4 Phases of Development … … … . … … … . … … 5

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1 Introduction … … … . … … … . … ... 1

2 Background … … … . … … . 2

3 Rationale for Development … … … . … … … . … … … .. … … 3

4 Phases of Development … … … . … … … . … … 5

4.1 Short-term (2000-2005) … … … . 5

4.2 Medium-term (2005-2010) … … … 6

4.3 Long-term (2010+) … … … . 6

5 The Framework … … … ... 7

5.1 Overall Aims … … … … . … … … . 7

5.2 Learning Targets … … … ... 7

5.3 Components of the Framework … … … . . 8

5.3.1 Strands … … … 9

5.3.2 Generic Skills … … … . . 9

5.3.3 Values and Attitudes … … … 9

5.4 Modes of Curriculum Planning … … … . . 12

5.5 Teaching, Learning and Assessment … … … . . 12

5.5.1 Teaching and Learning . … … … 12

5.5.2 Assessment … … … . 16

5.6 School-based Curriculum Development … … … ... 17

5.6.1 Creating Curriculum Space . … … … 17

5.6.2 Building on Strengths … … … ... 18

5.6.3 Teaching Students with Different Abilities … … ... 18

5.7 Life-wide Learning … … … ... 19

5.8 Connections with Other Key Learning Areas … … ... … … … 20

6 Conclusion … … … .... 21

Appendices 1 Proposed Re-organization and Trimming of the Content of the Present General Studies Syllabus … … … . 23

2 Proposed Core Elements for General Studies … … … 27

3 Examples of Themes for General Studies Curriculum … … … . 35

4 A Sample Unit of General Studies … … … 45

5 Organizations which Provide Opportunities for Life-wide Learning in relation to General Studies … … … 55



This document on General Studies is written in support of the consultation document Learning to Learn prepared by the Curriculum Development Council (Nov 2000) and should be read together with it. The Learning to Learn document is the outcome of the Holistic Review of the School Curriculum conducted by CDC beginning in 1999, which is done in parallel with the Education Commission’s Education System Review.



Children in the 21st century have to face the challenges brought about by the rapid developments in science, technology and society. The curriculum should provide them with learning experiences that enable them to construct knowledge and develop a global perspective, and possess lifelong learning skills so that they can cope with a knowledge-based economy and society.

The General Studies (GS) curriculum was first developed in response to the recommendations of Education Commission Report No.4 and has been implemented since 1996. It aims at guiding children to have a better understanding of themselves and the world around them, as well as the inter-relationship and inter-dependence between people, things and their environment. The curriculum provides rich contexts for developing students’ knowledge and abilities to achieve the aims of education. As the contexts of Hong Kong are subject to change according to societal, scientific and technological development, it is necessary to introduce an open and flexible framework that can facilitate teachers to enhance their students’

capabilities of learning how to learn so that they can meet the challenges of the new century.



The GS curriculum covers learning elements of the Personal, Social and Humanities Education (PSHE), Science Education (SE) and Technology Education (TE) Key Learning Areas (KLAs). It is designed in the belief that students’ learning experiences are connected and not compartmentalized, such that they can develop a holistic view of themselves as individuals in the community, their place in the natural world, and the interaction of human beings with the environment. It is highly relevant to moral and civic education, which is one of the five essential experiences of learning in the curriculum reform.

The proposed development suggested below is intended to address some of the current problems in the teaching and learning of the GS curriculum.

Present Situation Proposed Development There is a lack of

interconnectedness between certain content areas in the curriculum

- To strengthen the coherence and connection of different areas of learning in the curriculum

Part of the curriculum content cannot cope with the rapid developments in science and technology.

- To trim obsolete content

- To update and strengthen certain content areas in the curriculum

The learning of certain topics in science has focused too much on subject knowledge. Students’

interests, development of scientific investigation skills and cultivation of technological awareness and innovativeness are often neglected.

- To give students the incentive to learn and to nurture their inquiring mind through hands- on learning activities related to science and technological issues; to develop their innovativeness and improve their sensitivity to scientific and technological development Part of the curriculum content

fails to align with students’ life experience.

- To make learning more relevant to students’ daily life; to strengthen analytical and problem-solving skills through multi-perspective study of issues

Textbooks have become the major teaching materials for most of the

- To reduce the overloaded curriculum content; to put


Present Situation Proposed Development schools; textbook-bound teaching

and learning results in an over- emphasis on the inculcation of knowledge.

more emphasis on the process of learning, such as developing students’ self-learning ability through diversified learning experiences and project learning; to enhance their IT skills, interest in scientific exploration and design of scientific and technological products, etc. Students’

personal and social development as well as positive values and attitudes have to be strengthened.

- To fully utilize resources from the community, such as museums, community organizations, public and private bodies, so as to widen the scope of learning beyond the school setting

Affective education, e.g. national identity and concern for Chinese culture, is considered inadequate.

- To place more emphasis on students’ affective development including strengthening elements related to national identity and understanding of the Chinese culture

There is a weak interface with the pre-primary curriculum.

- To enhance the elements of personal and social development in the P1-2 curriculum and to enable a smooth interface with the kindergarten curriculum



With the various support measures from the government (Learning to Learn, Chapter 2), schools can build on their strengths to open up more opportunities and space for learning and teaching in order to facilitate learning to learn.

