Structure of the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide 3
List of Abbreviations 4
Membership of the Curriculum Development Council 18 Membership of the Ad Hoc Committee on Secondary Education
Curriculum Guide 20
The Secondary Education Curriculum Guide (SECG) is prepared by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) to advise secondary schools on how to sustain the Learning to Learn curriculum reform efforts which have yielded notable results in the last decade or so, and to focus on areas essential for further improving students’ learning to learn capabilities for whole-person development.
The SECG supersedes the Basic Education Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 3) and the Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) issued in 2002 and 2009 respectively. For details of the curriculum and assessment of the senior secondary subjects, the Curriculum and Assessment (C&A) Guides which were jointly prepared by the CDC and Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA) could be referred to.
The SECG, which serves to inform key stakeholders of the latest development of the ongoing curriculum development and updating, to provide guidelines for schools to advance their curriculum development according to the central curriculum, and to give insights into curriculum planning, is prepared especially for school leaders and teachers who are responsible for setting the directions for curriculum development and actively involved in curriculum implementation.
School heads are strongly advised to encourage their teachers to read the SECG. Under the notion of “distributed leadership”, every teacher has the right and responsibility to play a role in the ongoing curriculum development and updating.
Professional development opportunities related to the implementation of the SECG will be continuously provided to support schools and teachers, and updated information will be provided on the EDB website (www.edb.gov.hk/renewal). Feedback, suggestions and enquiries on the SECG are welcome and may be sent to:
Curriculum Development Council Secretariat 13/F, Wu Chung House
213 Queen's Road East, Wanchai Hong Kong
E-mail address: email@example.com Fax: (852) 2573 5299
Remarks: This Guide has been translated into Chinese. If there is any inconsistency or ambiguity between the English version and the Chinese version, the English version shall prevail.
Structure of the Secondary Education Curriculum Guide
Part I Ongoing Curriculum Renewal – Focusing, Deepening and Sustaining
Booklet 1 Ongoing Renewal of the School Curriculum
Part II Curriculum Planning, Pedagogy and Assessment Cycle Booklet 2 Learning Goals, School Curriculum Framework and Planning Booklet 3 Effective Learning and Teaching: Developing Lifelong and Self-
Booklet 4 Assessment Literacy and School Assessment Policy Booklet 5 Embracing Learner Diversity
Booklet 6 Booklet 6A Booklet 6B Booklet 6C
Four Key Tasks: Towards Major Renewed Emphases Moral and Civic Education: Towards Values Education Reading to Learn: Towards Reading across the Curriculum Project Learning: Towards Integrating and Applying Knowledge and Skills across Disciplines
Information Technology for Interactive Learning: Towards Self- directed Learning
Booklet 7 Life-wide Learning and Experiential Learning Part III Smooth Transition
Booklet 8 Interfaces between Key Stages 2 and 3 and Key Stages 3 and 4 Booklet 9 Career and Life Planning – Multiple Pathways for All Students to
Part IV Enabling Environments
Booklet 10 Quality Learning and Teaching Resources
Booklet 11 Professional Development and Schools as Learning Organisations
List of Abbreviations
AE Arts Education
ApL Applied Learning
C&A Curriculum and Assessment CDC Curriculum Development Council CDI Curriculum Development Institute CLE Chinese Language Education CLP Career and Life Planning CoP Communities of Practice CRE Career-related Experiences
EC Education Commission
EDB Education Bureau
ELE English Language Education
HKAGE Hong Kong Academy for Gifted Education HKDSE Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education
HKEAA Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority HKECL Hong Kong Education City Limited
ICT Information and Communication Technology IEP Individualised Education Programme
IES Independent Enquiry Study
IMC Incorporated Management Committee IT Information Technology
IVE Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education
JS Junior Secondary
KLA Key Learning Area
LaC Language across the Curriculum L&T Learning and Teaching
LS Liberal Studies LWL Life-wide Learning
MCE Moral and Civic Education ME Mathematics Education MI Multiple Intelligences
MRE Major Renewed Emphases
NGO Non-government Organisation OLE Other Learning Experiences PD Physical Disability
PE Physical Education
PSHE Personal, Social and Humanities Education RaC Reading across the Curriculum
REO Regional Education Offices S1/2/3/4/5/6 Secondary 1/2/3/4/5/6 SBA School-based Assessment SBSS School-based Support Services
SECG Secondary Education Curriculum Guide SEN Special Educational Needs
SE Science Education SLP Student Learning Profile
SMC School Management Committee SOP Student Option Programme SRR Standards-referenced Reporting SS Senior Secondary
SSB School Sponsoring Body
STEM Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics UGC University Grants Committee
TE Technology Education
VPET Vocational and Professional Education and Training VTC Vocational Training Council
WebSAMS Web School Administration & Management System
Applied Learning (ApL)
ApL is an integral part of the senior secondary curriculum.
