Secondary Education Curriculum Guide Booklet 9 Career and Life Planning – Multiple Pathways for All Students to Excel

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Secondary Education Curriculum Guide

Booklet 9

Career and Life Planning – Multiple Pathways for All Students to Excel

Prepared by

The Curriculum Development Council Recommended for use in schools by the Education Bureau




Booklet 9 Career and Life Planning – Multiple Pathways for All Students to Excel

This is one of the 11 booklets in the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide. Its contents are as follows:

Contents of Booklet 9

9.1 Background

9.2 Purposes of the Booklet

9.3 Career and Life Planning in the Secondary Curriculum under Multiple Pathways

9.4 Self-planning of Students at Different Stages

9.5 Fostering Connections between Secondary Curriculum Components ………..….

9.6 Guidance and Learning Activities/Programmes for Career and Life Planning

Appendix Suggested Student Guidance and Learning Activities on Further Study and Future Careers


1 2

3 6



21 22

9.1 Background

 In the past few decades, Hong Kong has been witnessing diversity and robust growth in different industries. To maintain Hong Kong’s high ranks in global competitiveness and to cope with the challenges of the ever-changing world demands, it is crucial for our students to be well equipped with lifelong learning capabilities.

 The New Academic Structure (NAS) has been implemented since 2009, and all students are now provided with six years of free secondary school education. Based on the experience in guiding students to plan



for their future under the three-year junior and three-year senior secondary curriculum, more frontline teachers and educators realise the importance of career and life planning in which students plan their life holistically in major domains such as work, learning, relationships and leisure during their secondary years.

 All secondary students are now provided with multiple pathways for further studies or future careers. More alternatives and possibilities are available to suit their multiple intelligences, abilities and aspirations.

Greater resources have been allocated to provide secondary school leavers with more opportunities for higher education and to strengthen vocational and professional education and training (VPET).

 All these lead to the growing importance of incorporating career and life planning into the whole school curriculum, so that students can acquire the adequate knowledge, skills and attitudes for making informed decision along their learning journey and managing transitions from different stages to the workplace.

9.2 Purposes of the Booklet

 To illustrate the connection between students’ learning experiences and career and life planning under multiple pathways

 To highlight important issues regarding planning on career-related experiences and introduce good practices in schools



9.3 Career and Life Planning in the Secondary Curriculum under Multiple Pathways

 The Government is committed to providing secondary school leavers with quality, flexible and diversified pathways alongside multiple entry and exit points. Multiple routes leading smoothly to further studies and the workplace are available so that every student has the opportunity to succeed in life. Please refer to Figure 9.1 below for details.

Figure 9.1 Multiple Pathways towards Lifelong Learning

*A range of vocational and professional education and training (VPET) programmes and other education programmes are available for secondary school leavers at different stages. This allows student to devise their own pathways according to their abilities and aspirations. Details regarding the study oaths for Secondary 3 to 5 school leavers and Secondary 6 graduates are available at the following EDB webpage:



 Schools should provide “a totality of experiences” for students to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes about self and work, as well as to start and manage their career and life planning. As mentioned in Booklet 7 Experiential Learning: Life-wide Learning, students are given opportunities to learn from various career-related experiences for whole-person development. Teachers’ proper guidance should be involved to make these experiences not only novelties for students but also good influence on their career and life planning.

 A paradigm shift on guiding students to search and explore a path which suits their individual aptitudes, abilities and interests could be promoted. With the gaining popularity and recognition of VPET programmes in Hong Kong, teachers

should be equipped with sufficient knowledge of VPET, among other articulation and career options, in providing life planning education and career guidance to students. The key to success in life planning will

depend on a lifelong commitment to learning as well as the capability to plan and cope with transitions and changes.

Vocational and Professional Education and Training (VPET)

 VPET covers programmes up to degree level with a high proportion of curriculum consisting of specialised contents in vocational skills or professional knowledge.

 Students can excel themselves through pursuing VPET programmes at various entry points including post-Secondary 3, 4, 5 or 6, and acquire recognised qualifications for enhanced employability and lifelong learning.

 In the 2016 Policy Address, the Government has accepted all the recommendations of the Task Force on Promotion of Vocational Education and will actively consider how to implement them.