4.1 Short-term (2000-2005) At School Level

• adapting the existing curriculum by re-organizing and trimming the content in line with the curriculum framework (Appendix 1)

• strengthening moral and civic education and developing students’ commitment in learning to learn

• strengthening independent learning by adopting teaching and learning strategies such as project learning and investigation

• providing opportunities for students to use information technology in the learning process

• strengthening life-wide learning by more extensive use of community resources

• providing creative, investigative and hands-on learning experiences

• developing learning resources beyond textbooks, e.g. web- based materials which focus on inquiry and problem solving At ED Level

• providing on-site support to schools to strengthen students’

capabilities of learning to learn

• supporting schools in piloting the new modes of curriculum planning so as to generate useful experiences for teachers to:

- enhance personal and social education at P1-2

- improve the interface with the pre-primary curriculum - enhance moral and civic education

- strengthen science and technology elements

- develop the school-based curriculum with different focuses

• further improving the curriculum framework to align with new societal needs and to enhance affective learning

• providing in-service teacher education programmes related


to the new GS curriculum

• conducting research and development projects in collaboration with schools, tertiary institutes and other relevant stakeholders

4.2 Medium-term (2005-2010)

By 2005, all schools are expected to adopt the GS curriculum in line with the new curriculum framework. Schools and ED will

collaborate in:

• establishing a school culture of renewing the school-based curriculum in line with the new curriculum framework to meet the needs and interests of students as well as societal changes

• developing student profiles through performance-based assessment

4.3 Long-term (2010+)

The long-term goal of General Studies is to help students become lifelong learners who can embrace new challenges of the future.

Schools and teachers will continue to work on the areas of development listed in the short-term and medium-term phases.

They will build inter-school networks to share good practices and resources. They will also conduct research and development to improve the learning and teaching of General Studies.



5.1 Overall Aims

The GS curriculum aims at helping students to:

• understand about themselves, society and the world at large

• maintain a healthy personal development and contribute to the well-being of the local community, the nation and the world as confident, informed and responsible persons

• become rational and responsible citizens

• develop curiosity and interest in the natural and technological world, and to cultivate a care and concern for environmental conservation

• develop ability to inquire and solve problems, with special reference to those related to the impact of science and technology on society

5.2 Learning Targets

Through the learning process in GS, students will acquire the knowledge, skills and values/attitudes related to the KLAs of PSHE, SE and TE. They are expected to:

• acquire an understanding of their growth and development, develop a healthy lifestyle and a respect for self and others, and value harmonious human relationships

• acquire inquiry skills for the understanding of their community, its development in the past, characteristics at present and have a concern for its changes in the future

• develop a caring concern for the well-being of their families, the local community, the nation and the world

• show interest in and develop skills to explore, investigate and evolve solutions for scientific problems emerging from the study of the material world, use of energy, living things and the Earth and beyond

• develop an interest in exploring the technological world

• make good use of resources and be committed to environmental conservation

• develop an understanding of the impact of science and technology on human society and the environment


• perform technological activities creatively to solve problems in daily life

5.3 Components of the Framework

General Studies

Connecting learning experiences in three Key Learning Areas

Personal, Social &

Humanities Education

Science Education

Technology Education

Organizing curriculum content into six strands

Generic Skills

Health Environment Community NationalIdentity andthe ChineseCulture GlobalUnderstandingand theInformationEra Science andTechnology inEveryday Life

Values and Attitudes

Diversified modes of curriculum planning and

Effective learning, teaching and assessment

To achieve the overall aims and learning targets of General Studies


5.3.1 Strands

Strands are used to organize the curriculum content. There are six strands in the GS curriculum, which are derived from the elements of learning in the KLAs of PSHE, SE and TE (Appendix 2). They are:

• Health

• Environment

• Community

• National Identity and the Chinese Culture

• Global Understanding and the Information Era

• Science and Technology in Everyday Life

An example of different themes organized around the elements of learning is provided in Appendix 3. Schools may develop other themes to meet the needs and interests of their students, and update them in accordance with societal changes. Different curriculum units may be designed, as illustrated by the example, to enable students to adopt a multi-perspective approach in the study of different themes.

5.3.2 Generic Skills

As a cross-KLA curriculum, GS provides much space for the development of generic skills for lifelong learning. The emphasis on personal and social development, citizenship education and scientific investigation in the local setting will contribute to students’

acquisition of self-management skills, study skills, problem solving skills, critical thinking skills and creativity. Students will make use of numeracy and IT skills to solve problems and search for information. Through project learning and investigation activities, students will develop collaboration skills and communication skills when they interact with people and work with others in learning environments in and outside the classroom.

5.3.3 Values and Attitudes

The development of personal and social values and attitudes is intrinsic in the GS curriculum. These values and attitudes are linked to the learning objectives suggested in the KLAs of PSHE, SE and TE, and achieved through various learning activities. Some examples are provided below:


Theme : Growing Up Unit : My Growth Level : KS1 (P2)

Learning objectives related to Values and

Attitudes Development

Examples of Values and


Suggested Teaching/Learning


develop healthy living habits (e.g. personal hygiene)

develop curiosity and inquisitive mind through first-hand learning experience

demonstrate interest in exploring and solving problems

appreciate the existence of a variety of living things and respect self, nature and life

be aware of their personal strengths, abilities and aspirations and pursue a living attitude which cultivates awareness, empathy and wisdom

sanctity of life



respecting for self and life

Scientific Investigation, e.g. observation and recording of data on the growth of plants and small animals

Social Inquiry, e.g.

interviewing parents and relatives to find out about interesting events related to one’s birth;

collecting information on events about one’s childhood

The above could be followed by discussions, sharing of experiences and presentation, etc., which aim at enhancing students’ positive attitudes and values

Theme : Keep in Touch

Unit : Making Choices - Being a Wise Consumer Level : KS2 (P4)

Learning objectives related to Values and

Attitudes Development

Examples of Values and


Suggested Teaching/Learning


recognize a variety of factors to consider when making consumer decisions

cultivate creativity and imagination

participate actively in protecting and improving the environment

recognize that technological activities can bring about bad or good effects on people





respect for evidence and theenvironment

Investigation, e.g.

collecting, recording and analyzing data on food products (in

supermarkets) that are over-packaged and types of unhealthy food promoted by

advertisement, etc.

