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**Table of Contents**

**Publisher’s Editorial**

**A New Memory**

### Solomon A. Garfunkel ... 93

**Special Section on the ICM**

**Results of the 2008 Interdisciplinary Contest** **in Modeling**

### Chris Arney ... 97 **Evaluation and Improvement of Healthcare**

**Systems**

### Luting Kong, Yiyi Chen, and Chao Ye ... 113 **Better Living through Math: An Analysis of**

**Healthcare Systems**

### Denis Aleshin, Bryce Lampe, and

### Parousia Rockstroh ...135 **The Most Expensive is Not the Best**

### Hongxing Hao, Xiangrong Zeng, and

### Boliang Sun ...155 **Judges’ Commentary: The Outstanding Healthcare**

**Papers**

### Sarah Root, Rodney Sturdivant, and

### Frank Wattenberg ...169

**Reviews** ...175

**Publisher’s Editorial**

**A New Memory**

### Solomon A. Garfunkel

Executive Director COMAP, Inc.

175 Middlesex Turnpike, Suite 3B Bedford , MA 01730–1459

s.garfunkel@comap.com

This past year, COMAP began publication of a new journal. While unlike almost all other COMAP products and publications, this journal did not originate with a specific COMAP project—rather, it came to us from the editors. We are excited about the innovative and unique nature of this publication. We are proud to unabashedly promote it here.

*The International Journal for the History of Mathematics Education is the*
only journal that is entirely devoted to the world history of mathematics
education. The major aim of this journal is to provide mathematics edu-
*cation with its memory, in order to reveal the insights achieved in earlier*
periods (ranging from ancient times to the late 20th century) and to unravel
the fallacies of past events.

The journal is published twice a year and each issue is roughly 100 pages long. It features research papers, notes, book reviews, and interviews. The Chief Editor is Gert Schubring, Bielefeld University, Germany; the Man- aging Editor is Alexander Karp, Teachers College, Columbia University, USA.

**Editorial Board**

Abraham Arcavi (Israel) Elena Ausejo (Spain) Ahmed Djebbar (France/Algeria) Eileen Donoghue (USA) Fulvia Furinghetti (Italy) Paulus Gerdes (Mozambique) Hélène Gispert (France) Wann-Sheng Horng (Taiwan) Jeremy Kilpatrick (USA) João Bosco Pitombeira (Brazil) Leo Rogers (Great Britain) Yasuhiro Sekiguchi (Japan) Harm Jan Smid (Netherlands)

*The UMAP Journal 29 (2) (2008) 93–95. c**!Copyright 2008 by COMAP, Inc. All rights reserved.*

Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice. Abstracting with credit is permitted, but copyrights for components of this work owned by others than COMAP must be honored. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists requires prior permission from COMAP.

**Excerpt**

Here is an excerpt from our third issue, December 2007, in which we in- terviewed Dr. Henry Pollak (former Director of Mathematics and Statistics Research at Bell Laboratories, now at Teachers College, Columbia Univer- sity), and he recounted some of his experiences through so many years in the field.

Henry Pollak.

There was the famous 1963 letter [Bers et al. 1962] that complained
*about the “New Math,” it was signed and published in both the Amer-*
*ican Mathematical Monthly and by NCTM [National Council of Teach-*
ers of Mathematics]. I signed that letter, as did one other person from
SMSG [School Mathematics Study Group], and I did it for a very good
reason, that is that I thought SMSG satisfied the conditions that had
been written down. [Morris] Kline and [Max M.] Schiffer and oth-
ers didn’t think so, but I did and it’s not that I was so crazy. It’s
that I lived in the middle of discrete mathematics. I lived at the fore-
front of understanding how important that is for applications. So the
structural part of SMSG was beautiful preparation for discrete math-
ematics. And the trouble is that people forget that telephony involves
not just transmission, which is classical mathematical physics, but also
switching, which was discrete mathematics in its most difficult form.

Terribly difficult and terribly interesting. And so I lived in both of these, Bell Labs and SMSG, you see, and so to me, what was going on in SMSG was beautiful for the modern applications of mathematics, and I think that the classical applied mathematicians who signed this letter didn’t understand this. It’s extremely difficult to get over the idea that something could be as important as the thousands of years of success of applying mathematics to physics. I mean, classical analy- sis is an enormous edifice of success, and yet the success of discrete mathematics in the last fifty years is enormous as well. So I think that

that is why I signed that letter. And nobody in SMSG ever complained about my signing that letter [laughs], because they understood. But I think a lot of the people at the time didn’t understand how applied mathematics was changing. Nowadays, and even by 1963 the defini- tion of applied mathematics is no longer just classical analysis applied to classical physics. It is a lot more than that. And when you look at all of applicable mathematics SMSG is excellent preparation for that.

