The development of the Hong Kong school curriculum has advanced into a new phase of ongoing renewal and updating. It ushers in a new era for curriculum development to keep abreast of the macro and dynamic changes in various aspects in the local, regional and global landscapes in maintaining the competitiveness of Hong Kong. For the ultimate benefits of our students, schools are encouraged to sustain and deepen the accomplishments achieved since the Learning to Learn curriculum reform started in 2001, and to place new emphases on future needs in curriculum development for achieving the overall aims and learning goals of the school curriculum.
The eight Key Learning Area (KLA) Curriculum Guides (Primary 1 - Secondary 6) have been updated and recommended by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC)1 to support the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum at the primary and secondary levels.
In updating the KLA Curriculum Guides, the respective KLA committees under the CDC have taken into consideration the concerns, needs and suggestions of various key stakeholders including schools, principals, teachers, students and the public at large. A series of school briefing cum feedback collection sessions coupled with a territory-wide school survey were conducted in 2015 to gauge schools’ views on the major updates of the respective Curriculum Guides.
The eight KLA Curriculum Guides (2017) supersede the 2002 versions. Each KLA Curriculum Guide presents the updated curriculum framework which specifies the KLA’s curriculum aims, learning targets and objectives, delineates the direction of ongoing curriculum development at the KLA level, and provides suggestions on curriculum planning, learning and teaching strategies, assessment, as well as useful learning and teaching resources. In addition, updated examples of effective learning, teaching and assessment practices are provided for schools’ reference. Supplements to some KLA Curriculum Guides and subject curriculum guides are also available to provide further suggestions on their implementation at specific key stages. Schools are encouraged to adopt the recommendations in the KLA Curriculum Guides, taking into account the school contexts, teachers’ readiness and learning needs of their students.
For a better understanding of the interface between various key stages and connections of different learning areas, and how effective learning, teaching and assessment can be achieved, schools should make reference to all related curriculum documents recommended by the CDC and the latest versions of the Curriculum and Assessment Guides jointly prepared by the CDC and the HKEAA for the senior secondary curriculum to ensure coherence in curriculum planning at the school, KLA and subject levels.
1 The CDC is an advisory body offering recommendations to the Government on all matters relating to school curriculum development from kindergarten to secondary levels. Its membership includes heads of schools, teachers, parents, employers, academics from tertiary institutions, professionals from related fields or related bodies, representatives from
As curriculum development is a collaborative and ongoing process, the KLA Curriculum Guides will be under regular review and updating in light of schools’ implementation experiences as well as the changing needs of students and society.
Views and suggestions on the development of the Arts Education KLA Curriculum are always welcome. These may be sent to:
Chief Curriculum Development Officer (Arts Education) Curriculum Development Institute
Arts Education Section, W325, West Block EDB Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre 19 Suffolk Road, Kowloon
Fax: 2336 8510 E-mail: email@example.com
Arts education contributes significantly to students’ aesthetic development, which is one of the five essential learning experiences for whole-person development.
Appreciating, creating and performing the arts are essential for students to learn the arts comprehensively.
Arts Education is one of the Key Learning Areas (KLAs) in the school curriculum while all students are entitled to arts education.
Schools should allocate 10% to 15% and 8% to 10% of the total lesson time to Music, Visual Arts and other art forms at the primary level and the junior secondary level respectively.
In senior secondary education, every student should be engaged in Aesthetic Development in Other Learning Experiences (OLE). A flexible range of 10% to 15%
of the total lesson time is set aside for OLE.
Favourable impacts of arts education on student learning has laid the foundation for further development of arts education in school.
Students’ entitlement to arts education in school has paved the way for raising the cultural literacy of our younger generation and in society.
The New Academic Structure has enhanced the interface between different key stages and offered diverse arts learning pathways for senior secondary students.
An increasing number of schools offering the Arts elective subjects of Music and Visual Arts has been observed since the implementation of the senior secondary curriculum in 2009.
Arts learning opportunities have been greatly increased due to various Government and non-government supported projects, such as those related to cultural heritage, creative industries and cultural infrastructure.
The advancement in science and technology is influencing our ways of living, and providing us with novel means for communication, artistic expression, and learning.
Direction for Development
Sustain the impact of arts education on students and continue to provide them with quality arts learning experiences.
Deepen the impact of learning the arts by adopting effective strategies for curriculum planning as well as learning, teaching and assessment.
Focus on incorporating various Major Renewed Emphases (MRE) of the ongoing curriculum renewal for further development of students’ arts knowledge, skills, and positive values and attitudes.
Curriculum Aims of the Arts Education KLA Arts education helps students:
develop creativity, critical thinking and communication skills, and nurture aesthetic sensitivity and cultural awareness;
develop arts skills, construct knowledge, and cultivate positive values and attitudes;
gain delight, enjoyment and satisfaction through participating in arts activities; and
pursue a lifelong interest in the arts.
The Curriculum Framework of the Arts Education KLA
The curriculum framework of the Arts Education KLA provides schools with flexibility to plan and implement their school Arts Education curriculum. It sets out what schools should follow in order to help students:
achieve the four Learning Targets, i.e. Developing Creativity and Imagination, Developing Skills and Processes, Cultivating Critical Responses and Understanding Arts in Context;
develop creativity, critical thinking and communication skills, and other generic skills;
nurture positive values and attitudes.
Central Curriculum and School Arts Education Curriculum
Holistic planning is important for the school Arts Education curriculum development, which should be carried out at two levels, i.e. the school level and the Arts Education KLA level.
At the school level, the school management plays a key role in the planning of resources allocation. To ensure effective implementation of the Arts Education curriculum, schools should appoint an Arts Education KLA co-ordinator; deploy subject-trained Arts teachers; and allocate sufficient Arts lesson time, designated venues and financial resources to the Arts Education KLA.
At the Arts Education KLA level, a school Arts Education curriculum should offer different art forms with diversified learning opportunities. In addition, schools should offer appropriate planning for strengthening the interface between key stages, providing multiple pathways to support further studies and future careers, embracing learner diversity, and facilitating life-wide learning and the learning across the KLAs.
Learning and Teaching
Teachers should employ learning and teaching approaches and strategies for the Arts Education curriculum to enhance the effectiveness of learning and teaching.