Inquiry, e.g. study and analyze advertisements for certain products welcomed by primary students, interview


Learning objectives related to Values and

Attitudes Development

Examples of Values and Attitudes

Suggested Teaching/Learning


peers to find out to what extent the advertisement has affected their choice as consumers

The above could be followed by

presentation, reporting, discussions, sharing of experiences, etc., which aim at enhancing students’ thinking skills and positive attitudes and values

Theme : Environment and Living

Unit : Pollution, Careful Use of Resources and Conservation of the Environment

Level : KS2 (P6)

Learning objectives related to Values and

Attitudes Development

Examples of Values and Attitudes

Suggested Teaching/Learning


Recognize that our planet Earth provides a wealth of natural resources, but they are limited and need to be used wisely

Appreciate the

interdependence of living things and their

environment and the impact of human activities on the environment

Create solutions in solving real life problems

Develop a caring concern for the well-being of society

Use resources with consideration for the environment and adopt procedures which minimize waste

concern for the environment

sustainability of environment

adaptable to changes






betterment of human kind

Technology Learning Activities (TLAs), e.g., design and make models to deal with waste and to reduce pollution problems.

Inquiry based on societal needs, e.g.

explore various ways to maintain the

sustainability of the environment (by legislation) in Hong Kong.

Investigate factors affecting the growth of plants, e.g. temperature, amount of sunlight, insecticide, acid rain etc.

An exemplar on the development of generic skills, values and


attitudes through a unit “A Healthy Living Environment” for Primary 3 is in Appendix 4.

5.4 Modes of Curriculum Planning

It is proposed that the following modes be adopted:

• The curriculum for GS will cover elements of learning in the KLAs of PSHE, SE and TE.

• The curriculum for Primary one and two will emphasize Personal and Social Education to enhance the interface with pre-primary education.

• The curriculum for Primary three to six will consist of elements of learning in the KLAs of PSHE, SE and TE.

PSHE-focussed and SE&TE-focussed units may be developed to meet the needs and interests of students at school level.

• Elements of learning from other KLAs, such as the languages, may be integrated with those of GS, where appropriate.

5.5 Teaching, Learning and Assessment 5.5.1 Teaching and Learning

GS is designed as a learner-focused curriculum that provides students with opportunities to synthesize skills, knowledge and values across three KLAs. It promotes creativity through hands-on learning experiences and problem-solving processes. Through inquiry-based learning, students acquire the skills for learning to learn. Their observational, analytical and descriptive abilities are enhanced. They explore issues related to their life experience by asking questions, organising information, connecting the information collected, reflecting and generating solutions to problems. The learning process will move them towards self-directed learning and facilitate knowledge construction.

The following teaching and learning strategies have been used with success in some schools, both local and overseas.

(a) Project learning

Project learning involves students in problem-solving and


other meaningful tasks, allows students to work autonomously to construct their own learning, culminates in student-generated products and extends their learning beyond textbooks.

Project learning is pedagogically sound because it contributes to the following:

• There is a focus on compelling ideas

Project learning allows teachers and students to focus, in depth, on central ideas and salient issues.

• Its activities make up an effective, engaging strategy Project learning engages students in inquiry and problem-solving.

• It provides an empowering context

Project learning encourages collaborative learning and fosters self-directed learning.

• It aims at productive outcomes

Project learning helps students develop skills for productive work and integrate them into lifelong learning.

Examples of project learning At Key Stage One:

• in themes related to personal growth and development, students keep a personal photo album collecting their own photos taken from birth up to the present, ask and answer questions on the changes taking and/or which will take place in an individual’s development.

At Key Stage Two:

• in themes related to the Chinese culture / people’s life in different parts of China / the National Day, students design one present to be given to a friend living in a foreign country to introduce China or acquaint him/her with China.

• in the unit “The Environment and I”, students observe their environment, identify any pollution problems and suggest improvements using sketches or models.


(b) Investigation

Investigation involves the following features / steps:

• Identifying the problem

- Students propose testable questions related to the problem at hand.

• Predicting results:

- Students predict results using previous experience or observations.

• Design an investigation

- Collect material for testing.

- Discuss the variables involved in the fair test.

- Identify variables to be controlled and those to be tested.

• Measure and record:

- Perform experiment, use suitable instrument to collect data and present relevant data systematically and concisely.

• Interpretation of data:

- Analyze collected data and draw conclusions.

- Present the compiled report with IT tools.

At the primary level, the development of students’ inquiring mind is more important than the learning of facts, hence it is important to involve students in first-hand scientific investigations. The investigations suitable for students at this level include exploration, fair-testing, identification and classification, pattern-seeking and testing an explanation etc.

Example of investigation At Key Stage One:

When exploring the concept “Warm and Cold”, the following steps may be used:

• In a discussion on how to keep warm in winter, students propose testable questions on how to find the best materials to keep themselves warm.