For details of the Report, please visit: _reports/reports/docs/Report_of_the_Task_Force_on_Promotio n_of_Vocational_Education.pdf

All roads lead to Rome.

Entering the university is not the only way to succeed.



Key principles of career guidance in the secondary curriculum

 Together with the provision of a broad and balanced curriculum and sufficient choices (including Applied Learning (ApL) courses) for students, teachers should note the following key principles of career guidance.

˗ The emphasis of career guidance should be placed on empowering students to make informed and responsible choices on their learning and career goals. Students should be encouraged to make their career decisions in accordance with their interests, abilities and orientations (including academic, professional and vocational ones), apart from examining external factors

such as career prospects, subject choices available, constraints and opportunities.

˗ Career guidance is for all students, irrespective of their abilities, orientations and levels of study. It should start early at the junior secondary level and progressively

develop students’

understanding of themselves in the context of whole-person development. Learning tools could be used to help students cultivate reflective habits of mind as well as flexible attitude towards the future.

˗ Individual student planning

could be promoted to encourage career and life goal setting and reflection. In self-planning, students should have the opportunity to develop different life skills (e.g. self-management and time management) which are essential to lifelong learning.

First, we need to pay much more attention to providing all students with systematic information and advice about the broad spectrum of careers

and the education and training requirements associated with them. This should begin no later than middle school and should

include opportunities for exposure to a wide variety of

workplaces and the adults who work in them.

(Robert Schwartz, 2014)



˗ Making good use of community resources and building up partnerships with relevant parties such as parents, past students, local and overseas institutions, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and employers of businesses and industrial sectors is essential to planning appropriate career guidance activities for students.

9.4 Self-planning of Students at Different Stages

 To inspire students with a sense of ownership about the future and valuing career and life planning as important throughout different life stages, appropriate career interventions could be arranged in a systematic way to enhance students’ motivation in understanding their own interests, strengths and aspirations, as well as to develop their various abilities and skills for further career exploration and planning while attending secondary schools.

Guide on Life Planning Education and Career Guidance for Secondary Schools 1st Edition (2014)

Schools could make reference to the Guide on Life Planning Education and Career Guidance for Secondary Schools (the Guide) issued by the EDB for the vision and principles of life planning education and career guidance as well as practical strategies in planning and implementing life planning education and career guidance service for all students in a more co-ordinated and systematic manner.

The Guide is available at: ing/.pdf/about-careers-guidance/CLP-Guide_E_r3.pdf



Guiding students to make subject choices in the senior secondary curriculum

 Under the NAS, students at the senior secondary level are no longer divided into science, commerce and arts streams. The broad and balanced senior secondary curriculum provides a diversified range of elective subjects to cater for students’ different learning needs and interests. Students are encouraged to decide on their combination of elective subjects in accordance with their interests, potential, orientations and abilities.

 Students should have the opportunities to learn about the elective subjects, including ApL and Other Languages, which are available in their schools before making their subject choices in Secondary 4.

Activities such as collecting information on the content coverage of different subjects and reviewing case studies of former students could be organised for students as well as parents to enhance their understanding and empower students to make informed decisions.

 Students are encouraged to take more electives at Secondary 4 to explore their interests and widen their scope of choices for further studies and employment. They are allowed to drop the elective(s) at Secondary 5 or Secondary 6. If they have an interest in pursuing education in professional and vocational contexts, they might consider taking ApL courses as elective subjects to meet their learning needs.

 ApL courses complement other senior secondary subjects and help students to explore their career aspirations and orientations for lifelong learning according to their interests, aptitudes and abilities. Before making informed choices of ApL courses as part of the senior secondary studies, students are encouraged to participate in ApL taster programmes to understand the complementary and supplementary nature of ApL.

 A flexible combination of ApL and other elective subjects helps to provide theoretical and applied learning opportunities for holistic learning. For instance, students taking the ApL course in health care could understand more about the clinical application of basic principles and concepts of health and diseases, and human physiology in Biology; students taking the ApL course in aviation could understand more about electricity and magnetism covered in Physics;



and students taking the ApL course in design studies could broaden their horizons in the studies of Economics and Geography.

