Suggested Schemes of Work for the Elective Part of the Three-year Senior Secondary English Language Curriculum (Secondary 4 – 6)

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for the Elective Part

of the Three-year Senior Secondary

English Language Curriculum (Secondary 4 – 6)

English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau

The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

© 2007

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Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau

The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

12

th

Floor, Wu Chung House, 213 Queen's Road East, Wan Chai, Hong Kong

First published 2007

All rights reserved. The copyright of the materials in this booklet belongs to the Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Duplication of materials in this package is restricted to non-profit making educational purposes only.

Otherwise, no other part of these materials may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

ISBN: 978-962-8967-18-6

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This booklet, Suggested Schemes of Work for the Elective Part of the Three-year Senior Secondary English Language Curriculum (Secondary 4 – 6), is prepared in support of the English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 – 6) (2007) and is meant to be read in conjunction with it. The booklet provides detailed guidelines and teaching ideas to help teachers to plan and implement the Elective Part of the three-year Senior Secondary English Language curriculum more effectively in their own school. It comprises a general description and a suggested scheme of work for each of the modules in the Elective Part, which are categorised into the following two groups:

Language Arts

• Learning English through Drama

• Learning English through Short Stories

• Learning English through Poems and Songs

• Learning English through Popular Culture Non-Language Arts

• Learning English through Sports Communication

• Learning English through Debating

• Learning English through Social Issues

• Learning English through Workplace Communication

The general description sets out for each module the learning targets and objectives, the content, the time allocation and the suggested assessment practices that teachers are encouraged to adopt to promote learning. The scheme of work comprises a range of learning, teaching and assessment activities for each module, with suggestions on how to cater for learner diversity.

It should be noted that teachers may take more or less than the recommended time allocation of 32- 36 hours to fully cover the various types of materials and activities suggested in the schemes of work, depending on their school contexts, teacher preferences and students’ needs, interests and abilities. Teachers are therefore encouraged to freely adapt the schemes or to select what they deem is appropriate for their students.

Each scheme of work contains a number of references to websites where useful language learning and teaching materials can be accessed. The web links or addresses provided in the schemes were accurate at the time this booklet went to press. However, they are subject to change, and in case they have been moved, teachers might consider regaining access by making use of a search engine (e.g. Google, Yahoo).

To further support the schemes and to illustrate how certain tasks or activities can be implemented, selected teaching resource materials for each module have been developed and can be accessed at the English Language Education Section website (http://cd.edb.gov.hk/eng).

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Page Language Arts

Learning English through Drama

Outline 1

Suggested Scheme of Work 3

Learning English through Short Stories

Outline 11

Suggested Scheme of Work 13

Learning English through Poems and Songs

Outline 25

Suggested Scheme of Work 27

Learning English through Popular Culture

Outline 41

Suggested Scheme of Work 43

Non-Language Arts

Learning English through Sports Communication

Outline 55

Suggested Scheme of Work 57

Learning English through Debating

Outline 69

Suggested Scheme of Work 71

Learning English through Social Issues

Outline 91

Suggested Scheme of Work 93

Learning English through Workplace Communication

Outline 107

Suggested Scheme of Work 109

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Learning English through Drama

General Description

In this module, drama is used as a medium through which learners engage in purposeful communication. Learners will have the opportunity to read/view and appreciate drama texts/

performances. Drama activities which offer an extensive range of contexts and roles will be used to boost learners' self-confidence in using English, and to develop their language skills, notably their pronunciation and oral skills, as well as generic skills such as creativity, and communication, collaboration and critical thinking skills. Learners may be asked to participate in the production of a dramatic performance at the end of the module.

Learning Targets

To develop learners' ability to:

• respond to characters, events, issues and themes in dramatic texts through oral, written and

• reflect on the way in which writers use language to create effects

• give expression to imaginative ideas or their own experience through creating drama

• participate with others in planning, organising and presenting dramatic performances

• understand how the English language works in the context of drama, and how dramatic texts are organised and expressed, and apply this understanding to their learning and use of the language Learning Objectives

1. To strengthen learners' skills of understanding and interpreting dramatic texts through reading and writing

2. To enhance learners' oral skills by encouraging them to experiment with language in different roles and dramatic contexts

3. To strengthen learners' creativity through script writing, oral activities and dramatic performances 4. To help learners to reflect on and evaluate their own performance and those of others

Content

The module comprises three parts.

Part 1 focusses on equipping learners with the knowledge and understanding of the basic skills needed for performing in drama and writing scripts.

Part 2 focusses on providing learners with the experience of writing short scenes and performing dramatised reading.

Part 3 focusses on providing learners with the experience of producing and performing a play.

Time Allocation

It is recommended that a total of around 50 periods be allocated to the teaching of this module. The suggested number of periods is based on the assumption that schools are running 40-minute periods.

Schools may adjust the number of periods if their time-tabled periods are of a different duration.

performative means

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The breakdown for the three parts can be as follows:

Part 1 12 periods Part 2 16 periods Part 3 22 periods Assessment

Below are some suggested assessment practices that teachers are encouraged to adopt to inform learning and teaching. Information on public assessment for the modules in the Elective Part is provided in Chapter 5 of the English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) (2007).

Assessment in the Drama module will focus on learners' demonstration of their ability to:

• use stress and intonation, verbal and non-verbal ways of conveying feelings, emotions and motivations

• use a familiar story to write a short play script

• evaluate scripts given a set of criteria

• perform dramatised reading

• produce and perform a play

• evaluate a performance given a set of criteria

A range of oral and written activities in the course of the module can be used for assessing learner performance. These include:

• quizzes

• process writing

• play scripts

• role-plays

• group rehearsals and performances

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A suggested scheme of work for Learning English through Drama

General remarks

1. The following suggested scheme of work is pitched at S5 level. Teachers might like to make any necessary adaptations considering the needs and level of ability of their students. For illustration purposes, teaching materials have been developed to indicate how some of the lessons could be conducted. These materials are marked with a ^ in the Teaching Resources column and are available online at http://cd.edb.gov.hk/eng. There are also suggested activities catering for students with different needs and paces of learning in the online Teaching Resources. Teachers might like to use their discretion as to whether to adopt them for use.

