Wen Zhi-Hong PhD
Lab: 海B4018 (Marine Biomedical science Lab)
Molecular Cell Biology, 6th edition, Harvey Lodish et al., 2008, W.
H. Freeman and Company.
• Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition, Bruce Alberts et al.,
2002, Garland Science.
Essential Cell Biology,
16次小考平均(85%) + 出席 (15%) = 100 % 全班總成績最高定為99分
考試時間:週三 9:00-9:15 (上課前)
考試題型: 選擇題 是非題 填空題 簡答題
考試內容: 書本原文, 各大研究所考題, 上課必考題
1. Life begins with cells 2. Chemical foundations
3. Protein structure and function
4. Basic molecular genetic mechanisms 5. Visualizing fractionating, and culture 6. Biomembrane structure
7. Transmembrane transport of ions and small molecules 8. Move protein into membrane and organelle
9. Vesicular traffic, secretionk and endocytosis 10.Microfilaments-I
11.Microtubules and intermediate filaments 12.Nerves cells
• MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY
• SIXTH EDITION
• MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY
• SIXTH EDITION
Copyright 2008 ©W. H. Freeman and Company
• CHAPTER 1
• Life Begins with Cells
• CHAPTER 1
• Life Begins with Cells
Lodish • Berk • Kaiser • Krieger • Scott • Bretscher •Ploegh • Matsudaira
© 2008 W. H. Freeman and Company
西元 西元 1665 1665 年，英國科學家虎克 年，英國科學家虎克 ( ( Robert Hooke) Robert Hooke) 首次 首次 以自製的顯微鏡，觀察軟木塞，看到許多蜂窩狀的 以自製的顯微鏡，觀察軟木塞，看到許多蜂窩狀的
小格子，並以拉丁文 cellulae cellulae ( ( 小房間之意 小房間之意 ) ) 命名之 命名之
--- --- 細胞 細胞 ( ( CELL) CELL) 的由來 的由來
T. Schwan ( 動物學家 ) 和 M. Schleiden ( 植物學家 )提出細胞學
(一) 細胞是構成生物體的基本單位。(unit of structure) (二) 細胞是生物體的基本生理單位。(unit of physiology) (三) 細胞是生物體的發育單位；或 “All arise from
細胞 細胞 組織 組織 器官 器官 系統 系統 個體 個體
mm= 毫米 =(10-3
Single cell → multiple cell → complex structure, organ… → body
It grow, reproduces, process information, respond to stimuli and carry out an amazing array of chemical reactions. → definelife
Cell biology is a integrative science that brings together
biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, microscopy,
genetics, physiology, computer science and developmental
The diversity and commonality of cells
Some move rapidly and have fast- changing structure (amoebae
Oxygen: skill or absolute requirement.
Most organisms are multiple cell Unicellular organisms live. Such
as the bacteria that live in our intestines and help us digest food.
A single ~200 mm cell, the human egg, with sperm, which are also single cells. From the union of an egg and sperm will arise the 10 trillion cells of a human body.
Cells come in a astounding (令人驚奇) assortment (分類) of shapes and sizes Blood cell
Plant cell 真細菌eubacteria 古細菌archaebacteria
alga purkinje Epithelial cell
Prokaryotic cell: outer has plasma membrane but lacks a defined
nucleus, and has a relatively simple internal organization.
Bacteria (blue-green algae, cyanobacteria), the most numerous prokaryotes which are single –celled organisms.
There is no membrane-bounded compartments, however many proteins are precisely localized in their aqueous interior, or cytosol
→ internal organization.
One E coli bacterium 2.5 x 10-14
g; In earth, about 5 x1030
one people about 70 kg
Eukaryotic cell: contain a defined membrane-bound nucleus and
extensive internal membranes that enclose compartments
Golgi vesicles: process and modify proteins.
Mitochondria: generate energy
Lysosomes: digest cell materials to recycle them.
Peroxisomes: precess materials to the surface to release them.
It comprise all members of the plant and animal kingdoms
E coli WBC
Nucleus outer membrane is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum → golgi vesicles process and modify proteins
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
– No Nucleus – No Organelles – Cell Wall of
peptidoglycan – Binary Fission
– 1 circular chromosome – Small
– Nucleus – Organelles
– If cell wall, Cellulose or chitin
– Linear chromosomes – 10-100um across
All cells are prokaryotic or eukaryotic
All organisms form simple bacteria to complex
evolved from a common, single celled progenitor
Plasmodium organisms (多核的原生質團), the parasites that cause malaria, are single celled protozona with a remarkable life cycle
SEM of mature oocysts and emerging sporozoites (孢子 體). Oocytes (成熟卵母細 胞): external surface of stomach wall cells and are encased with a membrane that protects them form the host immune system.
Transformation is a metamorposis
Even single cells can have sex
The yeast reproduces sexually and asexually, it had different mating type (a, α)
Viruses are the ultimate (最終的) parasites
Chicken pox水痘, influenza流行性感冒, pneumonia肺炎, polio小兒麻痺, rabies狂犬病, hepatitis, AIDS, common cold ect.
