15 Optical Instruments

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15 Optical Instruments

"Gemini Observatory at sunset" by Mailseth

"Gemini South 01"

by Denys

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Sections

15.1 Two lens system 15.2 Simple Magnifiers

15.3 Compound Microscope s 15.4 Refracting Telescope 15.5 Cameras

15.6 Eyes

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15.1 Two Lens System

Total magnification:

If M is positive, the final image has same the orientation as the object.

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Image produced by a system of two thin lenses

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Image produced by a system of two thin lenses

Lens 1

Lens 2

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15.2 Simple Magnifiers

q ≈ h/25

q’

≈ h/f

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15.3 Compound Microscope

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15.4 Refracting Telescope

q

ey

/q

ob

q

ob ≈ h

/

fob and

q

ey ≈ h/fey

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The astronomical telescope

The optical system of an astronomical refracting telescope.

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The reflecting telescope

Three designs for reflecting telescopes. Part (d) shows the Gemini North telescope, which uses the design in (c) with an objective mirror 8 meters in diameter.

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SPHERICAL ABERRATION

• The Hubble Space Telescope

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15.5 Cameras

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A digital Camera

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Camera lens basics

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15.6 The eye

• The optical behavior of the eye is similar to that of a camera.

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Defects of vision

The near point typically recedes with age, as shown in Table 34.1.

Figure at right shows a normal, a myopic, and a hyperopic eye.

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Farsighted correction

• Figure below shows how to correct a hyperopic (farsighted) eye using a converging lens.

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Nearsighted correction

• Figure below shows how to correct a myopic (nearsighted) eye using a diverging lens.

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Correcting for farsightedness

1 1 1 1 1

2.5cm 100cm

33cm power = 1 3 diopters

f p i

f f

  

 

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Correcting for nearsightedness

1 1 1 1 1

48cm

48cm power = 1 2.1 diopters

f p i

f f

  

 

   

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Correcting for Astigmatism

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Figure

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