2. This module requires students to apply, in particular, the knowledge about creative and imaginative texts as well as writing and oral (notably pronunciation) skills that they have developed in the Compulsory Part. It aims to provide the basis for further exploration of these texts and skills through reading and writing drama scripts as well as performing role-plays and/or a play. Students taking this module are expected to have had previous exposure to these texts.

3. The very nature of this module requires that students work in pairs and in small groups. Teachers will need to oversee that the groups are formed appropriately and that they stay on task.

4. Students should be encouraged to keep a folder for this module which will serve as a record of their learning. The folder may comprise all the assignments the students have done for the module, both oral and written. Students are also encouraged to reflect on and monitor their own learning process, and teachers should provide them with feedback and assistance where necessary.

Suggestions on how to cater for students with different needs and paces of learning are indicated by

* in the Remarks column.

Sections which are marked with # in the Focus column contain activities which are either more

demanding or are intended to further enrich students' learning experience. Teachers should use

their discretion as to whether to include or skip these sections, or to replace them with other

appropriate learning activities, based on students' needs and abilities.

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 1:

Mastering the basics

12 periods Lessons 1-12 Module

introduction Drama vocabulary

2 periods Lessons 1-2

Students are able to:

• understand and use some vocabulary building strategies and drama vocabulary

The teacher introduces the module to the students, and discusses with them what will be covered.

The teacher uses the drama vocabulary list as a prompt to start off the module.

Stress and intonation

2 periods Lessons 3-4

Students are able to:

• use correct pronunciation and appropriate stress and intonation to convey meaning

Students practise using stress and intonation to alter meaning.

Identification and expression of emotions, feelings and motivations

2 periods Lessons 5-6

Students are able to:

• establish and infer meaning from verbal and non-verbal cues

• understand a speaker's intention, attitudes and feelings

Students brainstorm and discuss verbal and non-verbal ways of showing emotions, feelings and motivations.

Students watch three clips of scenes from popular movies in their own time to identify how emotions, feelings and motivations are demonstrated and discuss them in class.

Stages of script writing

4 periods Lessons 7-10

Students are able to:

• demonstrate understanding of the different elements of a script

• write a simple script

• demonstrate awareness of how a script can be evaluated

Under the teacher's guidance, students go step-by-step through the stages of writing a short play based on a popular fairy tale:

• dividing it into acts and scenes;

• deciding on parts;

• writing the narration and dialogues;

and

• writing stage directions.

Students write brief comments as a preliminary evaluation.

Role-play of a short scene

2 periods Lessons 11-12

Students are able to:

• role-play a short scene

• reflect on their own performance

• demonstrate awareness of how a role-play can be evaluated

In groups, students role-play a short scene.

Students evaluate group members' performance using a set of criteria.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^A handout on drama vocabulary

Teachers might like to introduce to students at the beginning of the module that they will be involved in:

• script writing;

• creating and role-playing short scenes;

• dramatised reading; and

• producing and performing a play or an extended role-play at the end of the module.

Teachers might like to refer to http://www.tcss.edu.hk/acad/

Drama.htm for ideas on teaching drama.

^A handout on stress and intonation

Teacher assessment of students' ability to use stress and intonation to alter meaning can take the form of an oral quiz.

^A handout on emotions, feelings and motivations

^A clips viewing handout (Clips from three films that show different emotions, feelings or motivations)

Students' work on emotions, feeling and motivations can be placed in the folder.

(*For the less able students, teachers may choose only one of the suggested clips or any other clips they deem appropriate.)

^A handout on stages of script writing

Teacher assessment of the scripts students submit

The script can be placed in the folder.

(*At this stage, teachers need not require their students to write up the full script. Nevertheless, it would be best for teachers to stretch even the less able students by asking them to complete a short simple script, which is a very good practice to equip them to compose an original script in Part 3 of the module.

Teachers may choose not to ask their students to write stage directions depending on the level of ability of their students, otherwise it would be acceptable if students could only write very simple stage directions in phrases. The point here is to get them to think about the non-verbal elements and props that can be involved in a drama performance.)

^A role-play feedback form

Peer assessment of students' role-play

When introducing students to script writing, teachers may show them examples of scripts which are free for downloading at Whootie Owl's Free Fairytale Play Scripts www.storiestogrowby.com

The following sites are also useful resources for finding free, short scripts:

English Teaching Plays

http://home13.inet.tele.dk/dramakaj/language.html Lazy Bee Scripts

www.lazybeescripts.co.uk

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 2:

Writing short scenes and giving a dramatic reading

16 periods Lessons 13-28

Short scene writing and role-playing

4 periods Lessons 13-16

Students are able to:

• create short dramatic episodes based on a given situation

• role-play a scene they have created

• reflect on their own performance

• evaluate a role-play performed by others

In pairs or small groups, students write a short dialogue based on a simple scenario given and role-play it before the class.

Students evaluate their own and others' performance using a set of criteria.

Practice on expression of emotions, feelings and motivations

4 periods Lessons 17-20

Students are able to:

• understand and identify purpose, roles and context for different scenes of a drama

• convey ideas, feelings and motivations through both verbal and

non-verbal means

• perform a short scene

• reflect on their own performance

Students rewrite/improve the dialogue in order to effectively convey the emotions, feelings and motivations of the characters involved in the scene.