Assessment is an integral part of the curriculum. It involves collecting evidence about student learning, interpreting information and making judgements about students’
performance providing feedback to students, and informing teachers, schools, parents and other stakeholders on students’ performance.
Quality learning and teaching resources are essential for supporting the learning and teaching of the arts.
Key Messages iii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 2
1.2 What is a Key Learning Area? 2
1.3 Position of the Arts Education KLA in the School Curriculum 3
1.4 Rationale and Direction for Development 4
1.4.1 Building on Strengths 4
1.4.2 Direction for Development 6
1.5 Strategies for Development 6
Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework 8
2.1 Curriculum Aims of the Arts Education KLA 10
2.2 The Curriculum Framework 10
2.2.1 Learning Targets and Learning Objectives 11
2.2.2 Generic Skills 12
2.2.3 Values and Attitudes 15
2.2.4 Language across the Curriculum 15
2.2.5 Information Technology in Education 16
2.2.6 STEM Education 16
2.3 Curriculum and Subject Organisation 17
Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning 19
3.1 Guiding Principles 20
3.2 Central Curriculum and School Arts Education Curriculum Development
20 3.2.1 The School Level – Leadership and Management 21 3.2.2 The Arts Education KLA Level – Curriculum Planning 23
3.3 Learning across KLAs 26
3.4 Time Allocation 28
Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching 29
4.1 Guiding Principles 30
4.2 Roles of Teachers 30
4.3 Approaches and Strategies 31
4.3.1 Approaches 31
4.3.2 Strategies 33
4.4 Embracing Learner Diversity 39
4.5 Values Education 40
4.6 Meaningful Homework 41
Chapter 5 Assessment 42
5.1 Guiding Principles 43
5.2 Formative and Summative Assessment 43
5.3 Internal Assessment 45
5.4 Quality Feedback 46
5.5 Reporting 46
5.6 Public Assessment 47
5.7 Framework of School Assessment Practices 48
Chapter 6 Learning and Teaching Resources 49
6.1 Materials in Support of the Curriculum Development 50 6.1.1 Audio, Visual and Textual Materials 50 6.1.2 The Internet and Information Technology 50 6.1.3 Learning and Teaching Materials Developed by the EDB 50
6.1.4 Textbooks 51
6.2 Human Resources 51
6.3 Financial Resources 52
6.4 Community Resources 52
6.5 School Environment Resources 52
6.6 Resource Management 53
Appendix I Seven Learning Goals of Primary and Secondary Education 54 Appendix II Learning Objectives and Examples of Learning Activities in Music 55 Appendix III Learning Objectives and Examples of Learning Activities in Visual
64 Appendix IV An Example of Holistic Planning on Arts Education Curriculum
70 Appendix V An Example of Holistic Planning on Arts Education Curriculum
71 Appendix VI Examples of the Planning and Implementation of Aesthetic
72 Appendix VII Example of Teaching Design: Let’s Feel the Pulse 73 Appendix VIII Example of Teaching Design: Swimming with Buddy Fish 74 Appendix IX Example of Teaching Design: Ink and Music in Dance 75 Appendix X Example of Teaching Design: An Affective Moment 77 Appendix XI Example of Teaching Design: Dress in My Cultural Identity 79 Appendix XII Example of Teaching Design: Unlocking Music 81 Appendix XIII Example of Teaching Design: Music in Film 82
Appendix XIV Suggested References 84
Membership of the Curriculum Development Council Committee on Arts Education
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background
The Arts Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 6) (2017) (this Guide) is prepared by the Curriculum Development Council Committee on Arts Education. It is an updated version of the Arts Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2002) and has been extended to include the three-year senior secondary Arts Education curriculum to provide reference for schools in developing a coherent school Arts Education curriculum.
The direction for the development of this Guide aligns with the Seven Learning Goals for Primary and Secondary Education (see Appendix 1 for the Seven Learning Goals of Primary Education and the Updated Seven Learning Goals of Secondary Education) and the major recommendations in the Basic Education Curriculum Guide – To Sustain, Deepen and Focus on Learning to Learn (Primary 1 - 6) (2014) (BECG) and the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (2017) (SECG). It provides a curriculum framework for the Arts Education Key Learning Area (KLA) comprising the curriculum aims, learning targets and learning objectives. It also provides strategies for curriculum planning, learning, teaching and assessment, and support measures. This Guide also puts forth Major Renewed Emphases (MRE) of the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum (e.g.
strengthening Language across the Curriculum (LaC), promoting STEM education and Information Technology in Education (ITE)) which take into account the massive changes taking place in various contexts and the recent educational trends in the light of the advancement in science and technology.
This Guide provides the overall direction for the development of the Arts Education curriculum in the five to ten years to come. Schools should make reference to the following curriculum documents, which are closely related to this Guide, for the planning and development of their school arts education as well as the strategies for learning, teaching and assessment at all key stages:
Music Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2003)
Visual Arts Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) (2003)
Music Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) (2007) (with updates in November 2015)
Visual Arts Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) (2007) (with updates in November 2015)
1.2 What is a Key Learning Area?
A Key Learning Area (KLA) is an important part of a curriculum. It is founded on fundamental and connected concepts within major fields of knowledge which should be acquired by all students. A KLA provides a context for the development and application of generic skills (e.g. communication, critical thinking and collaboration skills and creativity), subject-specific skills as well as positive values and attitudes through appropriate use of learning and teaching activities and
It serves as a context for the construction of new knowledge and the development of understanding. The studies offered in each KLA may have an academic, social or practical orientation, or a combination of these, depending on their purpose(s).
They can be organised into subjects, modules, units, tasks or other modes of learning.
The figure below shows the relationship among the three interconnected components of the curriculum framework, i.e. Knowledge in KLAs, Generic Skills, and Values and Attitudes.
Three Interconnected Components of the Curriculum Framework
1.3 Position of the Arts Education KLA in the School Curriculum
Arts education is an integral part of the school curriculum. It has been set out by the Education Commission that the aims of education for the 21st century are “to enable every person to attain all-round development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to his/her own attributes so that he/she is capable of life-long learning, critical and exploratory thinking, innovating and adapting to change….” For the direction for schools in curriculum development, one of the seven learning goals of primary and secondary education is to enable students to lead a healthy lifestyle with active participation in aesthetic and physical activities, and appreciate sports and the arts. Therefore, schools need to develop a balanced curriculum which includes arts education in order to provide an all-round education for their students.