It’s exactly what you want. [Karp 2007, 74–75]

More detailed information about the journal can be found at http://www.comap.com/historyjournal/index.html

**References**

Bers, Lipman, et al. 1962. On the mathematics curriculum of the high
*school. American Mathematical Monthly 69 (3) (March 1962): 189–193.*

*Karp, Alexander. 2007. Interview with Henry Pollak. The International*
*Journal for the History of Mathematics Education 2 (2): 67–89.* http://

www.comap.com/historyjournal/archives.htm.

**About the Author**

Solomon Garfunkel, previously of Cornell University and the Univer-
sity of Connecticut at Storrs, has dedicated the last 25 years to research and
development efforts in mathematics education. He has served as project
director for the Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications (UMAP)
and the High School Mathematics and Its Applications (HiMAP) Projects
*funded by NSF, and directed three telecourse projects including Against All*
*Odds: Inside Statistics, and In Simplest Terms: College Algebra, for the An-*
nenberg/CPB Project. He has been the Executive Director of COMAP, Inc.

since its inception in 1980. Dr. Garfunkel was the project director and host
*for the series, For All Practical Purposes: Introduction to Contemporary Math-*
*ematics. He was the Co-Principal Investigator on the ARISE Project, and is*
currently the Co-Principal Investigator of the CourseMap, ResourceMap,
and WorkMap projects. In 2003, Dr. Garfunkel was Chair of the National
Academy of Sciences and Mathematical Sciences Education Board Com-
mittee on the Preparation of High School Teachers.

**Modeling Forum**

**Results of the 2008 Interdisciplinary** **Contest in Modeling**

### Chris Arney, ICM Co-Director

Division Chief, Mathematical Sciences Division Program Manager, Cooperative Systems

Army Research Office PO Box 12211

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709–2211 David.Arney1@arl.army.mil

**Introduction**

A record total of 380 teams from three countries spent a weekend in Febru-
ary working in the 10th Interdisciplinary Contest in Modeling (ICM). They
confronted an open-ended interdisciplinary modeling problem involving pub-
lic health policy concerning healthcare systems. This year’s contest began on
Thursday, Feb. 14 and ended on Monday, Feb. 18, 2008. During that time, teams
of up to three undergraduate or high school students researched, modeled, an-
alyzed, solved, wrote, and submitted their solutions. After the weekend of
challenging and productive work, the solution papers were sent to COMAP
for judging. Three of the top papers, which were judged to be Outstanding by
the expert panel of judges, appear in this issue of*The UMAP Journal.*

COMAP’s Interdisciplinary Contest in Modeling (ICM) along with it sib- ling contest, the Mathematical Contest in Modeling (MCM), involves students working in teams to model and analyze an open problem. Centering its edu- cational philosophy on mathematical modeling, COMAP supports the use of mathematical tools to explore real-world problems. It serves society by de- veloping students as problem-solvers in order to become better informed and prepared as citizens, contributors, consumers, workers, and community lead- ers. The ICM and MCM are examples of COMAP’s efforts in working towards its goals.

*The UMAP Journal 29 (2) (2008) 97–111. c**!Copyright 2008 by COMAP, Inc. All rights reserved.*

Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice. Abstracting with credit is permitted, but copyrights for components of this work owned by others than COMAP must be honored. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists requires prior permission from COMAP.

This year’s public health problem was challenging in its demand for teams to utilize many aspects of science, mathematics, and data analysis in their modeling. The problem required teams to understand the data and nature of healthcare systems and to model the complex policy issues associated with the issues of financing and managing a nation’s healthcare system. In order to accomplish their tasks, the students had to consider many difficult and com- plex issues. Political, social, psychological, and technological issues had to be considered, along with several challenging requirements needing scientific and mathematical analysis. The problem also included the ever-present re- quirements of the ICM to use thorough data analysis, research, creativity, and effective communication. The author of the problem was Kathleen Crowley, Professor of Psychology at the College of Saint Rose.

All members of the 380 competing teams are to be congratulated for their excellent work and dedication to modeling and problem solving. The judges remarked that this year’s problem was challenging and demanding in many aspects of modeling and problem solving.

Next year, we will move to an environmental science theme for the contest problem. Teams preparing for the 2009 contest should consider reviewing interdisciplinary topics in the area of environmental issues.

**The Healthcare Problem**

**Finding the Good in Healthcare Systems**

Nations have systems for providing healthcare for their residents. Issues that are often of concern to people and are often in the news include which sys- tem is better and whether current systems can be improved. Aspects of these systems vary widely between nations: how they are funded; whether services are delivered through public, private, or non-profit organizations; whether public insurance is universal for all residents; who is eligible for assistance;

what care is covered; whether the latest medical procedures are available; and how much is required as user fees. Other factors that are often debated in deter- mining the quality of care include: coverage for complementary care (glasses, dental, prostheses, prescription drugs, etc.); which diseases are the most critical in improving overall health; percentage of GDP spent on healthcare; percentage of healthcare costs that goes toward labor/administration/malpractice insur- ance; ratio of public to private spending on healthcare; per capita spending on healthcare; growth of per capita spending on healthcare; number of partic- ipating physicians; per capita sick days; fairness of care in terms of age, race, gender, socio-economic class; and many more. Adding to the complications are health related factors such as personal exercise, food availability, climate, occupations of citizens, and smoking habits.