In groups, students act out the scene.

Students then evaluate the group performance of the scene using a set of criteria.

#Reader's Theatre

8 periods Lessons 21-28

Students are able to:

• understand and interpret the meaning of a drama text

• use correct pronunciation and appropriate stress and intonation in dramatic reading

• perform a script

• evaluate their own and others' rehearsal or performance

With the teacher's guidance, students read and understand a Reader's Theatre script.

Students rehearse and perform a Reader's Theatre script before the class.

Students evaluate their own and others' rehearsal or performance using a set of criteria.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^Scenario handout I

^A role-play feedback form (used in Lessons 11-12)

The dialogue written can

be placed in the folder. (*For the more able students, teachers might like to ask them to prepare dialogues for more than one of the scenarios given and discuss with them how they could tailor the writing to the particular audience they are aiming to perform for. Teachers could also encourage students to incorporate humor and an element of suspense to arouse and sustain the audience's interest.)

Teachers will need to explain to students how to make use of the role-play feedback form to reflect on their own or evaluate their peers' performance. Other feedback forms such as the script feedback form and the rehearsal and performance feedback form will also be introduced later in the module to let students become aware of the general criteria that can be used to evaluate their scripts and performance. The feedback forms included here are only suggestions and could be adapted to suit the teaching focus and the level and needs of the students.

^Scenario handout II

^A rehearsal and performance feedback form

Self, peer and/or teacher assessment of how well the revised scenario was able to convey feelings, emotions and motivations Self, peer and/or teacher assessment of students’

performance using the rehearsal and

performance feedback form

^A rehearsal and performance feedback form (used in Lessons 17-20)

Self, peer and/or teacher assessment of the Reader's Theatre performance using the relevant categories of criteria in the rehearsal and performance feedback form

Students’ performance may be recorded and included in the folder.

Reader's Theatre allows performers to hold scripts and read from them. Students will need to form small groups of 7-10 to put on their Reader's Theatre performance.

Reader's Theatre is a useful bridging activity that takes students from writing short scenes to getting ready for a full production in the third part of the module.

A Reader's Theatre script or more selection can be found at:

www.aaronshep.com

(*For the less able students, teachers may use very simple scripts from other sources and allow students to perform only one of the scenes of the play script.)

These lessons are meant to be additional activities to support the work done in Lessons 17-20. Teachers may feel free to replace the Reader's Theatre with any other activities they deem appropriate.

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 3:

Performing a play

22 periods Lessons 29-50 Production of an

original script

8 periods

Lessons 29-36 Students are able to:

• identify purpose, audience, roles and context for developing a script

• produce a script by selecting and organising relevant information as well as using

appropriate linguistic, structural and rhetorical devices, a variety of structures and vocabulary, and imaginative ideas

• draft, revise and edit a script using a set of criteria both independently and collaboratively

In groups, students write an original script for a 15-20 minute play based on a fairy tale or well-known story.

Students review the script using the script feedback form and revise it as needed.

Casting and rehearsal

8 periods Lessons 37-44

Students are able to:

• discuss and negotiate with others in

preparation for the performance

• identify and assume appropriate roles in staging the

performance

Students discuss the roles and

responsibility of the group members and assign each one a speaking part.

Each group rehearses their play.

Final performance

6 periods Lessons 45-50

Students are able to:

• plan, organise and carry out a drama

performance

• evaluate their own and others' rehearsal or performance

Students perform the play (15-20 minutes) for classmates.

Students evaluate their own and others' rehearsal or performance using a set of criteria.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^Handouts on script writing and play performing

^A script feedback form

Self, peer and/or teacher assessment of students' work during the script writing process using the script feedback form

Teachers should make sure that all students have speaking parts. This may mean dividing a speaking part, such as the narrator's narration.

Although this activity uses a familiar story such as a fairy tale as the basis of the script, students should be encouraged to make the play their own by changing elements of the story to make it original and to increase the entertainment value.

Students should be encouraged to be as creative as possible.

(*Teachers may allow the less able students to produce a shorter script for a role-play of about 10 minutes with fewer acts and scenes, with simple stage directions or without them.

Teachers may encourage the more able students to create a story of their own instead of using a familiar one for producing the play script. The script could be a fully

developed one with dialogues, monologues and all necessary stage directions.)

^A rehearsal and performance feedback form (used in Lessons 17-20)

Teacher assessment of the final written script which students submit at the time of their class performance

Self, peer and/or teacher assessment of students' performance during the rehearsal using the rehearsal and

performance feedback form

The final play script should be placed in the folder.

^A rehearsal and performance feedback form (used in Lessons 17-20)

Self, peer and/or teacher assessment of the final class performance using the criteria in the

rehearsal and

performance feedback form. The performance may be recorded so that the teacher and students can view the performance and discuss how

improvements can be made. The recording of the performance can be included in the folder. It is also a very nice artifact for students to take away with them at the end of the module.

(*Teachers may ask the less able students to do a role-play consisting of a few scenes and short dialogues without producing such technical aspects as lighting and staging. The role-play could last for about 10 minutes.

For the more able students, teachers might like to ask them to perform their play to an intended audience as an extended activity. The intended audience might be a primary school audience, a lower form English class, a parent group, a school assembly, etc. In this case, teachers should let students discuss what kind of audience they would be performing for, where the performance is to take place and how these might affect the choice of story and how the play is to be written before Part 3 of the module starts. The

performance for the intended audience in the venue arranged by the teacher could take place after the module.

Teachers might also like to adopt a more comprehensive approach to cover different aspects of drama including costumes, lighting and publicity to make the performances fuller and richer.)