• They collect materials for testing, decide on what to measure and what variables they have to control for a fair test.

• They collaborate in performing the experiment.

• After pooling the data, they will analyze the results and


decide on how to present them using IT tools.

• Students will work collaboratively and objectively throughout the process.

• They will learn to respect evidence and develop a quantitative sense in dealing with problems.

(c) Service Learning

• Service learning allows students to have active learning of the subject matter in real settings. Students learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully organized service that is conducted in and meets the needs of the community.

• A deliberate connection is made between service and learning opportunities, which are accompanied by reflections on the service experience. Students may learn as they participate in peer tutoring, partnership with children with disabilities and care of the elderly, etc.

• Service learning can be made part of the school policy in curriculum planning and designed as cross-KLA activities.

Examples of service learning At Key Stage One:

• in themes related to “family”, students are encouraged to design and draw greeting /Christmas cards and present them to relatives of the older generation and/or elderly people in old people’s home;

• in learning about Chinese festivals such as the mid- Autumn Festival, students may organize themselves in donating pocket money for the buying of moon cakes and fruit for people in need ;

• through the above process of learning, students’

communication skills, collaboration skills, creativity, concern for the well being of others are cultivated;

• the activities may be jointly organized with other KLAs, e.g. Chinese Language and Art Education.

At Key Stage Two:

• in exploring themes related to “global issues”, students are encouraged to join activities, e.g. “Famine 30 Hours”

and “Hunger Banquet” organized by voluntary agencies


such as World Vision and Oxfam Hong Kong (with parents’ consent and involvement);

• in learning about social services in our society, students will plan and take part in performances e.g. dances, drama, for old people and/or in specific events of the local community;

• in themes related to environmental education, students can take part in tree planting and environmental activities organized by government departments and/or environmental groups;

• generic elements developed through the above include collaboration skills and communication skills. Values and attitudes such as common good, mutuality, interdependence, sustainability, responsibility, respect for life and the environment are developed.

5.5.2 Assessment

Continuous assessment of students’ performance, particularly in the development of skills and values/attitudes in GS, is necessary to help diagnose students’ needs at an early stage and build a profile of their progress. Factual recall questions in the form of pen-and-paper tests should be reduced. Apart from pen-and-paper tests, a range of other assessment measures are exemplified below:

(a) Portfolio

The portfolio is used to contain students’ evidence of learning. During the process, students make their own judgement and select the artifacts (observation sheets, questionnaire and interview results, art products, etc.) that best meet the criteria for excellence and personal improvement.

(b) Teacher Observation

Teacher designs checklists for individuals or for groups of students working together. Students’ behavioural performance can be assessed objectively according to the criteria in the scoring rubrics.

(c) Peer Evaluation

Students are requested to write a short comment on the performance of other students. This cross-referencing


evidence reflects the contribution of individuals to the completion of a certain project.

(d) Evaluation from Parents

As parents have close contact with students, they are in the right position to give comment on the performance of students, particularly those related to the development of healthy lifestyles, communication skills and inter-personal skills.

(e) Presentation and Sharing

A culminating event can be arranged for students to communicate, share and present the work to others (this may include parents). This is an excellent opportunity for teachers to review and assess all students on what they have done in projects and other activities.

(f) Self Assessment

Teachers can work with their students to develop standards to conduct an on-going assessment of their work. Based on these preset criteria, students can self-assess their own progress through the process of work.

5.6 School-based Curriculum Development 5.6.1 Creating Curriculum Space

The recommended learning time for GS is about 100 hours per year.

Schools can create curriculum space by spending about 80% of the total learning time on the core elements of learning and flexibly arrange the remaining 20% for:

• strengthening the learning of core elements, e.g. with more emphasis on generic skills such as problem solving and critical thinking,

• providing students with life-wide learning opportunities which complement the learning of core elements, or

• introducing new elements of learning according to students’

interests and abilities.

All students are entitled to diversified learning experiences when they study GS. It is recommended that they should engage in:


• not less than 15 hours at KS1 and 20 hours at KS2 on project learning, and

• not less than 15 hours at KS1 and 20 hours at KS2 on hands- on learning activities in science and technology.

5.6.2 Building on Strengths

Schools can exercise their autonomy in producing a quality GS curriculum by building on their strengths. The following are some examples:

• A school well equipped with IT facilities and expertise can place more emphasis on developing students’ IT skills, e.g.

providing more opportunities for students to search for information and to present their projects using IT tools.

• A school with teachers strong in science can strengthen the learning of science and technology elements in GS by promoting reading in science and providing ample opportunities for students to learn through hands-on scientific and technological learning activities.

• A school with a strong moral mission can strengthen values education in GS by using the life event approach, as indicated in Appendix 7 of Learning to Learn.

5.6.3 Teaching Students with Different Abilities

Teachers can tailor the curriculum according to students’ needs and abilities and cater for individual differences when teaching GS. For example : When teaching the topic on “Transportation in Hong Kong”, the teacher can introduce different types of transport and safety rules to the class. Students with higher abilities can investigate the transport problems in Hong Kong and suggest methods to solve these problems. Throughout the learning process, students are provided with opportunities to think, co-operate, analyze and solve problems. They are also encouraged to look into and care about current issues and problems that happen in Hong Kong.

To help students understand basic knowledge and develop generic skills, the teacher can demand a higher level of performance from more able students or assign more challenging activities to them


(such as training in leadership). For students of lower abilities, the teacher should give tasks that they are capable of doing, so as to develop their abilities and build up their confidence and self-image.