The World Health Organization (WHO), an agency of the United Nations, is a source of data on health factors. The annual World Health Report

http://www.who.int/whr/en/index.html assesses global health factors, and World Health Statistics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organisation provides health statistics for the countries in the U.N. The production and dis- semination of health statistics is a major function of WHO. To many people, these data and the associated analyses are considered unbiased and very valu- able to the world community. There are many other sources of reliable health data available.

**Part I: Describe several different outcomes (metrics) that could be used to**
evaluate the effectiveness of a country’s healthcare system, such as average life
expectancy of its residents. What metric would you use to make comparisons
between existing and potential systems? Can you combine your metrics to
make them even more useful in measuring quality?

**Part II: Identify current sources of data that provide the raw data needed to**
compute the metrics you have identified above. You may need to modify your
list of metrics based on the availability of data. Explain why you have selected
those data and demonstrate how they can be used to assess and compare the
relative effectiveness of healthcare systems as they exist in different countries.

**Part III: Choose at least three of the most important and viable metrics for**
comparing healthcare systems. Justify why these are the most useful for this
purpose. Can any of these help measure the historical change in an existing
healthcare system? Are they measurable and can the data be easily collected?

**Part IV: Use your three (or more) metrics to compare the United States**
healthcare system with one other country which is considered to have good
healthcare using the most recent year for which you have data. Which country
has the better healthcare system? Is your answer definitive?

**Part V: Using your metrics compare the United States and one other country**
which is considered to have poor healthcare using the most recent year for
which you have data. Which country has the better healthcare system?

**Part VI: Pick a country’s (U.S. or other) healthcare system and restructure**
it to improve the system based on your metrics. Build predictive models to test
various changes to determine if the changes will improve the overall quality of
the system. Suggest major change(s) that can improve the system.

**The Results**

The 380 solution papers were coded at COMAP headquarters so that names and affiliations of the authors were unknown to the judges. Each paper was then read preliminarily by “triage” judges at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, NY. At the triage stage, the summary, the model description, and overall organization are the primary elements in judging a paper. Final judging by a team of modelers, analysts, and subject-matter experts took place in April. The judges classified the 380 submitted papers as follows:

Honorable Successful

Outstanding Meritorious Mention Participation Total

Healthcare 3 53 175 149 380

The three papers that the judges designated as Outstanding appear in this
special issue of*The UMAP Journal, together with a commentary by the judges.*

We list those three Outstanding teams and the 53 Meritorious teams (and advi-
sors) below. The complete list of all participating schools, advisors, and results
is provided in the**Appendix.**

**Outstanding Teams**

**Institution and Advisor** **Team Members**

“Evaluation and Improvement of Healthcare Systems”

Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications Beijing, China

Qing Zhou

Luting Kong Yiyi Chen Chao Ye

“The Most Expensive Is Not the Best”

National University of Defense Technology Changsha, China

Ziyang Mao

Hongxing Hao Xiangrong Zeng Boliang Sun

“Better Living through Math:

An Analysis of Healthcare Systems”

Harvey Mudd College Claremont, CA

Darryl Yong

Denis Aleshin
Bryce Lampe
Parousia Rockstroh
**Meritorious Teams (53)**

Anhui University, China (Huayou Chen) Asbury College, Wilmore, KY (Duk Lee)

Beijing Jiaotong University, China (Hong Zhang) Beijing University of Posts, China (Tianping Shuai)

Beijing Language and Culture University, China (Xiaoxia Zhao) Central University of Finance and Economics, China (Zhaoxu Sun)

China University of Mining and Technology, China (2 teams) (Xingyong Zhang) (Shujuan Jiang)

Chongqing University, China (2 teams) (Renbin He) (Jian Xiao) College of Science of Harbin Engineering, China (Yu Fei)

Dalian University of Technology, China (4 teams) (Mingfeng He) (Liang Zhang) (Zhe Li) (Shengjun Xu)

Donghua University, China (Xiaofeng Wang)

East China University of Science and Technology, China (Lu Xiwen)

Fudan University, School of Management, China (Zhongyi Zhu)

Hangzhou Dianzi University, China (2 teams) (Zhifeng Zhang) (Chengjia Li) Harbin Institute of Technology, China (3 teams) (Zhu Lei) (Xiaofeng Shi)

(Xuefeng Wang)

Harbin University of Science and Technology, China (Fengqiu Liu) Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (Darryl Yong)

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China (Yan Dong) James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA (Hasan Hamdan) Jinan University, China (Shizhuang Luo)