Arts Education is one of the KLAs in the Hong Kong school curriculum. All students are entitled to arts education at all levels. To provide students with sufficient learning time for arts education, schools should allocate about 10% to 15% and 8% to 10% of the total lesson time to arts education at the primary level and the junior secondary level respectively. In addition to Music and Visual Arts, students’ experiences in other art forms, such as drama, dance and media arts can be broadened through various modes of learning.
At the senior secondary level, schools should continue to engage students in the learning of the arts through Aesthetic Development, which is one of the areas of
Other Learning Experiences (OLE)2. A flexible range of 10% to 15% of the total lesson time is set aside for the implementation of OLE. Schools can also offer the Arts elective subjects, i.e. Music and Visual Arts, to suit the needs and interests of students who would like to extend their studies in the Arts Education curriculum.
Each of the Arts elective subjects accounts for 10% of the total lesson time over a course of three years in Key Stage 4.
Reflection and Action
What is the role of arts education in students’ whole-person development?
What are the concerns/measures related to the advocacy of arts education in your school?
Are there any constraints in providing arts education in your school? How would you overcome them?
1.4 Rationale and Direction for Development
Since the curriculum reform started in 2001, arts education has been developing steadily in schools to foster students’ whole-person development. Opportunities are provided for students to:
explore the world from multiple perspectives and use arts language to communicate with others for sharing of ideas and emotions;
nurture aesthetic sensitivity, creativity and other generic skills;
connect the arts with other disciplines for greater understanding of society, culture and history; and
foster respect for and appreciation of diverse values and cultural heritages.
In the last decade, there have been a lot of changes and challenges in the local, regional and global contexts due to rapid development in economy, science and technology. These changes bring new requirements and have significant implications on education and particularly the Hong Kong school curriculum. For example, the Belt and Road Initiative, which is envisaged to bring the world together and facilitate regional and international co-operation as well as intercultural exchange, will present new opportunities for students in further studies and career development. The future development of arts education in schools should build on existing strengths and take account of the changing landscapes in society and the world.
1.4.1 Building on Strengths
Students’ entitlement to arts education in schools has paved the way for raising the cultural literacy of our younger generation and in society. Many schools have been
2 OLE, an essential component of the senior secondary curriculum, consists of five areas, i.e. Moral and Civic Education, Community Service, Career-related Experiences, Aesthetic Development and Physical Development. More information on OLE is at Booklet 7 of the SECG, whereas information on the planning and implementation, learning and teaching, as well as teachers' professional training programmes regarding Aesthetic Development is at
offering diversified arts learning experiences to their students, while the New Academic Structure has further enhanced the interface between primary, junior secondary and senior secondary education by offering diverse pathways3 for students to continue their pursuit of the arts at the senior secondary level.
An increasing number of schools offering the Arts elective subjects of Music and Visual Arts has been observed since the implementation of the senior secondary curriculum in 2009. A majority of schools have also provided structured learning time for the implementation of Aesthetic Development in OLE, whereas diverse arts learning activities, such as seminars, workshops, exhibitions, performances, competitions and community arts activities are offered to students.
It is observed that the curriculum aims of the Arts Education KLA are useful for guiding the development of the school Arts Education curriculum. Feedback collected from schools and different stakeholders has reflected that arts education has had a favourable impact on student learning in respect of developing students’
knowledge of and interest in the arts, creativity as well as critical thinking, communication and collaboration skills.
The Government has initiated and supported a number of cultural heritage projects4, and has advocated the development of creative industries 5 and cultural infrastructure6. In this connection, more creative talents have to be nurtured to meet the needs of our society.
Collaboration among the Government, non-governmental organisations and private bodies has contributed abundant resources to the promotion of arts education and the organisation of many arts and cultural events7.
The rapid advancement in science and technology is influencing our ways of living
3 These include i) Aesthetic Development in OLE, ii) Visual Arts and Music as elective subjects, iii) arts-related ApL course as elective subjects and iv) selecting an arts-related theme in the Independent Enquiry Study (IES) of Liberal Studies.
4 Recent examples: Oi! (Oil Street Art Space) converted from the former Clubhouse of the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club, Jockey Club Creative Arts Centre converted from the former buildings of the Shek Kip Mei Factory Estate, Hong Kong Heritage Discovery Centre converted from the former Whitfield Barracks, PMQ converted from the former Police Married Quarters on Hollywood Road, Jao Tsung-I Academy converted from the former Lai Chi Kok Hospital, Savannah College of Art and Design converted from the former North Kowloon Magistracy, and the Cattle Depot Artist Village converted from the former Ma Tau Kok Animal Quarantine Depot.
5 Hong Kong has developed a leading edge in key areas of creative industries like film, television, music, design, architecture, advertising, comics and animation, games and digital entertainment, publishing and printing, etc.
According to the latest statistics, Hong Kong has around 40 500 cultural and creative industry-related establishments, with about 213 100 practitioners engaged (HKSAR Government, 2016). The film industry, in particular, has been gaining remarkable achievement in recent years, and several films produced by Hong Kong film makers have attracted attention from all over the world, and received local and worldwide recognitions from the field.
6 One example is the West Kowloon Cultural District. Its mission is to create a vibrant cultural quarter for Hong Kong where the local arts scene can interact, develop and collaborate. The district includes a variety of arts and cultural facilities that will produce and host world-class exhibitions, performances and arts and cultural events, and also provides public open space with vibrant harbour-front promenade.
7 There are ample examples, such as providing vast amounts of grants to support arts groups of different scales by the Hong Kong Arts Development Council (HKADC); building audiences through various arts education programmes for the general public as well as schools students by the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); nurturing human resources for arts administration through internship and scholarship programmes offered by the Home Affairs Bureau (HAB) and the HKADC; and organising a number of arts festivals and exhibitions to promote the arts.
and communication, and providing us with novel means for communication, artistic expression and learning.