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Learning English through Short Stories

General Description

This module introduces learners to the world of short stories, encouraging them to read, write and tell them. Learners will be engaged in different activities which aim to develop their understanding of the major features of short stories, their language skills, cultural awareness, critical thinking skills and creativity. Learners will either write their own story or develop a given story outline at the end of the module.

Learning Targets

To develop learners' ability to:

• understand the major features of short stories (e.g. theme, character, plot)

• respond and give expression to the imaginative ideas and feelings expressed in short stories through oral, written and performative means

• understand how the English language works in short stories and apply this understanding to their learning and use of the language

Learning Objectives

1. To help learners to understand the concepts of narration, setting, character, theme and symbol, as well as to consider ways of creating mood, and of writing good story openings, closings and 2. To help learners to apply the concepts and techniques they have learned in their own writing 3. To enhance learners' skills and interest in reading and appreciating short stories from a wide

variety of sources

4. To help learners to talk about works of fiction in an informed way 5. To introduce learners to story telling as an art form

Content

The module comprises three parts.

In Part 1, learners are introduced to the aims, design and content of the module. They will learn to identify and understand the key features of a short story, and read short stories with appreciation.

In Part 2, learners read and write specific aspects of a short story such as setting, character, theme, dialogue, opening and closing. They will also start to write their own story for the module by gathering ideas and producing drafts.

In Part 3, learners practise oral and story telling skills by sharing a story of their own choice with the class. They will finalise the draft for their module story and perform it to the class.

Time Allocation

It is recommended that a total of around 50 periods be allocated to the teaching of this module. The suggested number of periods is based on the assumption that schools are running 40-minute periods.

Schools may adjust the number of periods if their time-tabled periods are of a different duration.

dialogue

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The breakdown for the three parts can be as follows:

Part 1 9 periods Part 2 21 periods Part 3 20 periods Assessment

Below are some suggested assessment practices that teachers are encouraged to adopt to inform learning and teaching. Information on public assessment for the modules in the Elective Part is provided in Chapter 5 of the English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) (2007).

Assessment in the Short Stories module will focus on learners' demonstration of their ability to:

• understand concepts and techniques of short story writing

• apply this understanding to create short examples

• produce a written short story

• comment helpfully on the work of others

• tell or perform stories orally

• read and comment on a number of short stories

A range of activities will be used for assessing learner performance, including:

• short pieces of writing

• an end-of-course short story

• oral performances

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A suggested scheme of work

for Learning English through Short Stories

General remarks

1. The following suggested scheme of work is pitched at S5 level. Teachers might like to make any necessary adaptations considering the needs and level of ability of their students. For illustration purposes, teaching materials have been developed to indicate how some of the lessons could be conducted. These materials are marked with a ^ in the Teaching Resources column and are available online at http://cd.edb.gov.hk/eng. There are also suggested activities catering for students with different needs and paces of learning in the online Teaching Resources. Teachers might like to use their discretion as to whether to adopt them for use.

2. This module requires students to apply the knowledge and experience about creative and imaginative texts they have developed in the Compulsory Part. It aims to provide them with opportunities to further explore these texts through reading short stories, telling short stories and writing a story of their own.

3. Students should be encouraged to keep a folder for this module which will serve as a record of their learning. The folder may comprise all the assignments the students have done for the module, both oral and written. Students are also encouraged to reflect on and monitor their own learning process, and teachers should provide them with feedback and assistance where necessary.

Suggestions on how to cater for students with different needs and paces of learning are indicated by

* in the Remarks column.

Sections which are marked with # in the Focus column contain activities which are either more

demanding or are intended to further enrich students' learning experience. Teachers should use

their discretion as to whether to include or skip these sections, or to replace them with other

appropriate activities, based on students' needs and abilities.

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 1:

Reading and appreciating short stories

9 periods Lessons 1-9

Module introduction Reading and understanding the key features of a short story

3 periods Lessons 1-3

Students are able to:

• understand the aims, design and content of the module

• identify the various key features of a short story

• demonstrate understanding of the features by writing personal responses to them in the reading journal

The teacher briefly introduces the module, stating that it focusses on reading, writing and telling short stories.

Under the teacher's guidance, students read a short story to pick out interesting features and express their personal opinions about it.

Reading short stories with appreciation

6 periods Lessons 4-9

Students are able to:

• read, enjoy and

appreciate short stories

• demonstrate a more critical understanding of fiction

• explore sources for short works of fiction

• keep a reading journal

The teacher continues to guide students to read and appreciate short stories. Students focus on one or two short stories for comprehension and appreciation.

The teacher explains the reading journal that students need to keep and gives examples of the types of work that could be included (very brief summaries, their feelings, comments on striking features and techniques, and judgement of success or failure).

Students apply the knowledge they have developed regarding the features of short stories in the reading and discussion activities of the stories. They record their reactions/reflections on the stories they have read.

Students share their reading and insights in groups.

Students discover sources of stories, look at books, magazines and websites and recommend short stories to one another.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^A handout on reading and

understanding a story

^A handout on story resources

A reading journal should be kept by students to record their reflections on stories they have read.

Students' work on reading and understanding a story can be included in the folder.

Teachers might like to inform students at the beginning of the module that they will:

• record their reflections on stories they have read in a reading journal;

• produce short pieces of writing as practices;

• take part in story telling; and

• write a story of about 300 words.

Teachers may either choose a very short story for students to read in class or ask them to read one as preparation before they come to class.

Teachers may refer to the examples in the handout on reading and understanding a story and choose one of the stories there or use any other they deem appropriate.

Teachers may also refer to the handout on story resources for short stories of different levels of difficulty.

No one short story contains all the features covered in the module and the approach taken will vary from story to story.

The common pattern is to have pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading activities.