Nanjing University, China (2 teams) (Huikun Jiang) (Li Wei Xu)

National University of Defense Technology, China (2 teams) (Mengda Wu) (Yi Wu) Peking University, China (2 teams) (Yuxin Liu) (Yuan Wang)

Peking University Health Sciences Center, China (Termison) Sichuan University, China (Hai Niu)

Sichuan Agricultural University, China (Shi Du) South China Normal University, China (Xiuxiang Liu) South China Agricultural University, China (YanKe Zhu)

South China University of Technology, China (2 teams) (WeiJian Ding) (ShenQuan Liu)

Shandong University at Weihai, China (Zhulou Cao) Tsinghua University, China (Mei Lu)

University of Science and Technology of China, China (2 teams) (Hong Zhang) (Yuanbo Zhang)

Xi’an Jiaotong University, China (Zhuosheng Zhang) Yuanpei College, China (Liman Sha)

Zhejiang University, China (2 teams) (Qifan Yang) (Zhiyi Tan) Zhejiang Gongshang University, China (Zhu Ling)

Zhuhai College of Jinan University China (3 teams) (YuanBiao Zhang) (Zhiwei Wang) (Yuanbiu Zhang)

**Awards and Contributions**

Each participating ICM advisor and team member received a certificate signed by the Contest Directors and the Head Judge. Additional awards were presented to the National University of Defense Technology team from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS).

**Judging**

*Contest Directors*

Chris Arney, Division Chief, Mathematical Sciences Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC

Joseph Myers, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY

*Associate Director*

Rodney Sturdivant, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY

*Judges*

Ben Cole, National Security Agency, Ft. Meade, MD

William C. Dowdy, U.S. Army Medical Department Activity, West Point, NY

John Kobza, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX

Sarah Root, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR

Frank Wattenberg, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY

*Triage Judges*

Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY:

Amanda Beecher, Randy Boucher, Robert Burks, Gabriel Costa, Jong Chung, Ben Cole, Brian Davis, Eric Drake, J. Dzwonchyk, Amy Er- ickson, Keith Erickson, Douglas Fletcher, Gregory Graves, Michael Harding, Alex Heidenberg, Heather Jackson, Anthony Johnson, Jerry Kobylski, Elizabeth Morseman, Joseph Myers, Donald Outing, Jack Picciuto, Todd Retchless, Jon Roginski, Tyler Smith, Brian Souhan, Rodney Sturdivant, Patrick Sullivan, Edward Swim, Krista Watts, Brian Winkel, and Robyn Wood

**Acknowledgments**

We thank:

*•* INFORMS, the Institute for Operations Research and the Management
Sciences for its support in judging and providing prizes for the INFORMS
winning team;

*•* IBM for their support for the contest;

*•* all the ICM judges and ICM Board members for their valuable and un-
flagging efforts;

*•* the staff of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY, for hosting the
triage and final judgings.

**Cautions**

*To the reader of research journals:*

Usually a published paper has been presented to an audience, shown to
colleagues, rewritten, checked by referees, revised, and edited by a journal
editor. Each of the student papers here is the result of undergraduates
working on a problem over a weekend; allowing substantial revision by the
authors could give a false impression of accomplishment. So these papers
are essentially au naturel. Light editing has taken place: minor errors have
been corrected, wording has been altered for clarity or economy, style has
*been adjusted to that of The UMAP Journal, and the papers have been edited*
for length. Please peruse these student efforts in that context.

*To the potential ICM Advisor:*

It might be overpowering to encounter such output from a weekend of work by a small team of undergraduates, but these solution papers are highly atypical. A team that prepares and participates will have an enrich- ing learning experience, independent of what any other team does.

**Editor’s Note**

As usual, the Outstanding papers were longer than we can accommo-
*date in the Journal, so space considerations forced me to edit them for length.*

It was not possible to include all of the many tables and figures.

In editing, I endeavored to preserve the substance and style of the paper, especially the approach to the modeling.

—Paul J. Campbell, Editor

**Appendix: Successful Participants**

KEY:

P = Successful Participation H = Honorable Mention M = Meritorious

O = Outstanding (published in this special issue)