1.4.2 Direction for Development
Arts education plays an indispensable role in heightening students’ creativity, aesthetic sensitivity, awareness and competence in the arts, and in facilitating their all-round development. Based on the existing strengths and challenges brought about by the changing society, the development of arts education in schools should follow the direction that takes account of sustaining and deepening the accomplishments made and focusing on nurturing students’ capabilities necessary for the 21st century. In the planning and implementation of the school Arts Education curriculum, individual schools should:
Sustain the impact of arts education in schools and continue to provide students with quality arts learning experiences;
Deepen the impact of learning the arts by adopting effective strategies for curriculum planning as well as learning, teaching and assessment; and
Focus on incorporating various MRE of the ongoing curriculum renewal for further development of students’ arts knowledge, skills, and positive values and attitudes.
1.5 Strategies for Development
To facilitate the ongoing renewal of the curriculum and provide students with quality arts learning experiences, the following strategies for the development of arts education should be adopted by primary and secondary schools.
Adopt a holistic Arts Education curriculum planning through effective leadership and management.
Deploy subject-trained Arts teachers for planning and implementing the school Arts Education curriculum.
Incorporate the MRE into the school Arts Education curriculum through strengthening cross-subject and cross-KLA collaboration.
Adopt and develop diversified learning and teaching resource materials for students’ learning of the arts.
Explore and utilise diverse resources such as financial, human, venue and space, community resources effectively to enrich students’ learning experiences in the arts.
Continue to engage students in a variety of learning experiences in the arts to embrace learner diversity, including students with special educational needs and those who are gifted.
Promote e-learning and “assessment as learning” in addition to “assessment for learning” to help students become self-directed and lifelong learners.
Help students construct knowledge to prepare them in pursuing further studies and exploring career aspirations related to the arts.
Provide Arts teachers with sufficient opportunities and time for strengthening their professional capacity.
Reflection and Action
In which areas does your school need to strengthen in the provision of quality arts learning opportunities for students?
How would you incorporate different MRE of the ongoing curriculum renewal into the implementation of the Arts Education curriculum in your school?
Has your school provided opportunities to strengthen the professional capacity of Arts teachers?
Chapter 2 Curriculum Framework
2.1 Curriculum Aims of the Arts Education KLA The Arts Education curriculum aims to help students:
develop creativity, critical thinking and communication skills, and nurture aesthetic sensitivity and cultural awareness;
develop arts skills, construct knowledge, and cultivate positive values and attitudes;
gain delight, enjoyment and satisfaction through participating in arts activities;
pursue a lifelong interest in the arts.
2.2 The Curriculum Framework
The curriculum framework of the Arts Education KLA provides schools with flexibility to plan and implement their school Arts Education curriculum. The framework is illustrated below:
2.2.1 Learning Targets and Learning Objectives
Four Learning Targets are set out to achieve the curriculum aims of the Arts Education KLA. These Learning Targets are inextricably intertwined and form the core of the Arts Education curriculum. They do not necessarily bear the same weight in the process of learning and teaching.
Developing Creativity and Imagination
Students should be able to generate ideas through imagination and creativity by participating in arts appraising, creating and performing activities.
Developing Skills and Processes
Students should be able to use different materials, elements, arts language and resources to experience and express the arts. Exploration and experimentation in the creative process should also be treasured in arts education.
Cultivating Critical Responses
Students should be able to appraise and respond to the arts and arts-related issues from multiple perspectives.
Understanding Arts in Context
Students should be able to understand the arts in context and their relationship with human life and society.
In order to develop an effective and progressive Arts Education curriculum, teachers should set the learning objectives leading to the four Learning Targets according to students’ abilities, interests and needs. The learning objectives for the Arts subjects of Music and Visual Arts for Key Stages 1 to 3 and examples of related learning activities are at Appendices II and III respectively. Schools can also set the objectives and design activities for the learning of other art forms, such as drama and media arts with reference to this Guide. As for learning of dance, reference should be made to the Physical Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – Secondary 6) (2017).
For the learning objectives for the Arts elective subjects of Music and Visual Arts at Key Stage 4, reference should be made to the relevant curriculum and assessment guides. For the expected learning outcomes of Aesthetic Development in OLE, reference should also be made to Booklet 7 of the SECG.
2.2.2 Generic Skills
Generic skills are fundamental in enabling students to learn how to learn. The following nine generic skills have been identified as essential to student learning for the 21st century in the school curriculum.
Critical Thinking Skills
Information Technology Skills
Problem Solving Skills
Based on past experiences of implementing the curriculum reform and in response to the dynamic changes in society and recent research, the nine generic skills are grouped in three clusters of related skills, namely Basic Skills, Thinking Skills and Personal and Social Skills, for better integrative understanding and application in a holistic manner (see the table below for details).
8 “Mathematical Skills” and “Self-learning Skills” have been referred to as “Numeracy Skills” and “Study Skills”
Basic Skills Thinking Skills Personal and Social Skills Communication Skills Critical Thinking Skills Self-management Skills
Mathematical Skills Creativity Self-learning Skills
Skills Problem Solving Skills Collaboration Skills
Learning of the arts engages students in meaningful contexts for nurturing their generic skills. Generic skills can be effectively developed in clusters with appropriately designed arts learning and teaching activities. Examples of activities for the development of generic skills in the Arts Education KLA are as follows.
Talk about works of the arts by using arts-related vocabulary.
Present views about the arts orally and in writing.
Create and perform works of the arts by using music, visual and/or body language.
Use symbols or graphic notation to represent rhythm and pitch in music.
Apply the concepts of proportion to analyse the structure of a music piece and a stage design.
Apply the concepts of shape, size and position in formal analysis of art appreciation.
Create 3-dimensional illusion on a 2-dimensional plane for art making by using linear perspective.
Information Technology Skills
Use appropriate Information Technology (IT) tools for art making, as well as notating, creating and performing music.
Search and select information for appreciation, and develop ideas for creating music and art.
Use an e-platform to engage students in arts critique and peer assessment.
Critical Thinking Skills
Analyse and appraise music of different genres and styles.
Draw logical conclusions based on evidence (e.g. visual elements, content and art history) when appraising artworks.
Formulate own arguments based on facts and different views for appraising works of the arts.
Improvise body movements to reflect the expressive quality of a music piece.
Create sound effects for songs, stories and poems, and use symbols or graphic notation to record music ideas.
Perform a piece of music in different styles and interpretations.
Create imaginative artworks with playful themes.
Discover hidden details in works of the arts and generate an original and convincing interpretation.
Incorporate new techniques to enhance the presentation of a piece of artwork.