Sample journal entries

Entries in the reading journal

Observation of group discussions

Some of the lesson time can best be spent in the library or a computer room so that students can explore resources together.

(*Taking into account the level of their students, teachers select suitable short stories and ask the class to read them.

For the less able students, teachers might like to use

simplified texts; others may give the students carte blanche to find their own stories. Schools must decide what works with their students.)

Traditional stories are a very rich resource: Greek myths and legends, the Arabian Nights, King Arthur, Robin Hood, the Bible, Buddhist Jataka tales, fairy tales and Brer Rabbit, etc.

Students should be encouraged to read a couple of stories (teachers might like to exercise their discretion as to the exact number) about the length of those suggested for Lessons 1-3 and apply the basic concepts involved in the discussion of works of fiction at an elementary level in the reading journal.

Teachers might like to organise group discussion activities to give students more opportunities to get involved in group interaction as well as to practise their oral skills.

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 2:

Reading and writing specific aspects of a short story and planning the module story

21 periods Lessons 10-30

Story outlines 1 period Lesson 10

Students are able to:

• demonstrate awareness of writing a story

• write a story outline

Students read samples of story outline.

Students practise modifying or adapting story outlines.

Setting 2 periods

Lessons 11-12

Students are able to:

• demonstrate awareness of the idea of setting

• expand vocabulary and create a setting

The teacher explains the idea of setting and shows how the story outlines will fit a very large number of different settings.

Students look at examples of ways to create setting. The focus will mainly be description and detail.

Students apply the five senses to writing description/setting for their own stories.

Students make written comments on the work of peers.

Character 2 periods Lessons 13-14

Students are able to:

• create character

• use vocabulary to create character

Students discuss and suggest ways in which a character can be made to come alive.

Students write short pieces, establishing character.

Dialogue 2 periods Lessons 15-16

Students are able to:

• demonstrate understanding of speech in fiction

• write dialogue

Students read dialogues in stories and consider how they make the story interesting.

Students look at examples of dialogue/

speech and say what sort of character, setting and mood they feel is established.

Students write a dialogue/speech with instructions given.

Students read each other's work and comment on it.

Theme 2 periods

Lessons 17-18

Students are able to:

• demonstrate understanding of the concept of theme

• identify some themes

• produce ideas to illustrate some themes

Students read and discuss some story outlines and decide what themes they illustrate.

Students discuss the themes some popular films cover.

Students produce ideas for stories to illustrate a number of themes or adapt their story outline to make it appropriate for a particular theme of their choice.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^A handout on story Students' work on modifying and adapting story outlines can be included in the folder.

Teachers may choose not to go over each and every specific aspect of a short story covered in this part and spend more lesson time on guiding students to read and appreciate short stories if necessary.

The length and sophistication of the various pieces of writing students produce will vary depending on their ability. A few lines to a paragraph is usually quite adequate.

Teachers may use the terms narrator or narration as simple shorthand ways of referring to things; however, these may be obstacles to students with limited vocabulary. Who tells the story, the way it is told may be preferred by some.

^A handout on setting Students' work on setting can be placed in the folder.

Peer review takes time to develop and for this first exercise in it only simple comments are needed, e.g. I like the way you describe the bus. It really feels crowded. Perhaps there could be sweat on the girl's face to suggest the heat. The aim is to encourage interest in each other's writing and willingness to look for ways to improve.

^A handout on character

The pieces of character writing can be placed in the folder.

Apart from the stories used in the previous lessons, teachers may extract more samples from published stories.

For further suggestions on character study, teachers may refer to the following website:

http://www.writingclasses.com/InformationPages/index.php/

PageID/106.

^A handout on writing The dialogue/speech written can be placed in the folder.

^A handout on themes

The pieces of writing on theme can be placed in the folder.

Teachers may make use of book blurbs for more examples of story outlines/summaries.

Throughout the module examples used in discussion can come from other media that the students are familiar with, e.g. films and songs, both of which are rich in themes.

dialogue outline

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities 2 periods

Lessons 19-20

Students are able to:

• read and write fables

The teacher introduces to students some famous fables and students determine the major features of the genre (e.g. morals/

messages for the reader).

Students decide on a message they would like to convey and then write a suitable fable.

Students read fellow classmates' fables and comment on them, saying what they think the message is.

Opening and closing

2 periods Lessons 21-22

Students are able to:

• demonstrate awareness of techniques used in opening and closing a story

• write the opening and closing of a story

Students read a number of stories and think of good ways to open and close stories.

Students write drafts for the opening and closing for their story outline.

Getting ideas and preparing for the module story

4 periods Lessons 23-26

Students are able to:

• plan and organise a story

• produce and revise the first draft of a story

The teacher tells/agrees with the class the details of the final story each student will write as part of the module.

The teacher discusses and agrees with the class the criteria for assessing each other's work.

Based on the established criteria, students hold discussions and comment on one another's ideas, respond to feedback and develop new ideas for the final story.

# Fables

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks Examples of fables to

be provided

The fables may be included in the folder.

Fables have been produced all over the world. For the West the most famous collections are those of Aesop, Phaedrus and La Fontaine. They can easily be found in print or on the Internet. Teachers may wish to include Chinese fables in English or some modern ones.

^A handout on opening and closing

The written work on the opening and closing of a story can be placed in the folder.

There are no rules about good openings and endings. The opening needs to attract the reader into the fictional world and the ending needs to leave some sense of closure and satisfaction that a mood or message has been conveyed or something of interest related.

The purpose of this lesson is simply to make the students aware that they need to think very carefully about the opening and closing of stories in particular.

The question of closed endings where readers are told exactly what happens, and of open ones where they are left with limited information, also needs to be brought up.