Virus must infect a host cell to grow and reproduce
In 1827, German physician Karl von Baer
Discovered: sperm cell + egg → fertilization → zygote (200μm) → development → proliferation →
differentiation → cell type → body
The first few cell division of a fertilized egg set the stage for all subsequent development
We develop from a single cell
Stem cells, cloning and related technique offer exciting possibilities but raise some concerns
Embryonic stem cell (EC cell) Reproduce copy:
1. Early stage of embryo →
separated → five groups cell → implanted to mother → produced five copy sheep.
2. Multiple single-celled embryos
→ remove nuclei → injection adult nuclei →implanted to mother → developed
Five genetically identical cloned sheep
Early cytoplasm had many or unknown factor→ induced
The molecules of a cell
Small molecules carry energy, transmit signals, and are linked into macromolecules
Much of the cell’s contents is a watery and small molecules.
The function of small molecule:
Energy: ATP, photosynthesis related
signal transduction: hormone, neurontransmitter
formation of macromolecule : monomer → polymer →
macromolecule such as cytoskeleton, protein, nucleic acid
Protein vary greatly in size, shape and function
Proteins give cells structure and perform most cellular tasks
Form 20 different amino acids Only protein has functions
Amino acid → peptide → poly peptide →10→ 20→30→40→ functional protein Protein family: are similar to one another and therefore can be considered members Enzyme: catalyst
Nuclei acids carry coded information of making protein at the right time and place
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, consist from nucleotide (ATCG) Double helix, and complementary ; also called gene
One gene define = may produced protein Human about 40000 gene
T C A G
Cells use two processes in series to convert the coded information in DNA to protein
First, transcription (DNA→ mRNA)
Second, translation (mRNA → protein) RNA polymerase
Messenger RNA Transcription factor
The coded information in NDA is covered into the amino acids sequences of proteins by a multistep process
The genome is package into chromosomes and replicated during cell division
Most of the DNA is located in the nucleus → extensively folded into the familiar structures → chromosomes
Genome: an organism comprises its entire complement of DNA.
Human 46 chromosomes: half the gene form mother, other half form father Male :XY; Female: XX, one x chromosome → barr body, not activity and
Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridiation; M-FISH
The work of cells
Plasma membrane: separated from the external environment
Plasma membrane consist from two layers of Phospholipid molecules.
Water-loving: hydrophilic; water hating: hydorphobic
In eukaryotic cell: cytosol and internal spaces of organelles differ form the cell external in terms of acidity, ionic composition and protein….
The watery interior of cells is surrounded by the plasma membrane
Cells build and degrade numerous molecules and structure
Mitochondria or chloroplast: ATP recycle
Lysosome: has many enzyme for degrade protein..
Peroxisome: degrade lipid
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) & golgi apparatus: protein production and modification
Cells change shape and move
network of protein fibers running throughout the cytoplasm that give a cell its shape & provide a basis for movement (cytoplasmic streaming)
microfilaments (actin*) about 7 to 8nm dia & of indefinite lengths. It is a universal eukaryotic protein 5% of total cell protein
intermediate filaments... (10nm dia ex: keratin, vimentin & lamin) protein fibers [rope-like] with an intermediate diameter spans
cytoplasm providing framework for mechanical strength made from a heterogeneous family of filamentous proteins
microtubules... 25nm dia tubulin proteins (highly conserved evolutionarily) 21-25 nm dia, up to several um long make long fibrillar protein complexes that form spontaneously repeating globular units: 2 different
proteins: alpha & beta tubulin
Cells sense and send information
Hydrophilic ligands bind to cell-surface receptors
Hydrophobic ligands diffuse across the plasma
membrane and bind to
intracellular receptors in the cytoplasm or the nucleus
Nuclear receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids, Vit D
Ion-channel-linked receptors G-protein-linked receptors Enzyme-linked receptors
Cells grow and divide
Cell cycle, mitosis; a parent cell into two daughter cell
The eukaryotic cell cycle had four stages:
S: synthesis phase
M: mitotic phase, replicated chromosomes separate
G1 and G2 phase: mRNA and protein are made
During interphase, which consists of G1, S and G2 phase, the cell
roughly doubles its mass.
Under starvation or when a tissue has reached its final size, cells will stop cycling and remain in a waiting state called G0.
Meiosis Diploid Haploid Gamete
Autosome (44 chromosomes) 2 (X or Y) are sex chromosomes
Dad made you a boy or girl
Die from aggravated assault or an internal program
Apoptosis: programmed cell death, a dying cell actually produces proteins necessary for self-destruction
It can prevent release damaged chemical to hurt other cells.
Investigating cells and their parts
m → symbol →μ : 10-6
• 毫米mm (mini-meter)
• 微米μm (micro-meter)
• 奈米nm (nano-meter)
Cell biology reveals the size, shape, and location of cell components
Confocol micoscopes Antibody
Fluorescent protein or chemcial
Biochemistry reveals the molecular structure and chemistry
of purified cell constituents
Genomics reveals differences in the structure and expression entire genomes
Proteomics (蛋白質體學) Genome (基因體)
Development biology reveals changes in the properties of cells as they specialize
Different gene expression → different protein expression → different cell physiology
Choosing the right experimental organism for the job Molecular divination → in vitro (cell model) → in vivo →
A genome perspecitve on evolution
Meatbolic proteins, the genetic code, and organelle structure are nearly universal
Many genes controlling developmental are remarkably similar in humans and other animals
Similar genes, conserved during evolution, regulate many developmental
processes in diverse animals