For example: When doing a project on “Tourist industry in Hong Kong”, students will collect relevant information from various sources, conduct a survey on the most popular tourist sites in Hong Kong, design a poster to promote the tourist industry and compile these materials into a booklet. Students can play different roles according to their abilities, e.g. those with leadership can serve as group leaders, and students with different talents (such as students with IT or drawing skills) can all contribute in this project.

Apart from learning experiences in the classroom, teachers can develop students’ potential(s) and skills through life-wide learning opportunities. For example:Students can develop their scientific inquiry skill through participating in the Young Scientist Award Scheme. To further promote students’ interest in learning science, schools can organize a model making competition and invite students to engage in creative model making. Students with the highest abilities are encouraged to take part in the Science Project Competition which is jointly organized by the tertiary institutes and the Hong Kong Science Museum. Through this activity, students are provided with plenty of opportunities to develop their abilities in hypothesizing, observing, communicating, thinking creatively and making judgement.

5.7 Life-wide Learning

Life-wide learning complements the curriculum and extends learning beyond the classroom. It helps students connect and apply the knowledge, skills and values acquired across KLAs. Community resources provided by government departments and non- government organizations should be utilized to enrich students’

learning experiences. Examples of life-wide learning activities relevant to the GS curriculum include:

• museum learning on a science topic,

• performing for a home of the elderly when learning about local social services, and


• visiting buildings or constructions such as the Tsing Ma Bridge when learning about science and technology in everyday life.

A list of organizations that provide activities/services relevant to the six strands of the curriculum framework of GS is provided in Appendix 5.

5.8 Connections with other Key Learning Areas

General Studies, as an interdisciplinary subject, stresses the importance of providing connected learning experiences for students.

Connections with other KLAs, such as the languages, mathematics and arts education, should be made when appropriate. Examples include:

• reading of stories and informative texts about a science and technology topic

• designing posters for a simulated election when learning about citizenship

• conducting a survey on the eating habits of classmates and summarizing data in graphic forms



The new GS curriculum framework aims to help teachers enhance students’ capabilities in meeting the challenges of the new century.

It emphasizes inquiry-based learning that promotes creativity through hands-on experiences and problem-solving process. It also advocates optimal utilization of community resources to provide life- wide learning opportunities for students.

Incremental changes building on strengths of teachers and schools should be developed. Between 2001-2005, schools can adapt the existing GS curriculum to strengthen learning to learn or can develop their GS curriculum and learning plans with the new framework.

By 2005, it is expected that school-based curriculum will be developed in line with the framework that best suits the needs of students and society.

You are welcome to send your views to the Curriculum Development Council Secretariat by post, by fax or by e- mail on or before 15 February 2001.

Address: Curriculum Development Council Secretariat Room 1329, Wu Chung House

213 Queen’s Road East Wan Chai

Hong Kong

Fax Number: 2573 5299 / 2575 4318 E-mail Address: cdchk@ed.gov.hk


Appendix 1

Proposed Re-organization and Trimming of the Content of

the Present General Studies Syllabus


Appendix 1 Proposed Re-organization and Trimming of the Content

of the Present General Studies Syllabus

Teachers can re-organize and trim the current General Studies curriculum to create space for enhancing student learning. The following table shows examples for different class levels:

Level Proposed Contents

to be Re-organized/Trimmed Remarks P1-2 Specific topics on science, e.g.

magnets; light and shadow;

stars, moon and sun; animal world

Integrate elements of science in topics related to daily life of students where appropriate

P3 Specific topics on science e.g.

reflection of light, fog and dew, water supply

Facilities in the district, urban development of HK,

characteristics of new towns and housing of Hong Kong

Use of scales on maps, impact of population change on housing development, causes and solutions of transportation problems in Hong Kong

Integrate science, technology and social elements with daily life Reduce factual information

Abstract skills and complicated social issues can become extension elements

P4 Work of some government departments (e.g. Urban and Regional Services Departments) and organizations

Major manufacturing industries in Hong Kong

Delete obsolete information; instead of providing related information, encourage and guide students to search for it where necessary

Types and distribution of land use in Hong Kong, how the relief affects the development and land use of Hong Kong

Reduce factual information and abstract concepts

Specific topics on air, electricity

for living Integrate the topics into themes related to daily life

P5-6 Names of organizations providing certain services, structure of the HKSAR government, work of international organizations

Reduce factual information Instead of introducing the factual content, teachers should encourage and guide students to search for and update information where



Appendix 1

Revolution of the Earth and the seasons, eclipses of the sun and the moon, force, how

government policy affects economic development of HK, economic relationships between the mainland of China and HKSAR

Abstract concepts may become extension elements

Coal and oil, machines, gravity Integrate the topics into themes related to daily life or may become extension elements

The curriculum space created through re-organization and trimming of contents can be used to:

• strengthen personal and social development at P1-2 levels,

• enhance moral and civic education at all levels,

• enhance students’ learning in science and technology through hands- on problem-solving and investigative activities,

• enhance IT skills,

• provide life-wide learning experiences for students.