Perhaps teachers may also like to point out how hackneyed some closing sentences are. Then I woke up; it had all been a dream is usually a sign of a lazy writer unable to solve the problems his/her own story has set up.

(*The more able students may be engaged in further sharing and discussion of the opening and closing of stories they have read – how powerful or effective they are, and what difference there might be had a different opening or closing been used. They may also consider techniques such as flashback when thinking about narrative styles.

The less able students may be asked to think of one or two opening and closing lines for their story outlines.)

^A handout on the preparation of the module story A story writing feedback form with criteria established by both the teacher and students

Peer assessment based on the established criteria should be practised among students.

The focus could be on how well students include the elements they have explored in previous lessons. Then, on this basis they may make use of other features covered in the lessons that follow to enrich their stories. The idea is that each story will go through drafts, which will be included in the folder.

Students should know at the beginning that they have to write a story of about 300 words for the module. This lesson gives them time to think of the sort of story they want to write and to think about content.

Students need to be given time to learn the basic elements of short stories and also need time to produce a few drafts of the story, improving and refining with the help of their readers.

Thus this lesson has been placed about halfway through the module, and teachers may decide on the exact placing of this lesson taking into consideration the progress of their

students.

Given the time constraints the discussion should probably be held by the full class. Otherwise small groups can produce ideas and then share them.

(*For the less able students, revision of the drafts may focus mainly on content.)

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities

Twists 2 periods

Lessons 27-28

Students are able to:

• write twists to surprise readers

Students look at examples of stories with twists to understand the concept clearly.

Students share twists they have come across in films and stories.

Students think of twists for the story outlines they have been working on.

Students end a story with a twist.

#Symbols 2 periods Lessons 29-30

Students are able to:

• demonstrate understanding of the concept of symbols in stories

• write symbols

The teacher introduces the concept of symbols.

Students examine some examples of symbols and try to work out what the writer is trying to convey through them.

Students think of symbols that might be used in relation to the story or story outline and produce a paragraph or two.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^A handout on story twists

Famous twists – "The Necklace", Carrie, The Sixth Sense

The twists students produce can be placed in the folder.

Teachers may simply describe the stories and their twists, or tell a short story with an effective twist to the class.

^A handout on symbols

The examples of symbols that students produce can be placed in the folder.

Some teachers might wish to add allegory to the lesson.

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 3:

Telling stories, writing and performing the module story

20 periods Lessons 31-50

Sharing stories 6 periods Lessons 31-36

Students are able to:

• enjoy and share good stories

• use oral English and story telling skills

• evaluate story telling skills based on given criteria

With the teacher's guidance, students discuss how stories can be told orally effectively.

Students tell each other stories.

Students carry out peer evaluation using the feedback form.

Finalising the draft for the module story

6 periods Lessons 37-42

Students are able to:

• organise their own work

• share difficulties and ask for/give support

Students bring reading journals and story drafts to the class.

Students discuss problems with the teacher and classmates and take remedial actions.

Performing the module story

6 periods Lessons 43-48

Students are able to:

• use oral English expressively

• tell/perform and listen to stories

• gain and keep the attention of an audience

Students perform stories, focussing on the act of story telling.

Final display 2 periods Lessons 49-50

Students are able to:

• enjoy and share their good work

• review progress

• share and perhaps inspire others with a love of fiction and creative writing

Students put on a display of their work and invite guests to view it (even if only laid out on desks in a classroom or the library) prior to submitting their folders.

The teacher and some selected students will sum up their experience of the course and give it a sense of closure, just like a good short story.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^A handout on story telling A story telling feedback form

Peer and/or teacher assessment of students' performance using the story telling feedback form

Students should be told in advance that they each need to share a story with their class. The stories can be stories they have recently read, traditional stories, stories they have heard or learned about, or stories their families tell, etc. Each student should be given a time allocation.

These lessons seek to concentrate on the enjoyability of stories and help students to learn the basic story telling skills to prepare them for performing their own module story later in this part.

(*The more able students can be encouraged to tell stories with elaboration of details. The less able students do not need to actually tell the stories but briefly describe or summarise them.)

Teachers may also consider modelling telling a story to the class and get students to identify how a story can be told effectively.

Story telling has been a traditional art form in many societies and has been revived in many Western countries recently. If an opportunity arises, professional storytellers can be hired to come and perform. It would, of course, be a most valuable addition to this module.

"Writer's block" as well as disorganisation are frequent problems in story writing. These lessons, where everyone can see what others are doing and how far advanced they should be with their work, are intended to prevent the problems from getting out of hand. Lack of progress with stories or ideas to improve them, difficulties in locating suitable stories to read and comment on and any other problems can be spotted or aired during the lessons and receive remedial attention before it is too late.

^A handout on performing a story A performance feedback form

Peer and/or teacher assessment can be practised using the performance feedback form.

Students' performance can be videotaped and included in the folder.

Time limits will be necessary to ensure everyone gets the chance to tell their story.

In the interest of sharing work teachers may wish to have a module display board where work can be exhibited for others, or even a website set up.

Creating a bank of material produced by students would be an excellent idea. Story telling performances can be recorded and copies of good stories/pieces of writing and reading journals obtained with student permission. This will help create a standard for a school and help future students to decide if the course is one that suits them. It will also save a lot of questions about what exactly is expected of them as they can see the product of earlier classes.

Lists of favourite stories, recommendations of good authors, etc. can all be included.

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(This is a blank page.)

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Learning English through Poems and Songs

General Description

This module introduces learners to a variety of poems and songs with themes that are of interest to them. Learners will engage in different activities that aim to develop their appreciation of the themes and emotions expressed in poems and songs, acquaint them with poetic language and features, enhance their cultural awareness, stimulate their imagination, and foster their creative use of English.