Students at all ability levels could take ApL courses as elective subjects. The design principles of ApL courses are the same as those of other school subjects, focusing on the development of knowledge, generic skills, values and attitudes. Through application and practice, ApL aims to provide learning experiences in professional and vocational contexts for students to understand fundamental theories and concepts, develop beginners’ skill set and generic skills, and explore career aspirations and orientation for lifelong learning. A flexible combination of ApL courses with core subjects, elective subjects and Other Learning Experiences broadens students’ learning experience and enhances diversification within the senior secondary curriculum for holistic learning.
Assessment It refers to actions taken to obtain information about student learning. It is closely connected with learning and teaching.
Assessment involves collecting evidence about student learning, interpreting information and making judgements about students’ performance. Depending on its objectives, assessment can function as assessment of/for/as learning to achieve different educational purposes.
Assessment of Learning
It refers to the assessment designed to provide evidence for making judgements on student achievement against learning targets, objectives or standards at a certain point of time. It is often summative in nature and results in a grade or
Assessment for Learning
It is a formative and diagnostic kind of assessment where teachers collect ongoing information about students’ learning progress, provide timely and quality feedback and adjust their teaching strategies for improving student learning.
Assessment as Learning
It refers to students’ use of learning tasks and feedback to enhance their own learning. During the process,
metacognition is involved as students actively develop an
understanding of their learning, critically assess their learning effectiveness, adjust learning strategies, plan for follow-up actions, and set future learning goals. When implementing assessment as learning, feedback from teachers or self- and peer assessments helps students reflect on their own learning and identify their strengths and areas for improvement.
Assessment Literacy It refers to the knowledge and skills that teachers possess for designing or selecting appropriate assessment tasks to achieve assessment purposes, and for making optimal use of assessment data and information to adjust teaching strategies for improving student learning.
Biliterate and Trilingual
The Government’s language policy is for our students to be biliterate (i.e. master written Chinese and English) and trilingual (i.e. speak fluent Cantonese, Putonghua and English).
In the context of Applied Learning (ApL), career-related competencies refer to the knowledge, skills and workplace requirements within a vocational field; and knowledge and skills specific to an ApL course.
Career-related competencies can be developed through understanding the context of a course within the wider area of studies; understanding and interpreting workplace requirements through practising the basic skills in an
authentic or near authentic environment; and developing and applying conceptual, practical and reflective skills to
demonstrate entrepreneurship and innovation.
Central Curriculum The central curriculum recommended by the Curriculum Development Council for schools includes the overall aims of the school curriculum, seven learning goals, five essential learning experiences, and the curriculum frameworks
comprising the eight KLAs, Liberal Studies (S4-6), Applied Learning (S4-6), etc. Other components include suggested lesson time allocated to each KLA and the specific
requirements of individual KLAs.
Co-construction The approach of “learning and teaching as co-construction”
is different from direct instruction and enquiry learning. Co- construction emphasises the learning community formed by
both teachers and students in the learning process and the joint participation of both parties. This process contributes to the general building up of knowledge.
Coherent Curriculum It refers to a purpose-built and well-organised school curriculum ensuring vertical continuity across levels and lateral coherence across different KLAs, subjects and/or curriculum areas in learning, teaching and assessment. A coherent curriculum helps eliminate unnecessary repetitions, identify gaps for improvement and synergise efforts in enhancing student learning.
Community of Practice
A community of practice refers to a group of practitioners who come together to share common concerns, problems, interests and knowledge with the aim of enhancing professional capacity through an ongoing collaborative learning process.