Appendix 2

Proposed Core Elements for

General Studies


Appendix 2 Proposed Core Elements for General Studies

Strand: Health

Level Proposed Core Elements

KS1 Growth and Development

Ÿ basic needs and uniqueness of my body Ÿ managing oneself in daily life situations Ÿ decision making in simple dilemma situations Ÿ similarities and differences between boys and girls Ÿ individual differences in growth and development

Ÿ functions of different parts of the body as a basis for body care Healthy Lifestyle

Ÿ factors affecting personal health Ÿ developing healthy living habits

Ÿ simple hygiene practices and safety procedures as applied in daily situations

KS2 Growth and Development

Ÿ personal developmental needs Ÿ one’s strengths and weaknesses

Ÿ emotions and ways to cope with and express them Ÿ coping with unfamiliar situations and new challenges Ÿ minimizing and managing risks in daily life situations Ÿ changes during puberty

Ÿ gender roles, relationships and ways to handle sexual feelings Healthy Lifestyle

Ÿ the characteristics of a healthy person (including physical, mental and social aspects)

Ÿ impact of an unhealthy lifestyle

Ÿ maintaining personal and community health Ÿ safety in different daily life situations


Appendix 2 Strand: Environment

Level Proposed Core Elements

KS1 Natural Environment

Ÿ the existence of a variety of living things and their observable characteristics

Ÿ plants and animals in their living environment

Ÿ weather and seasonal changes and how they affect our daily life People-environment Relationship

Ÿ characteristics of our immediate living environment

Ÿ location of the main features in the surrounding environment Ÿ how natural and human features in the neighbouring areas affect

people’s life

Ÿ care of living things

Ÿ ways to conserve resources KS2 Natural Environment

Ÿ cycles in the living world

Ÿ the interdependence of living things in the environment Ÿ water and air in the environment

Ÿ energy and the environment Ÿ the Earth as a source of resources People-environment Relationship

Ÿ how human activities are affected by the natural environment Ÿ balance of nature being affected by human activities

Ÿ the physical and human characteristics of Hong Kong and China Ÿ the distribution pattern of the major physical and human features in

Hong Kong

Ÿ types of resources available in Hong Kong

Ÿ pattern of energy use in our living environment and its conservation Ÿ some local environmental issues

Ÿ personal responsibilities in environmental conservation

Ÿ planning and managing resources in developing solutions in daily life situations


Appendix 2 Strand: Community

Level Proposed Core Elements

KS1 Human Relationships

Ÿ different types of relationships in students’ experiences

Ÿ roles and identity of individuals in different social groups (family, friends and schools)

Ÿ maintaining harmonious relationships in family and peer groups Development of Our Community

Ÿ important events and different aspects of daily life in familiar settings Ÿ traditional practices and cultural activities in the family

Ÿ different kinds of work in the local community Ÿ goods and services to meet our needs

Ÿ impact of technology on our society Good Citizenship

Ÿ the importance of respecting the rights of others Ÿ the need for rules and laws

Ÿ identity of an individual as a member of society


Human Relationships

Ÿ roles, rights and responsibilities in the family and other social groups Ÿ maintaining and enhancing relationships while demonstrating

assertiveness in expressing feelings and ideas Development of Our Community

Ÿ major changes in the development of the local community during the past two centuries

Ÿ reasons and results of the above major changes on our community Ÿ local customs and traditions

Ÿ major features of the Hong Kong economy Ÿ influence of technology on our daily life Good Citizenship

Ÿ exercising basic rights and observing duties in various settings (home, school, community)

Ÿ importance of the Basic Law to the life of Hong Kong Ÿ importance of observing rules and laws

Ÿ importance of participation in local and national affairs


Appendix 2 Strand: National Identity and the Chinese Culture

Level Proposed Core Elements

KS1 Ÿ local and national symbols and their meanings Ÿ the uniqueness of our culture

Ÿ celebration of traditional festivals

Ÿ human relationships in the Chinese culture KS2 Ÿ our identity as Chinese HKSAR residents

Ÿ major historical periods of China

Ÿ major events and changes experienced by China in the past two centuries

Ÿ major physical and human features in China and their distribution patterns

Ÿ Chinese customs and traditions

Ÿ reasons and importance of conservation of culture and heritage Ÿ factors affecting cultural changes in China

Ÿ major science and technology development in Chinese history and present day China


Appendix 2 Strand: Global Understanding and the Information Era

Level Proposed Core Elements

KS1 Global Understanding

Ÿ cultural differences which affect the lives of different peoples Ÿ the ways we perceive other cultural groupings

Ÿ respecting cultural differences

Ÿ reasons for people to exchange information, goods and services Ÿ ways people interact with other cultural groups

Ÿ how science and technology are changing people’s interactions and relationships throughout the world

The Information Era and its Impact on Our Daily Life

Ÿ IT and its impact on communication among different peoples KS2 Global Understanding

Ÿ how Hong Kong and the mainland of China are related to the region around

Ÿ common elements found in different cultures

Ÿ influences of the physical environment and social conditions on cultural development in different parts of the world

Ÿ effects of cultural interaction on cultures and societies Ÿ major current international events and their meanings to us Ÿ impact of science and technology on different societies The Information Era and its Impact on Our Daily Life Ÿ ways the information era is affecting our daily life

Ÿ concerns in the ITC world (e.g. intellectual property, privacy, piracy)


Appendix 2 Strand: Science and Technology in Everyday Life

Level Proposed Core Elements

KS1 Ÿ observing natural phenomena Ÿ the wonder of Nature

Ÿ everyday materials and their uses Ÿ experiencing the man-made world

Ÿ awareness of how technology contributes to daily life Ÿ using science and technology to solve problems at home Ÿ famous scientists and inventors and their contributions KS2 Ÿ natural phenomena: investigating

