԥ݊இȂ1926 ԒȄ ෯ᜟਫ਼ȈȮߗзСҐަ㢸ᤠ׉ቇȯȂݎٶȈݎٶτቇяޏަȂ1985 ԒȄ ৭ҥ૶ԪȈȮԨφቇᤠ໩݃ቇȯȂݎٶȈۮݱུਫȆۮݱਫۺȂ1967 ԒȄ СഐᓹЊȈȮᰬேᏱࣃȯȂݎٶȈ๓ኟਫܙȂ1975 ԒȄ ԄᓽφȂȮѠ઱ଅȯȂԞᓄܼȮ኉ώН᛻᜹௄ಒΡ˕ఁଌϊᇴȯȂݎٶȈ୾ਫё ՘ཽȂ1914Ȅ ڸ৭߀عȈȮСҐ׉ቇѭᤦःفȞቩ၅ޏȟȯȂݎٶȈӢώ҅НᓣȂ1988 ԒȄ ኅᛒసๆȈȮᏑݔຠȯȂԞᓄܼᜱ቉ΚॣጢȈȮСҐᏑݔᘏਫȯಒήڣȂݎٶȈ ቄяޏȂ1978 ԒȄ ᛻૗ѭःفཽጢȈȮСҐ᛻૗ѭȯ5ȂݎٶȈݳ࢈τᏱяޏ׌Ȃ1986 ԒȄ ෉ё፤Н ା৭ϰࢸȈȲȶࡧདྷѭȷᤠᤧեᤃᣵȶСҐঘ౪ࡧདྷѭȷᤣ䈅ᤑ᥃Рݳ፤ޠЇࣹȳȂ ԞᓄܼȮᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτቇЩၷСҐቇःفᥦᦞᥪᣵःفԒൣ˕഻ё㢆ȯȂ ݎٶȈᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτቇȂ2005 ԒȄ

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ା৭ϰࢸȈȲСҐᏑఁᤦ੬ ȳȂԞᓄܼȮᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτቇτቇଲఁي׾९М නᦂᦘᥛᦔᦋȶСҐНϾःفᤦ㥾ርޠ௒ൣᩲႁᥤᥘᦖᤦيԚȷ˕҂Ԛ 20 Ԓ ࡚ࣁ୞ൣ֚ਫ੖ѵఁيࣃልٲཿጢȯȂݎٶȈᤂ૰ᤦЬυφτቇȂ2009 ԒȄ

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ቸࢦཏُᄣ्

ಒΚ՞ቸࢦ΢ ࣻᄈܼڐуτޠఁᏱᡞقȞԄդఁȃၿఁȟȃᏑఁԥڐՍٙޠᡞقȂ೼ ࢑Ꮡఁ૗஋ᜌրՍٙޠᜟࣩጤȞϛ௷ଷӤڐуఁᏱޠࣻϤኈ៫ȟȂկӶ ᐍঐᏑఁзࣩϜȂϛᆔ࢑Ϝ୾ޠᏑఁȂᗚ࢑ᗻ୾ޠᏑఁȃСҐޠᏑఁȂ ߭Ꮡఁ௄ٿ൸࢑ȶӼ࠽ӼኻȷȃȶӼݣӼဏȷޠȂୱᚡ࢑өᆎϛӤޠӼ ኻܓفഥ࢑ϨቅȄ೼጖፤НпȶСҐᏑఁޠӼኻܓȷ࣐лᚡȂ௄ϛӤޠ ࡧདྷםᄙȃϛӤޠᐡ૗ڸၸᡞȂᄈСҐᏑఁӼኻܓޠߓ౫ڸߵԚ೼ᆎӼ ኻܓޠ఩ӈໍ՘Πᑀژޠ௥ଇȂሴԥུཏȄ ಒΡ՞ቸࢦ΢ ਴ᐄпίᢏᘉ࡛ឋёีȄ Κȃຝഐޠ࡛ᄻ ! ! 1. ϜСᏑᏱзࣩᢏޠ౵፵ܓȄ ! ! 2. ௄ަཽᏱޠᢏᘉ፤ख़СҐᏑᏱޠ੬፵Ȅ Ρȃ፤ᘉఽ඿ ! ! 1. СҐᏑᏱޠ੬፵םԚܼϰ࿱Ȟ1681-1704ȟȃٵߴȞ1716-1736ȟȂࡧ དྷึ৥Ȃࠊ΢፤ख़ၐᅿȂࢉ௄ᙐȄ΢НަཽϟӼϰܓޠ፤ख़ۧࡠᚅఽȂ ࢉၐख़Ȅ ! ! 2. ᏑᏱޠఁيѓ૗ȂЏڐ௄ঘ౪ၿ኉ޠ२ຝᇅϳ᛻ᄃңޠᢏᘉȂ፤ख़С ҐᏑᏱޠ੬፵ȂໍՅᇴ݃СҐᏑᏱޠᡑ᎑Ȅ ! ! ! !

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