 Besides taking the mainstream Chinese Language examination in the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE), Non-Chinese Speaking (NCS) students at the senior secondary level may opt for Applied Learning Chinese (for NCS students) to obtain an alternative recognised qualification to enhance their further studies and career pursuits in future.

Reflective Questions

 Would you encourage all your students, including the more able ones, to study only two elective subjects? Why? Why not?

 What is your response to parents who claim that their children, regardless of their ability, are entitled to studying three elective subjects?

Should all students be encouraged to take one of the extended modules in Mathematics (M1 or M2)? Why? Why not?



Two Resource Packages to support students in career development The Education Bureau has worked in collaboration with the Hong Kong Association of Career Masters and Guidance Masters (HKACMGM) and developed the following two resource packages for secondary schools to support students in career development with diverse strategies.

(1) “Finding Your Colours of Life: SS Subject Choices and the Development of Career Aspirations” helps junior

secondary students make informed decisions about their study choices in the senior secondary curriculum through their understanding of “self”

(both strengths and constraints) and the school context (e.g. subject choices offered and career opportunities). It aims to develop reflective habits of mind by encouraging goal setting and reviewing of goals for further adjustment in the planning loop as illustrated in Figure 9.2.

Figure 9.2 Guiding Junior Secondary Students in Making Senior Secondary Study Choices



(2) “Career Mapping: Career Development Tool for Senior Secondary Students” is designed to help senior secondary students map out the multiple learning pathways under the NAS after completing Secondary 3 and to introduce various elective subjects in the senior secondary curriculum. It also introduces strategies that facilitate students’ understanding of their own academic interests, abilities and career goals.

Guiding students to make future planning after secondary schooling

 Teachers should convey to students the latest information about the multiple pathways and programme options at the completion of secondary schooling. Students are encouraged to take charge of their own career plans with adequate support from schools. They should develop the skills to make use of a range of information sources (e.g.

university admission criteria, post-secondary programmes and job search materials) through different channels (e.g. visits, info days, seminars and relevant websites) and devise practical plans to equip themselves in facing the upcoming challenges, either of pursuing further studies or employment, upon completion of their secondary school education. (For more information about the multiple pathways, please refer to the hyperlinks on the reference list at the end of this booklet.)

 In the fast changing world, students should also be aware of the impact of local and global trends (e.g. technological, economic and social) on the opportunities available to them. Having developed a habit of self- reflection, students can review and update their life plans from time to time, and become independent life planners.



Useful websites - NAS Web Bulletin and e-Navigator

 The NAS Web Bulletin ( is regularly updated to provide the latest information related to curriculum and assessment, learning and teaching resources, school curriculum planning and multiple pathways. Designated Corners have also been set up to provide information for different stakeholder groups including parents, students and teachers.

In order to assist students to easily access programme information from local institutions based on their interests, the website “e-Navigator:

Multiple Pathways under the New Academic Structure”

( has been jointly developed by the EDB and the HKACMGM and launched since February 2012. Students could search for programme information across different local institutions and levels (e.g. degrees, higher diplomas and associate degrees) and get access to other programmes from the Qualifications Register. Programme details are based on existing publicised information from respective official websites. Hyperlinks to various official webpages are created for users who wish to find out more details of individual programmes.



Helping students to know more about the Qualifications Framework

 The Qualifications Framework (QF) in Hong Kong is a seven-level hierarchy covering qualifications in the academic, vocational and professional as well as continuing education sectors. The QF could be introduced to give secondary students a clear understanding on their articulation ladder and help them make informed choices on career planning.

 To allow students to learn more about different industries in Hong Kong, career-related activities could also be designed to introduce the Specification of Competency Standards (SCSs). These SCSs set out the skills, knowledge and competency standards required of the practitioners to perform various job functions in industries effectively.

 Qualifications Register (QR) is a centralised online database containing information on quality assured qualifications and their operators and assessment agencies for Recognition of Prior Learning. All qualifications listed on the QR are quality-assured and recognised under the Qualifications Framework. Students should be reminded of checking the registration and qualifications of the programme before making decision.