INSTITUTION DEPT. CITY ADVISOR C

CALIFORNIA

Cal. State U. at Monterey Bay Science and Env’l Policy Seaside Herbert Cortez P

Harvey Mudd College Mathematics Claremont Darryl Yong O

Harvey Mudd College Mathematics Claremont Darryl Yong M

Harvey Mudd College Mathematics Claremont Rachel Levy H

Univ. of California, Davis Mathematics Davis Karl Beutner P

IOWA

Simpson College Mathematics Indianola William Schellhorn H

Simpson College Mathematics Indianola Debra Czarneski P

Simpson College Mathematics Indianola Rick Spellerberg P

KENTUCKY

Asbury College Mathematics and CS Wilmore Duk Lee H

Asbury College Mathematics and CS Wilmore Duk Lee M

Asbury College Mathematics and CS Wilmore Ken Rietz H

MARYLAND

Villa Julie College Mathematics Stevenson Eileen McGraw P

MONTANA

Carroll College Math/Eng’ng/CS Helena Kelly Cline H

Carroll College Math/Eng’ng/CS Helena Kelly Cline P

Carroll College, MT Math/Eng’ng/CS Helena Mark Parker P

NEW JERSEY

Princeton University Mathematics Princeton Ingrid Daubechies H NEW YORK

Clarkstown HS South Mathematics West Nyack Mary Gavioli P

NORTH CAROLINA

Duke University Mathematics Durham Bianca Santoro P

VIRGINIA

James Madison University Math and Stat Harrisonburg Hasan Hamdan M Virginia Commonwealth U. Biomedical Engineering Richmond Dianne Pawluk H WASHINGTON

Seattle Pacific University Electrical Engineering Seattle Melani Plett P HONG KONG

City Univ. of Hong Kong Management Sciences Hong Kong Ligang Zhou P

Hong Kong Baptist Univ. Mathematics Kowloon Man Lai Tang P

INDONESIA

Institut Teknologi Bandung Mathematics Bandung Edy Soewono P Institut Teknologi Bandung Mathematics Bandung Kuntjoro Sidarto H

INSTITUTION DEPT. CITY ADVISOR C

CHINA Anhui

Anhui University Statistics Hefei Huayou Chen M

Anhui University Statistics Hefei Ligang Zhou H

Hefei University of Technology Applied Mathematiccs Hefei Yongwu Zhou H Hefei University of Technology Comp’l Mathematics Hefei Youdu Huang P University of Sci. & Tech. of China Gifted Young Hefei Yuanbo Zhang M University of Sci. & Tech. of China Statistics and Finance Hefei Hong Zhang M Beijing

Beihang University Electronic Engineering Beijing Wu Sanxing H Beijing Electron. Sci. & Tech. Inst. Basic Education Beijing Peiqun Wu H Beijing Institute of Technology Mathematics Beijing Hua-Fei Sun H Beijing Institute of Technology Mathematics Beijing Bing-Zhao Li P Beijing Institute of Technology Mathematics Beijing Guifeng Yan H Beijing Institute of Technology Mathematics Beijing Chunguang Xiong H Beijing Institute of Technology Mathematics Beijing Qun Ren P Beijing Institute of Technology Mathematics Beijing Xiuling Ma P Beijing Jiaotong University Applied Mathematics Beijing Jing Zhang H Beijing Jiaotong University Chemistry Beijing Yongsheng Wei H Beijing Jiaotong University Chemistry Beijing Yongsheng Wei P Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Bingtuan Wang H Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Zhouhong Wang H Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Zhouhong Wang H Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Shangli Zhang P

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Jun Wang H

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Xiaoming Huang H

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Hong Zhang M

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Pengjian Shang H Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Keqian Dong P

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Faen Wu P

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Xiaoxia Wang P Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Zhonghao Jiang H Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Liang Wang P Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Guozhong Liu P Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Guozhong Liu H

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Xun Chen P

Beijing Jiaotong University Mathematics Beijing Xun Chen P

Beijing Jiaotong University Physics Beijing Bingtuan Wang P

Beijing Jiaotong University Physics Beijing Bingtuan Wang H

Beijing Jiaotong University Statistics Beijing Weidong Li H

Beijing Language and Culture U. Computer Science Beijing Guilong Liu H Beijing Language and Culture U. Computer Science Beijing Yanbing Feng H Beijing Language and Culture U. Computer Science Beijing Yanbing Feng H Beijing Language and Culture U. Information Sciences Beijing Xiaoxia Zhao M Beijing Language and Culture U. Information Sciences Beijing Xiaoxia Zhao P Beijing Language and Culture U. Information Sciences Beijing Ping Yang H Beijing Normal University Mathematical Sciences Beijing Zhengru Zhang H Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Applied Mathematics Beijing Zuguo He H Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Applied Physics Beijing Jinkou Ding P Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Applied Physics Beijing Jinkou Ding P Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Communication Eng’ng Beijing Zuguo He H Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. CS and Technology Beijing Hongxiang Sun P Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Economics and Mgmt Beijing Tianping Shuai M Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Electronic Engineering Beijing Qing Zhou O Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Electronics Info. Eng’ng Beijing Xinchao Zhao H Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Information Engineering Beijing Wenbo Zhang H

INSTITUTION DEPT. CITY ADVISOR C

Beijing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Information Engineering Beijing Wenbo Zhang P Beijing Univ. of Astro. & Aero. Computer Science Beijing Hongying Liu H Beijing University of Chem. Tech. Chemistry Science Beijing Kaisu Wu P