Problem Solving Skills
Identify a design problem and explore feasible ways to solve the problem with aesthetic quality.
Identify technical problems and find ways to improve the performing skills.
Experiment with different materials and techniques for achieving a particular visual effect.
Personal and Social Skills Self-management Skills
Set clear and feasible goals for learning a musical instrument according to personal learning pace and abilities.
Use resources economically (e.g. financial expenses and materials) for making a piece of artwork.
Allocate time to different tasks for completing a visual arts portfolio on schedule.
Categorise music pieces and visual artworks according to their genres and styles.
Study the context of a music piece and prepare for a music performance with persuasive interpretation.
Develop images and experiment media for establishing a visual arts portfolio with a self-developed theme.
Play in an ensemble and listen to each other for achieving balance in a music performance.
Liaise with peers to compromise a view for creating a mural.
Participate in various roles in organising an art exhibition and staging a
2.2.3 Values and Attitudes
Values education is an essential and integral part of the school curriculum. It is implemented through different components in KLAs/subjects, moral and civic education, cross-curricular learning opportunities and life-wide learning experiences.
With reference to the revised Moral and Civic Education Curriculum Framework (2008), seven priority values and attitudes are identified to reflect the uniqueness of Hong Kong as an international city in which both Chinese and Western cultures and values co-exist and interact. They are perseverance, respect for others, responsibility, national identity, commitment, integrity and care for others. They are of vital importance for students’ whole-person development to meet their own needs as well as those of society.
Schools are recommended to strengthen values education in accordance with the schools’ mission and contexts, and cultivate students’ positive values and attitudes related to individual, family, society, the country and the world. In the Arts Education KLA, values education can be implemented through relevant topics and appropriate learning and teaching activities to help students apply and reflect on positive values and attitudes; or through different situations in which students are required to understand the issues from different perspectives, analyse them in an objective manner, and adopt positive values and attitudes as the guiding principles for making judgements and decisions.
Examples of implementing values education in the Arts Education KLA are as follows.
Appraising works of the arts in different cultural contexts contributes to students’ understanding and respect of diverse cultures, as well as cherishing historical and cultural heritage.
Appreciating Chinese painting and calligraphy, Chinese music and Cantonese opera helps students develop their sense of national identity.
Creating and performing the arts helps nurture students’ perseverance and responsibility.
Learning appropriate manners of attending concerts and visiting exhibitions helps nurture students’ respect for others.
Refer to Appendices VII, IX, X, XI and XIII for examples of teaching plans on values education.
2.2.4 Language across the Curriculum
At the school level, language education and learning should take place in the subjects of Chinese Language and English Language, as well as across the curriculum. Through the incorporation of Language across the Curriculum (LaC) in whole-school curriculum planning, all language and non-language teachers take
part in developing students’ language skills and competence within their field of responsibility and contribute to students’ language development.
The Arts Education KLA provides authentic contexts for students to apply their literacy skills, i.e. reading and writing skills, to construct knowledge and develop language skills in a comprehensive and integrative manner, and to facilitate their development into lifelong learners. Examples of implementing LaC in the Arts Education KLA are as follows.
Identify a common topic between the Arts and English/Chinese Language subjects for students to read about and discuss, and design related learning activities or tasks outside classroom to broaden students’ learning experiences.
Expose students to the text types related to the arts, e.g. arts history, arts critique, programme notes, play scripts and quben (曲本).
Draw students’ attention to arts-related text type and teach language features and rhetorical functions, for describing works of the arts, comparing and contrasting the formal presentation of two paintings, describing a concert experience, etc.
Refer to Appendices X and XI for examples of teaching plans on LaC.
2.2.5 Information Technology in Education
Information Technology in Education (ITE) helps unleash the power of our students to learn and excel through engaging in interactive and self-directed learning. It also helps strengthen students’ computational thinking competences, and enhance their creativity, innovation and entrepreneurial spirit. It is envisaged that e-learning, which refers to an open and flexible learning mode involving the use of electronic media to achieve the learning objectives, will be commonly used in the arts classroom.
While the learning and teaching effectiveness is enhanced through the use of e- learning, due attention should be given to nurture students’ information literacy (IL), which refers to the ability and attitude leading to the effective and ethical use of information and information technology, and helping students become responsible citizens and lifelong learners.
The Arts Education KLA provides authentic contexts for using IT in the learning and teaching of the arts. In the process of appreciating, creating and performing/presenting the arts, students can also develop IT skills and information literacy for meeting the challenges of the rapidly changing digital world. Refer to Section 4.3.2 of this Guide for details about applying IT in arts education.
2.2.6 STEM Education
Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. In the Hong Kong curriculum context, STEM education is promoted through the KLAs of Science Education, Technology Education and Mathematics Education. The aims of promoting STEM education in schools are to strengthen the science, technology and mathematics education and to nurture versatile talents with different levels of knowledge and skills for enhancing the international competitiveness of Hong Kong. The objectives of promoting STEM education in relation to student learning are:
to develop among students a solid knowledge base and to enhance their interests in Science, Technology and Mathematics for further studies and careers in face of the changes and challenges in the contemporary world; and
to strengthen students’ ability to integrate and apply knowledge and skills, and to nurture students’ creativity, collaboration and problem solving skills, as well as to foster the innovation and entrepreneurial spirit as required in the 21st century.
Students should realise that the development of science, technology and mathematics is closely related to the societal environment. Advancement in science and technology can help improve the quality of life, and facilitate the economic growth and sustainable development of Hong Kong.
The Arts Education KLA can contribute to the promotion of STEM education through incorporating elements of STEM into arts learning activities. For example, teachers can:
guide students to discuss and appraise works of the arts from the scientific, technological and mathematical perspectives for widening students’ scope of understanding about the arts;
assign project work (e.g. designing a video game) and engage students in learning across the Arts Education, Science Education, Technology Education and Mathematics Education KLAs; and
invite students to apply technology to explore alternative means for creating and performing the arts.
Refer to Appendices VIII and XII for examples of teaching plans on STEM education.
2.3 Curriculum and Subject Organisation
At the primary and junior secondary levels, schools should offer Music and Visual Arts as subjects of the Arts Education curriculum, while at the same time providing students with ample learning opportunities related to different art forms through learning activities across the arts or across KLAs, as well as Life-wide Learning (LWL) beyond the classroom. Schools could also allocate lessons for students to learn drama, film or media arts according to their own situations.
