Job Satisfaction of Indonesian Workers in Taiwan

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(1)國立政治大學亞太研究英語碩士學位學程  International Master’s Program in Asia-Pacific Studies College of Social Sciences National Chengchi University 碩士論文 Master’s Thesis. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. Job Satisfaction of Indonesian Workers in Taiwan. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. i Un. Ch. v. e n g cSetyaningsih Student: Rita Pawestri (98926022) hi Advisor: Ching-lung Tsay, Ph.D. 中華民國 100 年 7 月 25 July 2011. i   .

(2) Job Satisfaction of Indonesian Workers in Taiwan. 研究生: Rita Pawestri Setyaningsih 指導教授:Ching-lung Tsay, Ph.D. 國立政治大學 亞太研究英語碩士學位學程 政 治. 立. 大. 碩士論文. io. sit. y. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. Nat. A Thesis. er. Submitted to International Master’s Program in Asia-Pacific Studies. al. n. iv n C National h e nChengchi g c h i UUniversity. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For the Degree of Master in Taiwan Studies. 中華民國 100 年 7 月 July 2011. ii   .

(3) Acknowledgement. First of all, I would like to thank my seniors in the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI): Professor Dr. Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Dr. Thee Kian Wie, Dr. Yekti Maunati, and Dr. Fadjar Ibnu Thufail, who have supported and given me the opportunities to realize my desire to study in Taiwan.. Moreover, a special thanks is also dedicated to Professor Ching-lung Tsay, my advisor and mentor, who patiently guided and encouraged me to make it. I would also like to thank the other committee members, Professor Hsiao-hung Nancy Chen, Professor Chuang, Yih-chyi, and Professor Liu, Mei-chun who have supported and given me much. 政 治 大 made me feel more confident with the result of my study. 立. valuable input and advice. I would also like to thank Professor Ko, Chyong-fang, who. ‧ 國. 學. Special thanks goes to my friend, Dita S.N.A. Diliani who gave me support, ideas, and enlightenment throughout the endless hours of my doubt and confusion. Special thanks is. ‧. also addressed to Paramitaningrum, who supported me and became the witness in a battle. io. sit. y. Nat. to the defense of my thesis.. er. I want to thank Mrs Sri Setiawati from the Indonesian Economic and Trade Office in. al. n. iv n C U for sharing valuable information h e nExecutive Training, Council of Labor Affairs, g c h i Yuan Taipei as well as Mr. Shiue Jain-Jong, from the Bureau of Employment and Vocational. with me. Many thanks is also addressed to the 42 Indonesian women who have worked hard for their lives and have agreed to share their experiences and to be the subjects of this study.. To those who have helped edited my thesis, I would like to thank my good friends Sao, Sebastian, Tim, Mark, Janet, Ben, and Viko. Special thanks goes to Angela Wu, the IMAS secretary, who have given big help to me. Also, I would like to thank other friends who cannot be mentioned individually but contributed a lot to my study.. iii   .

(4) Last but not least, the biggest thanks is dedicated to my husband, Muhammad Zaenuddin, and my daughter, Naomi Zafira Zaen, who without their love, care, support, encouragement and prayers, I would not have been able to make it. You are the spirit and fuel of my life. In addition, I would like to thank my parents, my sisters, and my brothers, who have supported, prayed and afforded me the opportunity to realize my dream.. Taipei, August 2011. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. iv   . i Un. v.

(5) Abstract. Among workers from four Southeast Asian countries in Taiwan, Indonesian workers constitute of the biggest group, especially those working in the care service sector. The trend of these workers has been associated with the growing number of the older population in Taiwan. As an Indonesian student studying in Taiwan, I took this opportunity to conduct research on the Indonesian care workers in Taiwan. This study tries to search whether the Indonesian workers are satisfied with their job as caretakers. It includes an overview of their job content, wage, personality job fitness, and supportive work condition. Data was collected by using survey and interviews, with a result of 42 respondents living in Taipei City by using a snowball approach, as well as interviews with an Indonesian representative and Taiwanese government officer. The data collected was analyzed by using cross tabulation and organizational behavior approaches.. 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學. ‧. The study found some relationships between job satisfaction and other variables: i.e.: job contents or characteristics of the caretaking job (such as spends much energy, aggravates health condition, stressful, and restricts social contact with outside of the home), wage (expectation, regularity payment), personality job fit and supportive working condition (no days off and separated room).. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. n. iv n C is very comprehensive. h e n g c hThe i Uinterview will give much information not only to. This study results enriched the analyses. It students, but also to lecturers, researchers and scholars who are interested in the field. It is also a useful resource for the Indonesian and Taiwanese governments to improve working conditions and worker satisfaction.. Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Indonesian Workers, Taiwan, Aging Society, Long-Term Care Service.  . v   .