Beijing University of Chem. Tech. Mathematics Beijing Damin Liu H

Beijing University of Chem. Tech. Mathematics Beijing Wenyan Yuan H Central Univ. of Finance and Econ. Applied Mathematics Beijing Xiaoming Fan P Central Univ. of Finance and Econ. Applied Mathematics Beijing Zhaoxu Sun M Central Univ. of Finance and Econ. Applied Mathematics Beijing Xianjun Yin H Central Univ. of Finance and Econ. Applied Mathematics Beijing Donghong Li H China University of Geosciences Information Technology Beijing Zhaodou Chen H China University of Geosciences Information Technology Beijing Zhaodou Chen H China University of Geosciences Mathematics Beijing Guangdong Huang P

China University of Geosciences Mathematics Beijing Yan Deng P

China University of Geosciences Mathematics Beijing Yan Deng P

China University of Geosciences Mathematics Beijing Linlin Zhao P

Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Biomaths H

Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Biomaths M

Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Statistics H Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Statistics H Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Biostatistics H Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Biostatistics H

Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Sciences H

Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Sciences H

Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Biosciences H

Peking U., Health Sciences Ctr Mathematics Beijing PKU Maths P

Peking University Extracurricular Activities Beijing Mingming Yu H

Peking University Microelectronics Beijing Yuan Wang M

Peking University Physics Beijing Yuxin Liu M

Peking University Probability and Statistics Beijing Minghua Deng H

Peking University Sci. and Eng’ng Computing Beijing Peng He H

Peking University Yuanpei College Beijing Liman Sha M

Tsinghua University Mathematical Sciences Beijing Mei Lu M

Tsinghua University Mathematical Sciences Beijing Mei Lu P

Tsinghua University Mathematical Sciences Beijing Jinxing Xie P

U. of Int’l Business and Econ. Int’l Trade and Econ. Beijing Baomin Dong H U. of Int’l Business and Econ. Int’l Trade and Econ. Beijing Baomin Dong P Chongqing

Chongqing University Applied Chemistry Chongqing Zhiliang Li P

Chongqing University Applied Mathematics Chongqing Renbin He M

Chongqing University Infor. and Comp’l Science Chongqing Qu Gong P Chongqing University Information and Comp’l Sci. Chongqing Jian Xiao M

Chongqing University Software Engineering Chongqing Bin Cai P

Southwest University Statistics Chongqing Xuegao Zheng P

Southwest University Statistics Chongqing Jianjun Yuan H

Third Military Medical Univ. Basic Medicine Chongqing Wanchun Luo H

Third Military Medical Univ. Mathematics Chongqing Mingkui Luo P

Third Military Medical Univ. Mathematics Chongqing Mingkui Luo P

Fujian

Fujian Agricult. and Forestry U. Life Sciences Fuzhou Wu Long P

Fujian Normal University Computer Science Fuzhou Shenggui Zhang P

Xiamen University Mathematics Xiamen Li Shiyin H

Guangdong

Jinan University Computer Science Guangzhou Chuanlin Zhang H

Jinan University Mathematics Guangzhou Daiqiang Hu H

Jinan University Mathematics Guangzhou Shizhuang Luo M

INSTITUTION DEPT. CITY ADVISOR C

Jinan University, Zhuhai Coll. Computer Science Zhuhai Z.-W. Wang H Jinan University, Zhuhai Coll. Math. Modeling Zhuhai Yuanbiu Zhang P Jinan University, Zhuhai Coll. Math, Modeling Zhuhai Yuanbiu Zhang M Jinan University, Zhuhai Coll. Mathematics Zhuhai YuanBiao Zhang M Jinan University, Zhuhai Coll. Mathematics Zhuhai YuanBiao Zhang H Jinan University, Zhuhai Coll. Packaging Engineering Zhuhai Y.-B. Zhang H Jinan University, Zhuhai Coll. Packaging Engineering Zhuhai Zhiwei Wang M Shenzhen Polytechnic Industrial Training Center Shenzhen Tianlin Lei P Shenzhen Polytechnic Mech’l and Electrical Eng’ng Shenzhen Kanzhen Chen H South China Agricultural Univ. Software Technology Guangzhou YanKe Zhu M South China Agricultural Univ. Software Technology Guangzhou YanKe Zhu H South China Agricultural Univ. Mathematics Guangzhou QingMao Zeng H South China Normal Univ. Applied Mathematics Guangzhou Ding WeiJian M South China Normal Univ. Applied Mathematics Guangzhou Liu ShenQuan M South China Normal Univ. Applied Mathematics Guangzhou Liu ShenQuan H South China Normal Univ. Info. Sci. and Computation Guangzhou Liling Xie H

South China Normal Univ. Mathematics Guangzhou Shaohui Zhang H

South China Normal Univ. Mathematics Guangzhou Xiuxiang Liu M

Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) Univ. Dept of Earth Sciences Guangzhou ZuoJian Yuan H Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) Univ. Mathematics Guangzhou XiaoLing Yin P Hebei