 For more information, please visit the following websites:

- Qualifications Framework - List of Specification of Competency Standards - Qualifications Register

Reflective Questions

 How do you know that your strategies in career guidance are effective and appropriate to your students?

 How can you convince students or parents that entering the university is not the only way to success?



9.5 Fostering Connections between Secondary Curriculum Components

 To equip students with the relevant career knowledge and skills, teachers should tailor career-related experiences, which are planned classroom and experiential learning activities, under Life-wide Learning (LWL) or Other Learning Experiences (OLE) according to the school context.

 Teachers should also note that students’ studies in individual KLAs and across KLAs could contribute to their life planning to a great extent, including nurturing their generic skills and values, and connecting some subject-specific learning experiences to their career management skills in carrying out career planning. For example, when junior secondary students learn about decision making in business operations under the Technology Education KLA curriculum, they are led to reflect on their career planning and realise that making subject choices or career decisions would involve careful considerations from different perspectives. Senior secondary students may learn about some work-related topics under different themes in the English Language curriculum, so that they are given ample opportunities to explore the world of work. Teachers could seize chances to design reflective tasks for students’ career development in relevant subject learning activities (e.g. visiting a hotel or an enterprise and running small business in the school annual fair). Career prospects of different subject-related professions could also be introduced and discussed with students from time to time.

 Teachers are encouraged to infuse relevant career-related elements where appropriate into the curriculum design at subject level. Playing a pivotal role in supporting subject teachers and class teachers in this regard, career guidance teachers could take the initiative to facilitate co-ordination of these career-related elements within the same level and across different levels. Impartial and relevant career information should be channelled to school leaders for more comprehensive curriculum planning, including deciding the subject/module choices offered to students as it would have an impact on students’ future career options and pathways.



 Some students may think that they only need to strive for academic excellence for the benefit of pursuing further studies. All students should be reminded of the importance of the LWL or OLE in their whole-person development.

 During the course of self-understanding and exploration, students should be well-supported by career guidance services, ranging from information advisory services to group/individual counselling. It should not be viewed as a totally separate entity but should be connected flexibly with other components in the secondary curriculum. Individual needs in transition should be substantially catered for to assist students in their search and confirmation of pathway choices and career aspirations. As individual planning is a crucial element in career guidance or intervention, senior secondary students can make good use of the SLP as a tool to facilitate their connection of the learning experiences acquired and self-reflection in their career and life planning (see Figure 9.3).

 Collaboration and co-ordination among committees and teachers should be elicited to maximise synergy across functions, and to avoid overlapping and repetitions of goals. Professional sharing sessions could be arranged to bring in new ideas and stimulations in designing appropriate learning activities for students.

Student Learning Profile (SLP)

Teachers could utilise SLP as a reflective tool for students’

development and help them identify their career development needs, set life goals, develop and review their own plans in the process of completing their SLPs.

(Please refer to Section 7.5 of the SECG Booklet 7 for more details on the reflective use of SLP.)



Figure 9.3 Flexible Connection of Curriculum Components and Career Guidance Services

Example 1: Reviewing and Refining the Existing Practice to Enhance Synergy

In planning for the whole-school life planning education, School A first invites all subject panel chairpersons to review the teaching topics, contents and activities in their subjects and group the items related to

“personal development” and “career exploration” at each level in a main chart. Examples include the themes in Liberal Studies and the visits arranged in Tourism and Hospitality Studies. Based on the information collected, the teacher-in-charge for life planning education drafts the teaching focuses at each level and seeks collaboration among subject teachers to discuss and arrange the curriculum content and teaching sequences.

9.6 Guidance and Learning Activities/Programmes for Career and Life Planning

Teachers should encourage students to start their career and life planning earlier and ensure sufficient information and guidance is available to students in making informed choices. To familiarise students with the career options and facilitate their career and life planning, the following strategies might be adopted.