At the senior secondary level, schools should offer Aesthetic Development in OLE
for all students. Moreover, schools could also provide students with Arts elective subjects, i.e. Music and Visual Arts, and arts-related Applied Learning (ApL) courses.
More information about ApL courses is at the website of ApL (http://www.edb.gov.hk/apl).
Chapter 3 Curriculum Planning
3.1 Guiding Principles
This Guide provides the direction, curriculum aims and framework for schools to develop their school Arts Education curriculum. Guiding principles for developing a school Arts Education curriculum across key stages to facilitate student learning are as follows.
Plan the Arts Education curriculum holistically at the school level and at the Arts Education KLA level to ensure the provision of a balanced school curriculum for students’ all-round education.
Provide students with balanced and diversified learning experiences in the arts for broadening students’ horizons and enhancing their understanding of the arts.
Strengthen the interface between key stages to ensure continuity and progression of learning in the arts.
Align curriculum planning with learning and teaching, as well as assessment for an effective implementation of the Arts Education curriculum.
Embrace learner diversity by taking account of students’ interests, abilities and learning styles.
Integrate the MRE of the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum into the school Arts Education curriculum to broaden students’ knowledge base and strengthen their abilities in multiple perspective thinking.
Promote collaboration among teachers within the Arts Education KLA and across KLAs, as well as strengthening partnerships with different key players in related fields for enriching students’ learning experiences in the arts.
Refer to Chapter 2 of the BECG and Booklet 2 of the SECG for more information on curriculum planning.
3.2 Central Curriculum and School Arts Education Curriculum Development This Guide sets the direction for the development of the Arts Education curriculum from Primary 1 to Secondary 6. It provides a central curriculum for the Arts Education KLA in the form of a flexible curriculum framework comprising the curriculum aims, Learning Targets and learning objectives, and suggested learning activities for the development of the school Arts Education curriculum. Holistic curriculum planning should be implemented at two levels, i.e. the school level and the Arts Education KLA level, as illustrated in the following diagram.
*Refer to Chapters 4 and 5 of this Guide for more suggestions on learning, teaching and assessment of the Arts Education curriculum.
3.2.1 The School Level – Leadership and Management
The school management should plan, oversee and support the implementation of the whole-school curriculum through advance planning and appropriate allocation of resources to ensure the provision of quality arts education.
Refer to Appendices IV and V for examples of holistic Arts Education curriculum planning in primary and secondary schools.
(i) Appointment of an Arts Education KLA Co-ordinator
An Arts Education KLA co-ordinator should be appointed to communicate and co- ordinate with the school management and other KLAs for planning the school Arts Education curriculum and resources for the Arts Education KLA. The co-ordinator plays a key role in leading the development of arts education in school, and co- ordinating among panel members of the Arts Education KLA to plan, implement
and evaluate the school Arts Education curriculum.
(ii) Deployment of Subject-trained Arts Teachers
Arts teachers should have solid subject and pedagogical knowledge for smooth and effective implementation of the Arts Education curriculum. Subject-trained teachers should be deployed to teach the Arts subjects at all levels. In addition, schools are strongly encouraged to allocate an appropriate teaching load of Arts lessons, i.e. at least half of their teaching loads, to Arts teachers to allow them to concentrate on developing and implementing the Arts Education curriculum. Their professional capacity will also be strengthened as they accumulate more experience working with students and other teachers.
(iii) Allocation of Sufficient Arts Lesson Time
Arts education is an entitlement for all students. Schools should provide sufficient lesson time for the Arts Education KLA for students throughout the four key stages as recommended in Section 3.4 of this Guide. Moreover, schools should offer Arts lessons for students at different class levels throughout the year without interruption.
(iv) Allocation of Designated Venues
Arts lessons should be conducted in designated venues, i.e. Music lessons in the Music room(s) and Visual Arts lessons in the Visual Arts room(s). Moreover, additional space and venues can be arranged to enrich students’ arts learning experiences, such as artwork exhibition in the school hall, music performance in the covered playground, and drama learning in the student activity room.
(v) Provision of Financial Resources
Financial resources should be planned in advance to ensure sufficient budget for implementing arts education in schools. In addition to recurrent government funding, schools should identify other financial resources to provide students with diversified arts learning experiences. Refer to Chapter 6 of this Guide for examples of financial resources.
(vi) Utilisation of Community Resources
Schools should encourage and support teachers to explore and utilise community resources to complement the schools’ resources. For example, students can participate in community arts projects, attend live performances, visit art exhibitions in museums, make reference to library materials and communicate with artists to broaden their arts experiences. Refer to Chapter 6 of this Guide for examples of community resources.
(vii) Fostering Capacity Building
Schools should support Arts teachers’ capacity building according to their school development plans and teachers’ needs. Suitable administrative arrangements should be made to facilitate teachers’ participation in professional development programmes offered by the EDB and other organisations such as tertiary institutions and arts organisations. In addition, schools are encouraged to provide teachers with in-house capacity building opportunities, such as assigning mentorship between experienced and newly appointed teachers, arranging peer lesson observation among teachers, organising collaborative lesson planning and lesson study, as well as inviting arts professionals to conduct seminars and workshops.
3.2.2 The Arts Education KLA Level – Curriculum Planning
At the Arts Education KLA level, a school Arts Education curriculum consisting of diversified learning opportunities inside and outside the classroom should be offered to maximise students’ learning in and through the arts.
(i) Aligning with the School Development Plan
A school Arts Education curriculum should align with the school development plan for strengthening students’ all-round education. The Arts Education KLA co- ordinator, in collaboration with panel members of the Arts subjects, should draw up concrete strategies for planning, implementing and evaluating the Arts Education curriculum in response to the major concerns in the school development plan.
(ii) Offering Diversified Arts Learning Experiences
In addition to Chinese, western and local arts, exposing students to the arts of different cultures could help enrich their arts learning experiences and broaden their world knowledge. Moreover, students should participate in appreciating, creating and performing activities which complement each other for students’
comprehensive understanding of the arts.
(iii) Learning across the Arts
Curriculum planning across the arts helps students make associations between different learning experiences related to the arts in a rich and integrative manner.