North China Electric Power U. Mathematics & Physics Baoding HUIFENG SHI H Heilongjiang

Harbin Engineering University Applied Mathematics Harbin Zhu Lei M Harbin Engineering University Applied Mathematics Harbin Zhu Lei P Harbin Engineering University Information and CS Harbin Yu Fei H Harbin Engineering University Information and CS Harbin Yu Fei M

Harbin Engineering University Mathematics Harbin Shen Jihong H

Harbin Engineering University Mathematics Harbin Shen Jihong H

Harbin Engineering University Mathematics Harbin Luo Yuesheng H

Harbin Institute of Technology Computer Science Harbin Jin Wu H

Harbin Institute of Technology Env’l Sci. & Eng’ng Harbin Tong Zheng H Harbin Institute of Technology Env’l Sci. & Eng’ng Harbin Tong Zheng P Harbin Institute of Technology Management Sci. & Eng’ng Harbin Hong Ge H Harbin Institute of Technology Management Sci. & Eng’ng Harbin Xuefeng Wang M Harbin Institute of Technology Management Sci. & Eng’ng Harbin Xuefeng Wang P

Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Xilian Wang P

Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Xilian Wang H

Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Shouting Shang H Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Baodong Zheng P Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Guanghong Jiao H

Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Boping Tian P

Harbin Institute of Technology Networking Harbin Xiaoping Ji H

Harbin Institute of Technology Computer Science Harbin Zheng Kuang H Harbin Institute of Technology CS and Technology Harbin Lili Zhang P Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Chiping Zhang H Harbin Institute of Technology Mathematics Harbin Dongmei Zhang H Harbin Institute of Technology Shiyan School, Math. Harbin Xiaofeng Shi M Harbin Univ. of Sci. & Tech. Mathematics Harbin Fengqiu Liu M Harbin Univ. of Sci. & Tech. Mathematics Harbin Shanqiang Li H Heilongjiang Inst. of Sci. & Tech. Mathematics and Mechanics Harbin Yajiang Zhang H North East Agricultural Univ. Electric Engineering Harbin YaZhuo Zhang P North East Agricultural Univ. Info. & Computing Sci. Harbin YaZhuo Zhang P North East Agricultural Univ. Info. & Computing Sci. Harbin Fangge Li P North East Agricultural Univ. Mechanical Engineering Harbin Fangge Li P

INSTITUTION DEPT. CITY ADVISOR C

Hubei

Huazhong U. of Sci. & Tech. CS and Technology Wuhan Ke Shi H

Huazhong U. of Sci. & Tech. CS and Technology Wuhan Ke Shi P

Huazhong U. of Sci. & Tech. Electronics and Info. Eng’ng Wuhan Yan Dong M Huazhong U. of Sci. & Tech. Ind’l and Mfg Systems Eng’ng Wuhan Liang Gao H

Wuhan University Mathematics and Statistics Wuhan Yuanming Hu P

Wuhan University Electronic Information Wuhan Hu Yuanming H

Hunan

Central South University Metallurgical Engineering Changsha Shihua Zhu H Central South University Engineering Management Changsha Zhoushun Zheng H Central South University Fire Fighting Engineering Changsha Kunnan Yi H Central South University Traffic Equipment & Info. Eng’ng Changsha Cheng Liu P Hunan University Mathematics & Econometrics Changsha Han Luo P Hunan University Mathematics & Econometrics Changsha Chuanxiu Ma H Hunan University Mathematics & Econometrics Changsha Shangjiang Guo H Hunan University Mathematics & Econometrics Changsha Liping Wang P National Univ. of Defense Tech. Mathematics and Systems Sci. Changsha Ziyang Mao O National Univ. of Defense Tech. Mathematics and Systems Sci. Changsha Ziyang Mao H National Univ. of Defense Tech. Mathematics and Systems Sci. Changsha Mengda Wu M National Univ. of Defense Tech. Mathematics and Systems Sci. Changsha Yi Wu M Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia University Mathematics Huhhot Haitao Han P

Jiangsu

China U. of Mining and Tech. CS and Technology Xuzhou Jiang Shujuan M

China U. of Mining and Tech. Mathematics Xuzhou Zhou Shengwu H

China U. of Mining and Tech. Mathematics Xuzhou Zhang Xingyong M

China U. of Mining and Tech. Mathematics Xuzhou Wu Zongxiang H

Nangjing University Intensive Instruction Nanjing Mingwen Xiao H

Nanjing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Mathematics and Physics Nanjing Qiu Zhonghua H Nanjing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Mathematics and Physics Nanjing Ye Jun H Nanjing U. of Posts & Telecomm. Mathematics and Physics Nanjing LiWei Xu M Nanjing Univ. of Sci. & Tech. Applied Mathematics Nanjing Chungen Xu P Nanjing Univ. of Sci. & Tech. Applied Mathematics Nanjing Yongshun Liang P