A curriculum framework provides a structure which helps schools flexibly plan and develop their own curricula based on the central curriculum to meet the varied needs of
students. The major components of a curriculum framework are knowledge and concepts, generic skills, and values and attitudes relevant to each KLA. The framework sets out what students should learn and develop at different key stages.
Deep Learning It promotes among teachers and students an active and critical examination of new facts, and attempts to apply them in existing cognitive structures and real-life contexts, and to make relevant links between ideas. Features of deep learning include looking for meaning, focusing on the central
argument or concepts needed to solve a problem, interacting actively, distinguishing between argument and evidence, making connections between different modules of learning, relating new and prior knowledge and interpreting the meaning of course content in real life.
Direct Instruction It is a structured approach with a high degree of teacher direction and control, and the effective management of time.
It allows students to learn and apply knowledge systematically in the process.
e-Learning It refers to an open and flexible learning mode involving the use of the electronic media, including the use of digital
resources and communication tools to achieve the learning objectives. The essence of e-learning is to enhance learning and teaching effectiveness in schools and to develop
students’ necessary qualities (e.g. self-directed learning capabilities). Teachers may develop an e-learning repertoire, thereby enhancing, modifying and complementing some existing learning and teaching strategies.
Elective Subjects They include a total of 20 senior secondary subjects, a wide range of Applied Learning courses and six Other Languages in the senior secondary curriculum from which students may choose to develop their interests and abilities. They open up a number of pathways for further study and careers.
Enquiry Learning It refers to a learner-centred approach which enables
students to acquire knowledge through active participation in the learning process. It emphasises higher-order thinking skills which include analysis, problem solving, discovery and creative activities. Students are responsible for
processing the data they are working with to reach their own conclusions.
Entrepreneurial Spirit It refers to the inquisitiveness to conceive new ideas and turn ideas into actions. It includes taking initiatives, creativity, innovation, taking calculated risks, preparing for possible failure, as well as seizing the opportunities ahead. It also involves positive values and attitudes such as perseverance and responsibility.
Feedback Feedback is the information of result or performance given to a learner against the reference criterion or goal. There is strong evidence that the quality of feedback has a significant impact on student learning. For feedback to be effective, it has to focus on what the student needs to do to improve his/her performance. For the more advanced learners, self- evaluation and reflection are important for helping them monitor their own progress towards achieving learning goals and develop self-directed learning capabilities.
They include Moral and Civic Education, Intellectual Development, Community Service, Physical and Aesthetic Development, and Career-related Experiences. All students are entitled to the five essential learning experiences for
Four Key Tasks They include Moral and Civic Education: Towards Values Education, Reading to Learn: Towards Reading across the Curriculum, Project Learning: Towards Integrating and Applying Knowledge and Skills across Disciplines and Information Technology for Interactive Learning: Towards Self-directed Learning. They are implemented in/across different KLAs to help students develop independent learning capabilities.
Generic Skills Introduced in 2001, the nine generic skills are refined in 2017. The refined generic skills include Communication Skills, IT Skills, Mathematical Skills, Self-management Skills, Self-learning Skills, Collaboration Skills, Critical Thinking Skills, Creativity and Problem Solving Skills.
According to their nature, the generic skills are grouped under three categories: “basic skills”, “thinking skills” and
“personal and social skills”, and are refined to promote their integrative use, such as collaborative problem solving and holistic thinking.
Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary
The HKDSE is the qualification awarded to students after completing the three-year senior secondary curriculum (implemented since 2009) and taking the public assessment.
Key Learning Area (KLA)
It is a way of organising the school curriculum around fundamental concepts of major knowledge domains. It aims at providing a broad, balanced and coherent curriculum for all students through engaging them in a variety of essential learning experiences. The Hong Kong school curriculum encompasses eight KLAs, i.e. Chinese Language Education (CLE), English Language Education (ELE), Mathematics Education (ME), Personal, Social and Humanities Education (PSHE), Science Education (SE), Technology Education (TE), Arts Education (AE) and Physical Education (PE).
Key Stage (KS) There are four stages of schooling from lower primary to senior secondary levels, i.e. Key Stage 1 (P1-P3), Key Stage 2 (P4-P6), Key Stage 3 (S1-S3), and Key Stage 4 (S4-S6).