Ÿ the wonder of the Universe

Ÿ contributions of space exploration to everyday life Ÿ sources of energy and their uses

Ÿ interaction between energy and materials Ÿ exploring the man-made world

Ÿ solving daily life problems with science and technology Ÿ safety and personal responsibilities in using technology Ÿ future advancements in science and technology

Ÿ awareness that the usage of technology might be different in other cultures


Appendix 3

Examples of Themes for

General Studies Curriculum


Appendix 3

Examples of Themes for General Studies Curriculum


Theme Unit Content

我長大了 I am Getting Older

我的身體 My Body

Ÿ Changes in appearance (height and weight, permanent teeth)

Ÿ Mental changes

Ÿ Similarities and differences in appearance Ÿ Accepting uniqueness and differences Ÿ Basic needs of the body


Things that I can Do

Ÿ Body care: personal hygiene, proper posture Ÿ Protecting the body: body parts, teeth, privacy Ÿ Taking care of personal belongings

Ÿ Planning of daily schedule for play, work, meals, exercise and rest

Ÿ Expressing needs and feelings

Ÿ Helping out at home (e.g. keeping clean, preparing food)

溫暖的家 Home Sweet Home

我的家人 My Family

Ÿ Family structures

Ÿ Customs, practices, languages and traditions of the family

Ÿ Family activities

Ÿ Roles and responsibilities within the family Ÿ Maintaining harmonious relationships with

family members 家居環境

Home Environment

Ÿ Facilities at home

Ÿ Some materials for domestic use (e.g. wood, water, cotton), their textures and how they are used

Ÿ Common technological products used at home Ÿ Hygiene at home

Ÿ Home safety Going to

School 上學去


School Environment

Ÿ The school campus Ÿ School safety

Ÿ Concern for the school 快樂的學校生活

Happy School Life

Ÿ Activities and special events

Ÿ Roles and responsibilities within the school Ÿ School rules and their purposes

Ÿ Maintaining harmonious relationships with school members

不用上學的日子 No School Today

Ÿ Origins of some popular festivals (e.g.

Christmas, Easter, Ching Ming Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival)

Ÿ How people celebrate the festivals Ÿ Adverse weather conditions

Ÿ Safety precautions for adverse weather conditions


Appendix 3 P.2

Theme Unit Content

快高長大 Growing Up

我的成長 My Growth

Ÿ Physical changes at different stages of growth Ÿ Good eating habits

Ÿ Emotions

Ÿ Things to do in case of emergency 動、植物的生長

Growth of Animals and Plants

Ÿ Observing characteristics of living things Ÿ Keeping pets and growing plants

Ÿ Life and death 遊戲多樂趣

Fun to Play


Proper Use of Leisure

Ÿ Choice of leisure activities Ÿ Developing healthy hobbies 齊來玩耍

Let’s Play

Ÿ Choice of toys and games

Ÿ Home-made toys: investigating with everyday materials

Ÿ Playing games: safety, fair play, co-operation Ÿ Care of toys

親親社區 Our


我們的社區 Our Community

Ÿ Natural and built features in the local area and how people interact with these features

Ÿ Location, position and direction 我的鄰居

My Neighbours

Ÿ People who work/serve us in the local area Ÿ Neighbourliness

Ÿ Responsibilities within the local area 我的朋友

My Friends

Ÿ Different ways of communicating Ÿ Making and keeping friends 香港是我家

Hong Kong:

Our Home


HKSAR Establishment Day

Ÿ Origin of the HKSAR Establishment Day Ÿ Activities for celebrating the HKSAR

Establishment Day

Ÿ Regional flag and emblem 慶新春

Happy New Year

Ÿ Chinese New Year Legends Ÿ Celebrating Chinese New Year Ÿ Wise use of lucky money 我的祖國

My Country

Ÿ Our nationalities

Ÿ Accepting people of different nationalities/ethnic groups

Ÿ Science and technological inventions originating in China

親親大自然 Back to Nature

我愛大自然 Love of Nature

Ÿ Pattern of day and night Ÿ Living things in the park 郊遊樂

Outing is Fun

Ÿ Features of parks/country parks/beaches Ÿ Taking part in outdoor activities

Ÿ Personal responsibilities in environmental conservation

Ÿ Outdoor Safety


Appendix 3 P.3

Theme Unit Content

健康的生活 Healthy Living

良好的習慣 Healthy Habits

Ÿ Food and nutrition

Ÿ Food hygiene and preservation Ÿ Over-eating and under-eating Ÿ Exercises and rest

Ÿ Sport safety, e.g. swimming, hiking, cycling Ÿ Good habits in public places

居住好環境 A Healthy Living Environment

Ÿ Maintaining environmental hygiene Ÿ Greening/beautifying our environment Ÿ Reduce, reuse, replace and recycle Ÿ Energy conservation

Ÿ Concern and action to improve our living environment

生活在香港 Living in Hong Kong

我們的社會 Our Society

Ÿ Different groups in the society Ÿ Division of labour in the society Ÿ Customs and mores

Ÿ The importance of the Basic Law in ensuring our way of life

Ÿ To observe law and order 購物好去處

Good Shopping Places

Ÿ Shopping places, e.g. supermarket, market, department store and shop

Ÿ Types and sources of goods Ÿ Be a wise consumer


Our Daily Needs

Ÿ Changes in life of the local community

Ÿ Eating, travelling, housing and clothing in the local community

Ÿ Road safety

Ÿ Technology that affects our daily life

Ÿ Need for communication & common methods to communicate


Good Sightseeing Spots

Ÿ Good places for visits in HK

Ÿ Popular places of attractions in our country/other countries

Ÿ Culture, heritage, lifestyle of people and other characteristics of these places