Students’ learning of one art form can be enhanced through the application of knowledge developed in another art form, make better connections among their arts learning experiences and form a more holistic perception of the arts. Teachers can identify themes and common elements for connecting different art forms in curriculum planning, and arrange learning opportunities in lessons and beyond the classroom.
(iv) Strengthening Interface between Key Stages
Smooth transition between key stages will help students build a solid foundation and sustain their interests in learning the arts. Teachers should adopt different strategies to help students proceed across key stages. Examples are as follows.
Design an age-appropriate and coherent Arts Education curriculum by considering students’ development in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains, such as from understanding of direct representation to symbolic presentations, from expression of personal emotion to care of society, and from acquisition of simple to complex skills. Therefore, Arts teachers have to acquire a better understanding of students’ previous knowledge and learning experiences of the arts, especially for students’ progressing from Kindergarten to Primary 1, from Primary 6 to Secondary 1, and from Secondary 3 to 4. The learning objectives for Music and Visual Arts, and examples of learning activities from Key Stages 1 to 3 are at Appendices II and III.
Train some upper primary/senior secondary students as mentors to help lower primary/junior secondary students adapt to their learning and school life.
Provide induction programmes to students and parents to familiarise students with the Arts Education curriculum, and help students reflect on their inclinations or aspirations of further studies and career development.
Refer to Chapter 9 of the BECG and Booklet 8 of the SECG for more information on interfaces between different key stages.
(v) Embracing Learner Diversity
Embracing learner diversity is not about minimising students’ learning differences or uniformising their learning achievements. It is to allow all students, including students with special educational needs and students who are gifted, to perform to the best of their abilities in the arts. Teachers should take into account students’
learning abilities, styles and interests, cultural backgrounds in planning the curriculum.
In the Arts Education KLA, schools should provide sufficient opportunities to students with special educational needs to realise and develop their potential through curriculum adaptation, e.g. tailoring the learning objectives, contents and activities, deploying the resources and manpower. A wide range of LWL activities related to the arts should also be planned and provided for students to demonstrate their achievements.
Schools should use identification tools and models (e.g. nomination by teachers or parents for students with outstanding academic and non-academic achievements) flexibly to identify gifted students for appropriate placement and providing them
lead and collaborate with panel members in adopting the operation mode of gifted education.
Level 1 – Whole-class (School-based)
Schools provide students with ample opportunities for discovering and developing their artistic potential through exposure to different art forms and participation in diverse arts learning activities.
Level 2 – Pull-out (School-based)
Schools should conduct enhancement programmes outside lesson time to allow systematic training and further development for students with outstanding performance in the arts.
Level 3 – Off-site
Enrichment programmes and activities offered by outside bodies (e.g. tertiary institutions, non-governmental organisations and professional bodies) could provide challenging enrichment opportunities for exceptionally gifted students nominated by schools.
Refer to Chapter 4 of the BECG, Booklet 5 of the SECG and Section 4.4 of this Guide for more information on strategies to cater for and embrace learner diversity.
(vi) Facilitating Life-wide Learning
Life-wide Learning (LWL) activities may engage students in authentic contexts to learn the arts, e.g. attending a live concert, performing in an orchestra, participating in a drama performance, visiting an art exhibition, creating a mural on site and appreciating a movie/TV advertisement. These activities are essential for students to acquire first-hand experience of the arts.
LWL should be an integral part of the school Arts Education curriculum. Schools should adopt appropriate measures, such as establishing connections with community organisations, allocating learning time, and deploying human resources and funding for the organisation of arts-related LWL activities. All LWL activities should complement student learning of the arts in the classroom and should not be a collection of unconnected arts activities.
Refer to Chapter 6 of the BECG, Booklet 7 of the SECG and Section 4.3.2 of this Guide for more information on LWL.
(vii) Providing Multiple Pathways to Support Further Studies and Future Careers
A well-designed Arts Education curriculum should enable students to stretch their potential, explore their interests and develop a solid foundation of the arts.
Appropriate guidance should be provided for students to understand the opportunities of Vocational and Professional Education and Training (VPET) related to the arts. Suggested strategies are as follows.
Make good use of the Student Learning Profile (SLP) to record senior secondary students’ various arts learning experiences and help them reflect on their interests and needs for further development in the arts.
Encourage students to study the Arts elective subjects at Key Stage 4 to foster their in-depth studies of the arts.
Invite arts practitioners to share professional experience to prepare students for their academic development and career planning.
Arrange visits to tertiary institutions, arts organisations and workplace for better understanding about the needs of arts-related professions and prospects.
Refer to Booklet 9 of the SECG for more information and suggestions on VPET.
3.3 Learning across KLAs
The co-ordinator of the Arts Education KLA should initiate collaboration with teachers of other KLAs/subjects and plan for cross-disciplinary learning.
Learning across the KLAs/subjects helps students make connections among knowledge and skills acquired in different disciplines and enhance their learning effectiveness. The following is an example of learning across KLAs using Impressionist arts as a theme.
Arts teachers could also collaborate with teachers of Liberal Studies (LS) to help senior secondary students make connection between the Arts subjects and LS. For example, students can choose the following topics related to the arts for the Independent Enquiry Studies (IES) in LS:
Impact of K-pop on the values and attitudes of secondary students in Hong Kong
Relationship between teenagers’ consumption behaviour and local popular music industry
Effects of fast fashion on the economy, culture and environment of Hong Kong
Refer to the Liberal Studies Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) (with updates in November 2015) for more information on the IES.
3.4 Time Allocation
Students are entitled to arts education at all levels. Allocation of sufficient arts learning time at different key stages is a basis for a balanced school curriculum contributing to students’ whole-person development.
A summary of the suggested allocation of lesson time as stated in Chapter 2 of the BECG and Booklet 2 of the SECG is provided below:
At the primary level, schools should allocate 10% to 15% and of the total lesson time to Music, Visual Arts and other art forms.
At the junior secondary level, schools should allocate 8% to 10% of the total lesson time to Music, Visual Arts and other art forms.
At the senior secondary level, each of the Arts elective subjects accounts for 10% of the total lesson time.
Schools are reminded that 19% and 8% of the total lesson time is reserved for schools’ flexible use at the primary and junior secondary levels respectively.
Flexibility is provided for schools to deploy the flexible time to conduct cross- curricular activities such as aesthetic and physical activities. Schools should make good use of the flexible time to enrich students’ arts learning experiences.