Throughout the module, learners will write/rewrite poems or lyrics and present them through various means. Learners will also produce a journal that contains their own reflections on poems/lyrics they have read in the module.

Learning Targets

To develop learners' ability to:

• understand and appreciate a range of poems and songs

• respond and give expression to the imaginative ideas, moods and feelings expressed in poems and songs through oral, written and performative means

• understand how the English language works to convey themes and evoke feelings in poems and songs, and apply this understanding to their learning and use of the language

Learning Objectives

1. To help learners to understand the themes, structure, features and language in various poetic forms and songs

2. To help learners to understand how moods and feelings are conveyed in poems and songs 3. To help learners to apply the knowledge and techniques they have learned in their own creative

production or appreciation of poems and songs Content

The module comprises five parts.

Part 1 is an introductory component that helps learners to understand what the module will cover and what will be required for the Poem and Song Journal, which is a collection of student-selected poems and songs with their personal responses.

Part 2 introduces learners to various poems and songs. Learners will learn to identify and understand their features, structure, language and themes as well as appreciate them. This part also covers the vocabulary and techniques (e.g. simile, metaphor, rhyme, rhythm) that are used to create feelings, moods and meaning in poems and songs.

In Part 3, learners focus on reading and writing different types of poems, such as acrostics, shape poems, limericks, haikus and ballads. Learners will learn the characteristics and features of each of these different types of poem. They will also be encouraged to express various themes and personal feelings by producing poems of their own.

Part 4 focusses on songs. Opportunities are provided for learners to read and identify the language

features of song lyrics, to listen to and appreciate songs as well as to write/rewrite lyrics. Learners

will also be introduced to a musical and have the chance of performing a song.

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In Part 5, learners give a presentation or performance based on the poems or songs that they have selected.

Time Allocation

It is recommended that a total of around 50 periods be allocated to the teaching of this module. The suggested number of periods is based on the assumption that schools are running 40-minute periods.

Schools may adjust the number of periods if their time-tabled periods are of a different duration. The breakdown for the five parts can be as follows:

Part 1 2 periods Part 2 6 periods Part 3 19 periods Part 4 15 periods Part 5 8 periods Assessment

Below are some suggested assessment practices that teachers are encouraged to adopt to inform learning and teaching. Information on public assessment for the modules in the Elective Part is provided in Chapter 5 of the English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) (2007).

Assessment in the Poems and Songs module will focus on learners' demonstration of their ability to:

• understand and appreciate the themes and language of poems and songs

• apply some of the techniques they have learned in the creative production of poems and song lyrics

• revise their own poems and songs for content/desired effects

• perform poetry

Assessment will focus primarily on the written and spoken work produced by learners. This will include:

• written personal responses to poems and songs

• creative work, such as original haikus and rewritten lyrics

• presentations and performances

• work that demonstrates the creative use of language in real-life contexts

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A suggested scheme of work

for Learning English through Poems and Songs

General remarks

1. The following suggested scheme of work is pitched at S5 level. Teachers might like to make any necessary adaptations considering the needs and level of ability of their students. For illustration purposes, teaching materials have been developed to indicate how some of the lessons could be conducted. These materials are marked with a ^ in the Teaching Resources column and are available online at http://cd.edb.gov.hk/eng. There are also suggested activities catering for students with different needs and paces of learning in the online Teaching Resources. Teachers might like to use their discretion as to whether to adopt them for use.

2. This module requires students to apply the language knowledge and skills that they have developed in the Compulsory Part. It aims to provide the basis for further exploration of the various types of poems and songs. Students taking this module are expected to have had previous exposure to these imaginative text-types.

3. It should be noted that the main aim of this module is to make use of poems and songs as linguistically rich and pleasurable learning and teaching resources to develop students' language skills (e.g. using pronunciation, intonation, rhyme, rhythm, and figurative language to enliven their speech and writing) and sharpen their awareness of the use of poetic techniques in authentic texts, such as advertisements, greetings card messages and song lyrics. Students are not expected to develop an extensive or in-depth knowledge about poetic conventions and devices, or to demonstrate skillful use of them in the work they produce.

4. Students should be encouraged to keep a folder for this module which will serve as a record of their learning. The folder may comprise all the assignments the students have done for the module, both oral and written. Students are also encouraged to reflect on and monitor their own learning process, and teachers should provide them with feedback and assistance where necessary.

Suggestions on how to cater for students with different needs and paces of learning are indicated by

* in the Remarks column.

Sections which are marked with # in the Focus column contain activities which are either more

demanding or are intended to further enrich students' learning experience. Teachers should use

their discretion as to whether to include or skip these sections, or to replace them with other

appropriate learning activities, based on students' needs and abilities.

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 1:

Module introduction

2 periods Lessons 1-2

Students are able to:

• understand what the module will cover and the requirements of the Poem and Song Journal

Students bring back to class one or two of their favourite songs and poems. In small groups, they share their collection and discuss their interest and experience with poems and songs.

The teacher briefly introduces the module, stating that it focusses on the integrated use of language skills through appreciating poems and songs.

The teacher refers students to the handout on the Poem and Song Journal and explains what it involves.

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^A handout on the Poem and Song Journal

A sample showing students what a journal entry might look like

The Poem and Song Journal, which comprises students' own collection of poems and songs, can be reviewed regularly.

Teachers might like to explain to students that the module involves:

• reading, enjoying and appreciating poems and songs;

• learning about the features of different types of poems;

• writing some poems and song lyrics;

• keeping a Poem and Song Journal which comprises a collection of poems and songs of their own choice and their personal responses; and

• selecting one piece of work from their Poem and Song Journal for presentation at the end of the module.