 Developing a school-based strategy with a comprehensive career guidance programme to enhance students’ self-understanding in their career development

 Discussing with students their career and learning goals during the preparation of their own SLPs for self-reflection

 Gathering up-to-date information for the reference of students and parents, including information to debunk myths related to further studies and future careers (e.g. personal interest is in fact more important than prospects of a professional field)

 Encouraging more participation from parents, past students and outside organisations in guidance activities for career and life planning

 Inviting guest speakers, parents and past students of different backgrounds to share their experiences with the students

 Participating in career exploration activities provided by the Business- School Partnership Programme

 Exploring community resources by soliciting the support from the business and industrial sectors and various organisations in arranging career exploration activities for the students such as talks, workplace visits and work experience programmes

 Organising tailor-made activities for parents to equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills in supporting their children in career and life planning

Business-School Partnership Programme

The aim of the Business-School Partnership Programme (BSPP) of the EDB is to promote better co-operation and closer alliances between the business sector and schools. Through this learning platform, students learn about different careers, understand the requirements of employers, enhance generic skills, develop positive work values and attitudes, which enable them to adapt to economic and social changes and ultimately achieve the goal of whole-person development. A variety of career- related activities/programmes such as talks, small group learning, workshops, workplace visits, mentoring programmes, job shadowing programmes and work experience opportunities are organised for students every year. For details, please visit:




 Please also refer to the Appendix for a diagram presenting some suggested guidance and learning activities on further study and future careers.

 The following students’ sharing and examples are real school cases for reference only. Individual schools should exercise discretion in designing their own school-based guidance activities/programmes according to their school contexts.

Students’ sharing on their participation in life planning education activities

Student A

“The support from my parents and school is very important to me in planning for the future. Many institutions were invited to my school to introduce their programmes to all S4 and S5 students. My class teachers and career guidance teachers discussed with me and also gave advice to my parents about my options for further studies on the parents’ day.

They have provided to me sufficient support in exploring my future pathways.”

Student B

“My school and the alumni association have organised a mentor scheme for interested S4 and S5 students. Under the scheme, the mentors from different industries introduce their jobs and share their working experiences to the mentees assigned to them. Some mentors might even take the mentees to their own workplace and arrange related visits to familiarise the mentees with the daily operation of their business and working life. As mentees, we have to take the initiative to make appointments with the mentors for consultation, and draft our curriculum vitae and career plan for comments. This scheme has provided us with very fruitful learning experiences and helped connect us to the world of work.”



Student C

“I like the ‘Careers Expo’ organised by my school. In the Expo, guests from a wide variety of industries were stationed in different classrooms to introduce their jobs and talk with us. Many of the guests were past students or members of the Incorporated Management Committee. We could choose to join the sharing held in different classrooms according to our interests and learn more about the details and expectations of specific jobs.”

Example 2: Making Good Use of Data to Enhance Students’

Awareness of the Multiple Pathways and to Facilitate their Articulation and Choices of Pathways

School B values the importance of helping students make informed choices on multiple pathways. It is found that making good use of students’ data is beneficial for the school to arrange suitable career activities for students. Parents and peers are involved deliberately as it is believed that they could influence students’ growth positively.

Below are some strategies adopted by the school.

1. Parent Education

 S3 students

 The school held the “Subject Selection Info Day” for parents of S3 students after the first term examination. In the morning, parents and students were briefed on the subject content and choices available in the senior secondary levels. In the afternoon, the class teachers reported students’ academic performances and strengths like their band positions in the whole level to parents. By linking the information received in the morning with students’ actual academic performances, it is easier for parents to set realistic expectations on their children and to make sensible choices.



 S5 students

 A survey for S5 students on the programmes or jobs they wish to pursue upon graduation was conducted in the first term. Using the data collected, the school organised different activities to introduce the multiple pathways that could meet their needs and aspirations:

- The school recommended VPET programmes to the less academically-inclined students and encouraged them to start exploring different pathways for their future. In this connection, the school contacted the institutions offering related programmes to arrange a “half-day visit” and a “half-day taster lesson” tailor- made for the parents and students respectively. A debriefing and follow-up discussion was held after the visit to solicit views and provide suggestions.

- Apart from this, the school arranged career talks on various industries to help students and parents understand the requirements and prospects of different professions of their interests.

- Past students who had taken different paths, such as studying and working in the Mainland, were invited to share their experiences to allow parents and students to have a deeper understanding about the respective pathways and career prospects in the Mainland.