Nanjing Univ. of Sci. & Tech. Mathematics Nanjing Jun Zhang H

Nanjing University Mathematics Nanjing Huang Hua P

Nanjing University Mathematics Nanjing Huikun Jiang H

Nanjing University Mathematics Nanjing Huikun Jiang M

Nanjing University Mathematics Nanjing Weihua Huang P

PLA University of Sci. & Tech. Applied Mathematics & Phys. Nanjing Tian Zuowei H PLA University of Sci. & Tech. Institute of Meteorology Nanjing Zheng Qin P PLA University of Sci. & Tech. Institute of Sciences Nanjing Shi Hansheng H

Southeast University Mathematics Nanjing Enshui Chen P

Southeast University Mathematics Nanjing Enshui Chen P

Southeast University Mathematics Nanjing Zhizhong Sun H

Southeast University Mathematics Nanjing Rui Du P

Southeast University Sci. & Tech. Office Nanjing Zhiqiang Zhang H Southeast University Sci. & Tech. Office Nanjing Zhiqiang Zhang P

Southeast Univ. at Jiulonghu Mathematics Nanjing Daoyuan Zhu P

Southeast Univ. at Jiulonghu Mathematics Nanjing Feng Wang P

Southeast Univ. at Jiulonghu Mathematics Nanjing Qibao Jiang P

Xuzhou Institute of Tech. Mathematics Xuzhou Jiang Yingzi H

INSTITUTION DEPT. CITY ADVISOR C

Jilin

Beihua University Mathematics Jilin City Jiang Xiaowei P

Beihua University Mathematics Jilin City Feng Xiaoxia P

Beihua University Mathematics Jilin City Zhao Ming P

Jilin Teachers Inst. of Sci. & Tech. Basic Science Changchun Changchun Li P

Jilin University Mathematics Changchun Chunling Cao H

Jilin University Mathematics Changchun Shaoyun Shi P

Jilin University Mathematics Changchun Yongkui Zou P

Jilin University Mathematics Changchun Yao Xiuling H

Jilin University Mathematics Changchun Wang Guoming H

Jilin University Mathematics Changchun Wang Guoming H

Jilin University Mathematics Changchun Chunling Cao H

Liaoning

Dalian Fisheries University Mathematics Dalian Zhang Lishi P

Dalian Fisheries University Science Dalian Zhang Lifeng P

Dalian Maritime University Applied Mathematics Dalian Dong Yu P

Dalian Maritime University Mathematics Dalian Yun Zhang H

Dalian Maritime University Mathematics Dalian Naxin Chen P

Dalian Maritime University Mathematics Dalian Shuqin Yang P

Dalian Maritime University Mathematics Dalian Guoyan Chen P

Dalian Maritime University Mathematics Dalian Sheng Bi H

Dalian Maritime University Mathematics Dalian Xiaoyan Shen H

Dalian Maritime University Mathematics Dalian Xiaoyan Shen P

Dalian Nationalities University CS and Eng’ng Dalian Liu Rui P Dalian Nationalities University CS and Eng’ng Dalian Xiangdong Liu H Dalian Nationalities University CS and Eng’ng Dalian Dejun Yan P Dalian Nationalities University Dean’s Office Dalian Liu Yan H

Dalian Nationalities University Dean’s Office Dalian Fu Jie P

Dalian Nationalities University Dean’s Office Dalian Hengbo Zhang H Dalian Nationalities University Dean’s Office Dalian Jinzhi Wang H Dalian Nationalities University Dean’s Office Dalian Jinzhi Wang P

Dalian Nationalities University Dean’s Office Dalian Xue Ye P

Dalian Nationalities University Innovation Education Ctr Dalian Rixia Bai H Dalian Nationalities University Innovation Education Ctr Dalian Xinwen Chen H Dalian Nationalities University Innovation Education Ctr Dalian Liu Yan P Dalian University Information Engineering Dalian Dong Xiangyu P

Dalian University Mathematics Dalian Tan Xinxin P

Dalian University Mathematics Dalian Liu Guangzhi H

Dalian University Mathematics Dalian Liu Zixin H

Dalian University Mathematics Dalian Zhang Cheng H

Dalian University Mathematics Dalian Liu Zixin H

Dalian University of Technology Applied Mathematics Dalian Mingfeng He H Dalian University of Technology Applied Mathematics Dalian Zhenyu Wu P Dalian University of Technology Applied Mathematics Dalian Yu Cai P Dalian University of Technology Applied Mathematics Dalian Mingfeng He M Dalian University of Technology Applied Mathematics Dalian Liang Zhang M Dalian University of Technology City Institute Dalian Hongzeng Wang P Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Lin Feng P Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Lin Feng P Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Wanwu Xi H Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Tao Sun P Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Tao Sun H Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Xinghua Geng H Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Lin Feng H Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Qiuhui Pan H Dalian University of Technology Innovation Experiment Dalian Tao Sun H