In senior secondary education, every student should be engaged in OLE. A flexible range of 10% to 15% the total lesson time is set aside for OLE that includes Aesthetic Development. Refer to Appendix VI for examples of the planning and implementation of Aesthetic Development.
In addition, schools should effectively utilise learning time apart from the Arts lessons for maximising students’ arts learning opportunities.
Learning and Teaching
Chapter 4 Learning and Teaching
4.1 Guiding Principles
While employing learning and teaching approaches and strategies for the Arts Education curriculum, teachers should observe the following principles.
Set clear and manageable learning objectives in accordance with the curriculum requirements and design relevant learning activities to help students achieve the four Learning Targets of the Arts Education curriculum.
Adopt a variety of approaches and strategies flexibly to suit different learning contexts and meet students’ diverse learning needs.
Guide students to appreciate, create and perform the arts in an integrative manner and engage students in authentic arts experience.
Use a wide range of learning and teaching materials to suit various purposes and students’ needs. Pre-packaged art material kits, which limit students’
creativity, should not be used in Visual Arts.
Sustain students’ motivation and interest in learning the arts through a wide range of learning and teaching activities.
Help students learn how to learn and develop their capabilities for self- directed learning.
Engage students in interactive learning for sharing of views, ideas and learning experiences with teachers and among peers.
4.2 Roles of Teachers
Arts teachers need to perform multiple roles in motivating, facilitating and enabling learning of the arts in varied contexts. Below is a table showing the different roles of Arts teachers.
Roles of Teachers Examples of Action
Facilitators and resource persons
Design themes to inspire imagination
Provide sources of information
Raise thought-provoking questions to stimulate ideas
Assign reading materials to facilitate self-study
Recommend exhibitions or performances for LWL
Provide guidance on self-reflection
Deliver arts knowledge
Demonstrate instrumental skills
Explain safety measures for handling tools and materials
Discuss arts issues with students
Explore the solution to a design problem with students
Set up a learning community involving students
Design assessment criteria
Provide quality feedback during the learning process
Give grades and comments on arts learning outcomes Role models Exhibit passion in the arts
Participate in performing or creating the arts
4.3 Approaches and Strategies
Adoption of suitable pedagogical approaches and effective use of learning and teaching strategies are necessary for successful implementation of the Arts Education curriculum. No single approach or strategy can accommodate all situations and address the needs of all students. Teachers have to develop good understanding of different pedagogical approaches and a repertoire of strategies to provide meaningful and engaging learning experiences. Arts teachers may adopt the following approaches and strategies in combinations according to different contexts.
(i) Direct Instruction
Direct instruction refers to explicit teaching of knowledge and skills of the Arts subjects. These include introducing contextual information about the arts, explaining work procedures and safety precautions for art making, and demonstrating instrumental skills. To maximise learning and teaching effectiveness, teachers should deliver the learning content systematically with effective methods of presentation, such as using audio-visual aids, and adjusting the pace and intonation in speech.
(ii) Experiential Learning
Experiential learning emphasises learning by doing, which is especially significant for the learning of the arts. Students gain first-hand experience through appreciating, creating and performing the arts for knowledge construction and skills development.
Examples include listening to music, singing a song, creating a music piece, viewing a piece of artwork, experimenting with art media, materialising a design idea, writing a script and playing roles.
Experiential learning should be well structured, with clear instructions and work procedures provided. Teachers should provide timely feedback and allow sufficient time for trial and error.
Examples of Experiential Learning
Students experiment different ways of producing sound effects with percussion instruments, and apply the newly explored sound effects in music composition.
Students view sculptures in a park from different angles, and feel their surface textures, materials and mass, and their relationship with the environment.
(iii) Enquiry Learning
Enquiry learning promotes active learning based on students’ interest and pace of learning. Throughout the process, students identify the problems and issues, set the questions, formulate and test hypotheses, plan the investigation procedures, search for and analyse data, make decisions and judgements, and draw conclusions, thus helping them develop higher order thinking and metacognitive skills. Students will engage in deep learning through connecting prior and new knowledge, as well as different areas of learning for solving real-life problems. Teachers play an important role in facilitating enquiry learning. They should provide guidance and pay attention to when, how and to what extent the support should be provided to students.
Example of Enquiry Learning
In exploring the theme of Yin-yang (陰陽), students can work individually or in groups to pursue their areas of interest. They may identify a focus for their enquiry, such as the meanings of Yin-yang in traditional Chinese culture, as well as the relationship between Chinese arts and Yin-yang. They may also explore the artistic representation of Yin-yang as an inspiration for their own works.
Co-construction of knowledge helps students learn the arts as they work collaboratively with teachers, peers, artists or other members of the community.
Through discussion, sharing of resources and exchange of views from different parties, new ideas or knowledge may emerge.
Reflection and Action
In what context would you adopt direct instruction?
Which approach would you use for the learning and teaching of arts appreciation?
Which approach is more suitable for stimulating students’ creativity in the arts?
How would you enhance the effectiveness of learning a particular topic by adopting the co-construction approach?
Demonstration enables students to observe skills or procedures directly for their understanding of techniques, ways of expression and abstract concepts. For example, through playing a musical instrument or handling a tool properly by teachers, students perceive the key of grasping the relevant skills and learn to pay attention to details. Teachers can also arrange live performances and master classes, or invite artists to conduct practical art workshops so that students have authentic aesthetic experience and direct contact with professional artists. In addition, video- recorded and online demonstrations and performances may be used.
(ii) Interactive Learning
Interactive learning can take place in class or in groups, and in different forms such as dialogue, discussion, ensemble and debate. Through student-teacher or student- student interactions, students discuss and explore concepts and share views and resources for developing new ideas and broadening their scope of knowledge and experience.
Effective questioning techniques can help students recall memories, inspire imaginations and interpretations for creating, appreciating and performing the arts.
To facilitate interactive learning, an encouraging environment is important for students to express personal views with confidence.
(iii) Integrative Learning in the Arts
Integrative learning in the arts is a learning and teaching strategy, rather than a curriculum in its own right. Students’ knowledge of one art form can enhance their understanding of other art forms. This strategy helps students gain a holistic understanding of and deeper insights into the arts.
Collaboration among different Arts subjects is essential. Teachers can participate in