A systematic process through which the intellectual capital of an organisation is promptly captured, shared, refined and distilled to create value to achieve the organisational goals,
inform future practices and sustain growth and renewal.
Intellectual capital includes explicit and tacit knowledge, with the former more easily shared in writing.
Information Literacy (IL)
It is an ability or attitude that guides an effective and ethical use of information. It aims to help students i) identify the need for information; ii) locate, evaluate, extract, organise and present information; iii) create new ideas; iv) cope with the dynamics in the information world; and v) use
information ethically (e.g. upholding intellectual property rights and understanding online respect and responsibility) and refrain from immoral practices (e.g. cyber bullying and infringement of intellectual property rights). The Four Key Tasks will provide opportunities for students to develop and apply IL.
Language across the Curriculum (LaC)
LaC premises on the notion that language learning can also take place in non-language KLAs, which provide authentic contexts for learners to apply their literacy skills to construct knowledge and to facilitate their development into lifelong learners. While English/Chinese language teachers focus on helping learners master the accurate use of the language (e.g.
vocabulary and grammar) as well as to recognise the importance of coherence, cohesion and appropriateness in texts, teachers of non-language KLAs can facilitate the transfer of such language knowledge and skills by emphasising the use of relevant language features for presenting the subject content and providing opportunities for application of relevant knowledge and skills.
Learner Diversity (LD)
It refers to the variations in learning ability and outcomes among students receiving the same instruction. Their
differences may be due to divergence in abilities, motivation, interests, socio-economic backgrounds, etc. Teachers may differentiate their instruction and flexibly group the students to turn LD into new learning opportunities in the classroom.
Learning Community It refers to a group of people who have shared values and goals, and work closely together to generate knowledge and create new ways of learning through active participation, collaboration and reflection. In the school context, a learning community may involve not only students and teachers, but
also parents and other parties.
Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes refer to what students are expected to master by the end of a particular stage of learning. They are developed based on the learning targets and objectives of the curriculum for the purpose of evaluating learning
effectiveness. Learning outcomes also describe the levels of performance that students should attain after completing a particular key stage of learning.
Learning Targets and Learning Objectives
Learning targets set out broadly the knowledge/concepts, skills, values and attitudes that students need to learn and develop. Learning objectives define specifically what students should know, value and be able to do in each strand of the KLA/subject in accordance with the broad targets at each key stage. They are to be used by teachers as a checklist for curriculum, lesson and activity planning.
Ongoing renewal of the school curriculum
It builds on the Learning to Learn curriculum reform implemented since 2001 in response to the local, regional and global contextual changes in economic, scientific, technological, social and political aspects. With a view to keeping our school education abreast of the times and maintaining our competitiveness, the Hong Kong school curriculum embarks on a new stage of ongoing renewal, which aims to deepen and sustain the accomplishments and to focus on the new directions for curriculum development.
Lifelong Learning It refers to the continued pursuit of knowledge and skill development throughout life so as to live and work effectively, and to participate in society actively.
Life Planning Life planning is an ongoing and lifelong process for personal fulfillment, with different foci at different stages of the lifetime. At the schooling stage, life planning education plays a significant role in fostering students’ self-
understanding, personal planning, goal setting, reflective habits of mind and articulation to progression pathways. It connects with the school’s curriculum components, and through it students are equipped with the knowledge, skills, and values and attitudes to make wise choices in accordance with their interests, abilities and orientations. They are also guided to integrate their career/academic aspirations with
lifelong learning and whole-person development.
Life-wide Learning (LWL)
It refers to student learning in real contexts and authentic settings. Such experiential learning enables students to achieve certain learning goals that are more difficult to attain through classroom learning alone. For instance, the
development of problem solving skills in daily life, and certain positive attitudes towards the improvement of society and mankind in general requires contact with a lot of
different people and a variety of environments and
situations. The experiential learning acquired through life- wide learning helps students achieve the aims of whole- person development and enables them to develop the lifelong learning capabilities that are needed in our ever- changing society.
Metacognition It is a process of thinking about one’s own thinking.
Metacognitive skills include the ability to monitor one’s own learning and an awareness of one’s own knowledge.