Teachers might like to bring in a selection of poems and songs to put up on the board to create interest among students. They may also think of ways or opportunities for some of the work students do throughout the module to be displayed. As most of the products in this module are creative by nature, it would be motivating to students to see their work enjoyed by others, whether that be on a class homepage, a class publication at the end of the module, or on the walls of their classroom or school.

Teachers would need to make clear to students the reasons for them to keep a journal. Poems and songs, by their very nature, assume a personal response or interaction with the text. Students should be encouraged to freely express their personal views and feelings in response to poems and songs.

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 2:

Introduction to poems and songs

6 periods Lessons 3-8

Students are able to:

• read, enjoy and appreciate poems and

• identify and understand some features of poems and songs

• read aloud some poems

• explore sources for poems and songs

Students are introduced to some poems and songs, and are familiarised with the

vocabulary related to poem and song appreciation.

Students learn to read the poems aloud.

Students share their reading and insights in groups.

Students discover sources of poems and songs and make recommendations to one another.

songs

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^Handouts on some poems and songs

^A handout on poem and song vocabulary

Students' reading aloud of the poems

Entries in the Poem and Song Journal

Students' selections of poems and songs and the journal entries can be placed in the folder.

Students should be encouraged to start looking for poems and songs to be included in their Poem and Song Journal.

Some of the lesson time can be spent in a computer room or the Multi-media Learning Centre (MMLC) to allow students to explore resources together and have instant sharing.

Teachers might like to refer the students to the following websites for information about different poems and songs:

http://www.shadowpoetry.com/resources/wip/types.html http://www.algeo.net/poetry/page2.html

http://www.lyricsfreak.com/

(*For the less able students, teachers should give them more guidance on how to select poems and songs by suggesting criteria for text selection such as the level of difficulty in terms of content, theme and language.)

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Focus Suggested Time Allocation

Target Knowledge, Skills

and Attitudes Suggested Activities Part 3:

Reading and writing poems

19 periods Lessons 9-27 6 periods Lessons 9-14

Students are able to:

• identify and understand the characteristics and features of acrostics, shape poems and poems making use of different grammatical patterns

• express personal feelings and views through writing different kinds of poems

• use dictionary skills to develop vocabulary

Acrostics:

• Students read and identify the characteristics of acrostics.

• Students start writing acrostics to describe themselves and their classmates by using their names and their classmates' names.

• In groups, students brainstorm possible topics to write on. They then practise writing acrostics individually.

Shape poems:

• Students look at examples of shape poems and discuss their themes and characteristics.

• Students form small groups to share their feelings and views about particular objects, themes or images and take notes.

• Students write shape poems individually on a topic of their choice.

Using grammatical patterns:

• The teacher introduces the concept of making use of different grammatical patterns to write poems.

• Students read, analyse and write poems using different grammatical patterns.

Students can collaborate in groups to brainstorm for ideas and vocabulary and to give feedback to one another's drafts. They can then revise their drafts based on the feedback.

Students will read and share with class the different types of poems they produce.

Acrostics, shape poems and poems making use of different grammatical patterns

7 periods Lessons 15-21

Students are able to:

• identify and understand the characteristics of limericks and haikus

• read aloud limericks

Students read and discuss the characteristics of limericks. They then practise writing limericks.

Students read a number of haikus and identify their themes.

Limericks and haikus

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Teaching Resources

Suggested Student Work or Activities for Formative

Assessment

Remarks

^Handouts on:

• acrostics

• shape poems

• poems making use of different grammatical patterns

^A poem feedback form

The poems that students have produced can be self, peer and/or teacher assessed. The

assessment criteria should be given and explained to students in advance.

The poems can be placed in the folder.

The writing of acrostics provides students with an easy start-off point to poem writing. There are basically no strict rules to follow and it can be great fun. Students without much prior knowledge can still find it manageable.

Students can find acrostics on the following website:

http://www.holycross.edu/departments/socant/dhummon/

acrostics/acrostics.html

(*For the less able students, teachers might like to give them a list of suggested topics to help them to generate ideas.) For a variation on this part, teachers might like to have the whole class work on the same topic for their acrostics and let students see and share the wide variety of ideas that they come up with.

Shape poetry offers a lot of room for stretching both

imagination and creativity. It is also visually very appealing to students and can be very effective for arousing students' interests.

Students can find shape poetry on the following website:

http://pages.prodigy.net/sol.magazine/archives/shaped7.htm Teachers can choose to focus on any grammatical patterns to illustrate the concept to the students depending on their needs and ability. The point here is to make students recognise that learning grammatical patterns can be more than just rules. They can be applied creatively in poem writing to express a particular theme or personal feelings and emotions, or to tell a story.

Teachers might also like to make use of this poem writing exercise as a reinforcement of the various grammatical patterns students have learned in the Compulsory Part.

(*Teachers might consider asking the less able students to write simple poems made up of short sentences or phrases and choosing one particular grammatical pattern for them to start with.

The more able students can apply various grammatical patterns they have learned in their poems. Teachers might also like to encourage them to appropriately apply poetic features in their poems.)

For self, peer and teacher assessment of the poems that students write, emphasis should be placed on content and use of language to express feelings and emotions. Delivery techniques (e.g. pronunciation and eye contact) can also be assessed if students are asked to read and share their poems with the class. The more able students can also be assessed on style and the creative use of language.

^Handouts on:

• characteristics of limericks

• reading and

Students' reading aloud of the limericks

Students' work regarding the themes of the haikus they have read and

Students can find limericks in Lear, E. (1996).

The Book of Nonsense and Nonsense Songs. London:

Godfrey Cave. Limericks can also be found at

http://modena.intergate.ca/personal/gslj/limericks.html.

More haikus can be found at

Figure

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References

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