(6) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgement. iii. Abstract. v. Table of contents. vi. Chapter 1 Background of the Study. 1. 1.1.. Introduction. 1. 1.2.. Purpose of the Study. 3. 1.3.. Rationale. 4. 1.4.. Literature Review. 4. 1.5.. Conceptual Framework. 6. 1.6.. Definition. 立 Research Methodology. 10 11. 學. ‧ 國. 1.7.. 政 治 大. 1.8.. A Brief Story of Indonesian Workers in Taiwan. 13. 1.9.. Outline. 13. ‧. sit. Trend of the Aged population in Taiwan Low Fertility. 2.4.. Long-Term Care Service. io. 2.3.. n. al. er. 2.2.. Introduction. Nat. 2.1.. Ch. engchi U. Chapter 3 Indonesian Workers in Taiwan. v ni. 15 15 15 17 20 25. 3.1.. Introduction. 3.2.. Indonesian Workers Overseas. 25. 3.3.. The Emergence of “Pahlawan Devisa”. 27. 3.4.. Feminization of the Workers. 31. 3.5.. Push Factors. 32. 3.6.. Pull Factors. 33. 3.7.. Indonesian Migrant Workers in Taiwan: New Players. 37. 3.8.. The Domination of Indonesian workers in Care Service Sector 40. 3.9.. Problems Faced by Indonesian workers in Taiwan. 25. 42. 3.10. Improving Workers’ Protection and Services. 43. 3.11. Future Expectation. 45 vi .  . y. Chapter 2 Aging Society in Taiwan and Long-Term Care Service.

(7) Chapter 4 Job Satisfaction of the Indonesian Workers in Taiwan 4.1.. Introduction. 47. 4.2.. Characteristics of Respondents. 49. 4.3.. Workers’ Job Satisfaction. 53. 4.3.1. Job Content. 59. 4.3.2. Wage. 68. 4.3.3. Personality Job Fit. 70. 4.3.4. Supportive working condition. 75. Future Opportunities. 79. 4.4.. Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendations. 81. 5.1.. Conclusion. 81. 5.2.. Recommendation. 政 治 大 Further Study 立. 89. References. 91 92. 學. 99. ‧. ‧ 國. 5.3.. Appendix. 47. y. Nat. n. al. er. io. sit. List of Figures. Figure 1.1 Research Framework. Ch. Figure 2.1 Population Projection. engchi U. v ni. 10 15. Figure 2.2 Total Fertility Rate, 1960-2009. 17. Figure 3.1 Map of Indonesia. 26. Figure 3.2 Numbers of Migrant Workers in Taiwan, 1994-2011 (April). 36. Figure 3.3 Foreign Workers in Productive Industries and Social Welfare (%)37. (End. of April 2011) Figure 3.4 Indonesian Workers in Taiwan Classified by Sectors (%), Apr 2011 40 Figure 3.5 Map of Taiwan. 41. Figure 4.1 Map of Java. 49. Figure 4.2 Map of Taipei City. 52. Figure 4.3 Types of Job Preferences. 73. List of Tables vii   .

(8) Table 3.1 Overseas Workers' Remittances 2005-2010, (US$ Billions). 28. Table 3.2 Various wage rate received by Indonesian workers overseas. 34. Table 4.1 Characteristics of the Respondents. 51. Table 4.2 Correlation between job satisfaction and personal characteristics. 53. Table 4.3 Correlation between characteristics of job contents and job satisfaction. 60. Table 4.4 Correlations between wage and job satisfaction. 68. Table 4.5 Correlation between personality job fit and job satisfaction. 70. Table 4.6 Correlation between supportive working condition and job satisfaction. 76. 政 治 大 and job satisfaction Table 4.8 Correlation between attitude toward LTCSL 立 Table 4.7 Correlation between future opportunity and job satisfaction. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. viii   . i Un. v. 79 80.

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Table 3.1 Overseas Workers' Remittances 2005-2010, (US$ Billions)  28  Table 3.2 Various wage rate received by Indonesian workers overseas  34  Table 4.1 Characteristics of the Respondents  51 Table 4.2 Correlation between job satisfaction and personal cha

Table 3.1

Overseas Workers' Remittances 2005-2010, (US$ Billions) 28 Table 3.2 Various wage rate received by Indonesian workers overseas 34 Table 4.1 Characteristics of the Respondents 51 Table 4.2 Correlation between job satisfaction and personal cha p.8

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