Major Renewed Emphases (MRE)
Under the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum at the secondary level, MRE are brought on board to better respond to the changing needs of society as reflected in the updated seven learning goals. With reference to their own contexts and stages of development on various curriculum areas, schools can adjust and/or integrate the MRE for coherent and systematic implementation in their school development plans by observing the guiding principles for the Learning to Learn curriculum alongside the school priorities for the next three to six years. The MRE are:
strengthening values education (including moral and civic education and Basic Law education)
reinforcing the learning of Chinese history and Chinese culture
extending “Reading to Learn” to ”Language across the Curriculum”
promoting STEM education and ITE
fostering an entrepreneurial spirit
diversifying life-wide learning experiences (including those for VPET)
stepping up gifted education
enhancing the learning and teaching of Chinese as a second language
Other Experiences and Achievements (OEA)
OEA is one of the factors in addition to achievements at the HKDSE Examination results which the Joint University Programmes Admissions System (JUPAS) participating institutions and the Study Subsidy Scheme For Designated Professions (SSSDP) institutions will consider. Such information will serve as important additional reference for admission selection and can also be used as a framework for discussions during selection interviews.
Other Languages Other Languages are Category C subjects of the HKDSE Examination. They include French, German, Japanese, Spanish, Hindi and Urdu. Students can take these languages as electives and sit for the Cambridge International
Examinations arranged by the HKEAA.
Other Learning Experiences (OLE)
OLE is one of the three major components of the senior secondary curriculum. It complements the other two components, namely the core and elective subjects
(including Applied Learning courses and Other Languages) for the whole-person development of students. These
experiences include Moral and Civic Education, Community Service, Career-related Experiences, Aesthetic Development, and Physical Development.
Reading across the Curriculum (RaC)
RaC aims to provide opportunities for students to broaden their knowledge base, and apply and consolidate reading skills and strategies developed in language lessons. Non- language KLAs provide authentic contexts for the promotion of RaC. Teachers of non-language KLAs can select
appropriate English/Chinese reading materials with related themes/topics to help students connect their learning experiences and raise their awareness of the language features typical in these texts.
Seven Learning Goals
The updated seven learning goals of secondary education are to enable students to:
become an informed and responsible citizen with a sense of national and global identity, appreciation of positive values and attitudes as well as Chinese culture, and respect for pluralism in society
acquire and construct a broad and solid knowledge base, and to understand contemporary issues that may impact on students’ daily lives at personal, community, national and global levels
become proficient in biliterate and trilingual communication for better study and life
develop and apply generic skills in an integrative manner, and to become an independent and self-directed learner for future study and work
use information and information technology ethically, flexibly and effectively
understand one’s own interests, aptitudes and abilities, and to develop and reflect upon personal goals with aspirations for further studies and future career
lead a healthy lifestyle with active participation in physical and aesthetic activities, and to appreciate sports and the arts
School-based Assessment (SBA)
SBA is administered in schools as part of the learning and teaching process, with students being assessed by their subject teachers. Marks awarded will be counted towards students’ results in the local public examinations conducted by the HKEAA.
Self-directed Learning (SDL)
It refers to a learner who takes initiative and responsibility for learning with or without the assistance of others. A self- directed learner may identify his/her learning needs, formulate goals, and choose resources and strategies for learning. SDL enhances students’ sense of agency or control and metacognitive skills. SDL may be interpreted as self- regulated learning, self-learning or independent learning in other contexts.
Standards-referenced Reporting (SRR)
SRR is a reporting system adopted in the HKDSE
Examination. Candidates’ performance is reported in terms of levels of performance matched against a set of standards.
STEM Education STEM is an acronym that refers collectively to the academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and
Mathematics. In the local curriculum context, STEM education is promoted in the Science, Technology and Mathematics Education KLAs. It aims at developing among
students a strong knowledge base in step with the latest changes in these disciplines, and strengthening their ability to integrate and apply knowledge and skills, so as to nurture their creativity and innovation, collaboration and problem solving skills.
Student Learning Profile (SLP)
SLP is the supplementary information built up by senior secondary students to reflect their learning experiences in life-wide learning and achievements, in addition to their academic performance in the HKDSE Examination. SLP includes the following:
Academic performance in school
Other Learning Experiences
Awards/achievements gained outside school
Student’s self-account (e.g. learning experiences, career goal setting)
Information in SLP could be considered in students’
application for further study and recruitment.