2. Peer Support

 S6 students

 Several 20-minute “career sessions” were arranged for S6 students in the morning throughout the school term. Students were divided into groups of 4-5 according to their academic results and interests.

A subject teacher was assigned to each group as the facilitator. In the sessions, students shared and discussed their programme preferences in the JUPAS. As the academic performance and subject interests of students in each group were similar, the sharing of programme selection strategies and considerations were of greater relevance to their needs. Teachers could also give advice more easily through group counselling.



Example 3: Making Good Use of Connection with Past Students to Provide Support in Programme Selection

School C collected individual returns from S5 students about the programmes or jobs they intended to pursue in the first term. With the information collected, past students with relevant experiences were invited to share their programme selection strategies as well as job requirements and prospects with current students in small groups. The group discussion greatly helped students make decisions as they were grouped according to their programme preferences and the past students could share the most updated information and their experiences with them. On the HKDSE Examination Result Release Day, the past students were also invited to give advice and counselling support to S6 students for modifying their JUPAS programme choices if necessary.



Appendix Suggested Student Guidance and Learning Activities

on Further Study and Future Careers



Bibliography Publications

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Curriculum Development Council. (2014). Basic education curriculum guide - To sustain, deepen and focus on learning to learn (Primary 1-6).

Hong Kong: Author.

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Education Bureau. (2014). Guide on life planning education and career guidance for secondary schools (1st ed.). Hong Kong: Author. Retrieved from ng/.pdf/about-careers-guidance/CLP-Guide_E_r3.pdf

Foskett, N., & Hemsley-Brown, J. (2001). Choosing futures: Young people’s decision-making in education, training and careers markets.

London, UK: Routledge Falmer.

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Support for youth. Retrieved from

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Vocational and post-secondary education. Retrieved from

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(2016). Career mapping, career development tools for senior secondary students. Hong Kong: Author.

The Hong Kong Association of Careers Masters and Guidance Masters.

(2015). Finding your colours of life: NSS subject choices and the development of career aspirations (5th ed.). Hong Kong: Author.



Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs. (2010). The Australian blueprint for career development.

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participation. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from

Schwartz, R (2014). Multiple pathways can better serve students.

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Symonds, W. C., Schwartz, R., & Ferguson, R. F. (2011). Pathways to prosperity: Meeting the challenge of preparing young Americans for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: Pathways to Prosperity Project, Harvard University Graduate School of Education.

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梁湘明、黃美微、李淑賢、林建榮(2002)。生涯規劃:青少年的 事業 發展與輔導,青年研究學報,第 5 卷第 2 期,頁 38–49。




Career Guidance and Tools

The Academic Programme Preference Inventory (APPI) developed by the Centre for Research in Distance & Adult Learning of The Open

University of Hong Kong and the Hok Yau Club

The Career Key

EDB CDI Career-related Experiences

EDB Life planning:


The Hong Kong Association of Careers Masters and Guidance Masters website

Main page:


Multiple Pathways: Employment Employees Retraining Board

Entry Requirements for Civil Service Appointment under the New Academic Structure

The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups - Youth Employment Network



Labour Department - Youth Employment Services

Labour Department Interactive Employment Service

Further Studies

Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority - Recognition of HKDSE

Joint University Programmes Admission System (JUPAS)

Scheme for Admission of Hong Kong Students to Mainland Higher Education Institutions scheme/index.html

Study Subsidy Scheme for Designated Professions/Sectors (SSSDP)

University Entrance Committee for Overseas Chinese Students, Taiwan

Non-local Courses in HK

EDB Non-local Higher and Professional Education Courses professional-edu/index.html

Non-JUPAS Institutions and Other Degree/Sub-degree Programmes Concourse for Self-financing Post-secondary Education



Diploma Yi Jin

Electronic Advance Application System for Post-secondary Programmes (E-APP)

Information Portal for Accredited Post-secondary Programmes (iPASS)

Other Education and Training Programmes Clothing Industry Training Authority

Construction Industry Council

Employees Retraining Board- Youth Training Courses es_young_people/en

Labour Department- Youth Employment and Training Progamme (YETP)

Labour Department- Youth Employment Start (Y.E.S.)

Vocational Training Council






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