Ÿ Respect for different cultures

Ÿ Importance of conservation of cultural heritage 香港的動物

Animals in Hong Kong

Ÿ Wide variety of animals in Hong Kong Ÿ Basic needs of animals

Ÿ Animals and their living environment Ÿ Animals and my living environment 香港的天氣

The Weather of Hong Kong


Sunny Days and Windy Nights

Ÿ Daily changes of the Sun and the Moon- relative positions

Ÿ Simple features of a day’s weather Ÿ Keeping records of room temperature Ÿ Relationship between cloud and rain 冷和熱

Hot or Cold

Ÿ Sources of heat

Ÿ Investigating with keeping warm & cold Ÿ Transfer of heat & conservation of heat Ÿ Safety in handling hot objects


Appendix 3 P.4

Theme Unit Content


My Health


Wonders of the Body

Ÿ Body parts/systems and their functions Ÿ Ways of keeping my body healthy 預防勝於治療

Prevention of Diseases

Ÿ Common diseases in Hong Kong Ÿ Bacteria and viruses

Ÿ Causes and prevention of diseases Ÿ Safe use of medication

Ÿ Oral Health 天地全接觸

Keep in Touch


Information Technology

Ÿ Introduction to the e-world

Ÿ Simple software that helps to handle information

Ÿ Introduction to digital equipment

Ÿ Information technology and communication (ITC)

Ÿ Concerns in the ITC world (e.g. intellectual property, privacy, piracy)


Making Choices: Being a Wise Consumer

Ÿ Factors affecting our choice of goods and services

Ÿ Messages conveyed by advertisements Ÿ The impacts of advertisements on our

consumption behaviours

Ÿ Rights and responsibilities of a consumer Ÿ Ways of managing money and other resources

in daily life 奇妙的世界

The Wonderful World


Mother Earth

Ÿ Surface of the Earth (continent & ocean) and changes in it

Ÿ Seasons in Hong Kong

Ÿ Pattern of climate in Hong Kong 四海一家

Children in Other Parts of the World

Ÿ Lifestyles in some other countries of the world, e.g. food, clothing, lodging, transport, games Ÿ Similarities and differences between children in

the local community and other parts of the world

Ÿ Getting along with children in other parts of the world

Ÿ Respecting children with customs and behaviours different from our own 齊來聽聽看看

Hearing and Looking at Fantastic Things

Ÿ Investigating light and sound

Ÿ The wonderful world of colours and sound Ÿ Special effects of sound and light

Ÿ Protecting our eyes and ears 資源和環境


Environment, Our



The Environment and I

Ÿ The natural environment of Hong Kong Ÿ Features of the built environment Ÿ How human beings are affected by the

environment and what they have done in response to natural hazards

Ÿ Protecting our environment

Ÿ Environmentally friendly behaviours


Appendix 3

Theme Unit Content

美麗的植物 Beautiful Plants

Ÿ Basic needs of plants Ÿ The wide variety of plants

Ÿ Functions of observable parts of a plant Ÿ Interdependence of plants & animals 大地寶庫:水

Natural Resources:


Ÿ Uses of water

Ÿ Purification of water Ÿ Investigating water 慶祝國慶

The National Day

Ÿ Establishment of the PRC Ÿ Celebrating the national day Ÿ National flag and national anthem Ÿ Hoisting of the national flag


Appendix 3 P.5

Theme Unit Content

生命變變變 Life: Change, Change, Change

童裝大碼、成人細碼 Puberty

Ÿ Changes experienced at puberty Ÿ Healthy habits at puberty Ÿ Managing emotions and stress

Ÿ Protecting ourselves from sexual abuse Ÿ Seeking help and advice when in need 生命的接棒

Continuation of Life

Ÿ Need for continuation of life Ÿ Cycles in the living world 珍惜生命

Respect for Life

Ÿ Recognizing one’s own strengths and weaknesses

Ÿ Proper attitudes towards life 都市生活

Life in the City


Natural Resources: Air

Ÿ Air: basic need for survival Ÿ Characteristic properties of air Ÿ Air and burning

Ÿ Inter-relationship between green plants & the atmosphere

電的故事 Switched On

Ÿ Closed circuits

Ÿ Investigating electricity (simple circuits) Ÿ Electricity and everyday life

Ÿ Safety in using electricity

Ÿ Conservation of resources by using less electricity


Substance Abuse

Ÿ Smoking and its effect on our health Ÿ Effects of alcohol on our health Ÿ Causes and effects of substance abuse Ÿ Keeping away from smoking, alcohol and

substance abuse 環境、科技與文化

Physical Environment, Technology and Culture

Ÿ The impact of the physical environment on people’s life

Ÿ Advancements in science and technology in improving our living and society

Ÿ Positive attitudes towards using technology Ÿ The impact of cultural exchange on the

development of human society Ÿ Big cities in the world

Ÿ Some common problems in big cities

Ÿ Ways of improving our living and our society 活在資訊中

Information &


Ÿ Information processing using technology Ÿ Information to be represented in the form of

graphics and sound

Ÿ Communication with the aid of technology Ÿ Assisting people with special needs in


Ÿ Different forms of mass media in our society and their importance

Ÿ Impacts of mass media on our daily life Ÿ Proper attitudes towards mass media

Ÿ How messages are conveyed by the mass media




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