Students with Special Education Needs (SEN)
Students with SEN have different talents and potentials in academic abilities. They include students with Specific Learning Difficulties, Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Physical Disability, Visual Impairment, Hearing Impairment and Speech and Language Impairment.
Schools can make use of the opportunities to instil in all students the values of equal opportunities and social
inclusion and to adopt " Whole School Approach" to catering for students with SEN.
Values and Attitudes Values and attitudes are generally referred to as one but carry different meanings.
Values indicate how one assigns different values to and affect his/her understanding and judgment of thing.
Nurturing positive values in students enables them to
understand and judge right from wrong, analyse and evaluate an event or an issue with positive values as the foundation, and have the courage to act according to the values for the well-being of the community, the nation and the world.
Attitudes are one’s perception and position on things, which have a critical influence on his/her behaviour. Developing
students’ positive attitudes towards life helps them face the challenges and adversities of life with an optimistic and positive attitude, and treat people and things around with an appreciative and receptive mind.
Values Education Schools are recommended to promote positive values and attitudes among students through values education. By incorporating elements of values education into
KLAs/subjects, as well as providing diversified learning experiences within and beyond the classroom, values education not only enables students to deepen their
understanding of positive values from multiple perspectives, but also guides them to learn how to uphold positive values in different situations and put them into action.
It refers to enabling students to have all-round and unique development in the areas of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to individual potential. It is realised through the five essential learning experiences of school education.
Whole-school Curriculum Planning
It enables schools to provide students with essential learning experiences through the holistic planning of a broad and balanced curriculum. The planning of the whole-school curriculum involves four interrelated levels of curriculum planning, namely the whole-school level, KLA level, year level by subject and class level by lesson blocks. Coherence among these four levels helps ensure schools set priorities in terms of vision, curriculum goals, major concerns and MRE to enhance student learning.
Remarks: In alphabetical order
Membership of the Curriculum Development Council (from 1.9.2015 to 31.8.2017)
Chairperson: Prof Kenneth YOUNG
Vice-chairperson: Dr YIP Yam-wing, Stephen (till 31.7.2016) Ms CHING Suk-yee, Philly (from 1.8.2016 to
7.9.2016) Mr LEE Sha-lun, Sheridan (from 8.9.2016) Members: Ir CHAN Sze-yuen, Eric
Mr LEUNG Yiu-fai, David Ms WONG Oi-sze, Ayse
Prof LEE Chi-kin, John, JP (till 31.8.2016) Prof CHENG May-hung, May (from 1.9.2016) Dr PANG Ming-fai
Prof TAM Kar-yan, MH Mr LEUNG Yam-shing Prof MOK Ka-ho, Joshua Ms WONG Yuk-lan, Phyonne Ms HO Lan-sang, Nancy Ms KWOK Kam-lin
Mr LAU Kwok-leung, Gyver Dr POON Po-chiu
Mr TANG Chun-keung, Teddy, MH, JP Dr TSUI Chun-cheung
Ms CHAN Kar-mun
Ms CHUNG Po-loi (till 20.10.2016) Ms POW Grace
Mr SHUM Kin-ming
Mrs TAM LEUNG Yen-ying, Anne (till 31.8.2016) Mr TSANG Chi-to, Joseph (from 1.9.2016) Ms WAT Ka-man
Ex-officio Members: Dr TONG Chong-sze
Mr NG Ka-sing, Joe (till 8.12.2015)
Mr LO Chi-lap (from 9.12.2015)
Secretary: Mr LEUNG Pak-wai, Ashley
Membership of the Ad Hoc Committee on Secondary Education Curriculum Guide
Chairperson: Prof MOK Ka-ho, Joshua Members: Dr FOK Ping-kwan
Mr LAM Yat-fung, James, MH
Mr TANG Chun-keung, Teddy, MH, JP Mr TSANG Chi-to, Joseph
Mr TSE Chun-hung Co-opted Members: Ms LAM Wing-yee, Sierra
Ms MA Suet-yee, Lopaka Secretary: Mr LEUNG Pak-wai, Ashley