How to Teach This Book4
Unit 1 Cow Comforts9
Unit 2 Three Sisters15
Unit 3 Where Is Rick’s Café?21
Unit 4 The Knowledge27
Unit 5 Cards, Anyone?33
Unit 6 Not Just Women’s Work39
Unit 7 Get Moving to Music45
Unit 8 Excuse Me!51
Unit 9 Beware of the Internet57
Unit 10 A Natural Design63
Vocabulary Review 1(Units 1–10) 69
Unit 11 Smells Good!73
Unit 12 The Blood Moon79
Unit 13 After All These Years85
Unit 14 What Everywhere?94
Unit 15 EQ97
Unit 16 Becoming Beautiful103
Unit 17 How Tall Are You?109
Unit 18 Barefoot Parks115
Unit 19 Reading and Writing Online121
Unit 20 A New Horizon127
Vocabulary Review 2(Units 11–20) 133
Each unit in the Reading Discovery series is divided into nine parts. The following lesson plan is designed for a one-hour class period. For teachers with less available class time per unit, certain parts of the sample lesson plan may be omitted or shortened as necessary.
Pre-Reading (5 minutes)
Have students read the questions and write short answers. Writing the answers in complete sentences is not necessary. Next, divide the class into small groups of 3-5 students per group. Students share their answers in their groups. A group agreement is not required for the answers, as these answers are designed to activate the student’s background knowledge of the given topic. If time
allows, have some of the groups share answers to specific questions. Record useful related vocabulary on the board and discuss how the vocabulary may be related to the reading.
Vocabulary Preview (10 minutes)
Have students complete the exercise by reading the sample sentences silently to themselves and then matching each underlined vocabulary word with the correct definition or picture directly across from the sentences. Check the answers together as a class by asking one student to read the sentence and then give her/his answer.
While checking the answers, spend a few
minutes reviewing and extending students’ understanding of the words. Ask the class to brainstorm alternative definitions of words or additional forms of the word. Have the class generate new sentences for words or predict how the word might be used in the reading passage. This activity will help students recall the target vocabulary as they continue throughout the unit.
Reading (10 minutes)
Set a time limit for students to complete the reading and work through the Reading Comprehension and Language Practice activities. At the end of the allotted time, have students work together in pairs to check their answers to both of the activities. In cases where students do not agree on an answer, have the pairs
refer back to the reading to show support for their answers. In this way, students help each other to clarify certain points about the reading. When the majority of students have finished checking their answers, check the answers together as a class. Encourage students to refer back to the reading to point out correct information for any incorrect answers.
Listening (5 minutes)
Have students read the questions for the listening exercise. After listening to the recording, students should choose the best answer based on what they hear. Play the recording a second time, and have students complete the note-taking activity in part B. While the answers for part A and B are being
checked, students can also refer to the transcripts at the back of the book. This is useful for highlighting key vocabulary items and idiomatic expressions.
Using the written transcripts, students may also practice fluency and pronunciation by reading aloud in pairs.
Summarizing (5 minutes)
Have students complete the Summarizing activity presented in the book. Students will need to synthesize information from both the reading and listening content of the unit in this activity. They may check their answers together in pairs before reviewing the answers together as a whole class.
Integrated Practice (10 minutes)
The Integrated Practice section includes a variety of activities for students to express their opinions and experiences. This section also provides students with additional practice for synthesizing information from different sources.
Students can then write their responses in short written paragraphs. Each Integrated Practice page is divided into three parts. Parts A and B should be completed as a class. The writing activity for part C may be completed in class as time allows or completed as homework.
Vocabulary and Idiom Review (5 minutes)
Set a time limit of 2 or 3 minutes for students to work through the Vocabulary and Idiom Review exercise on their own. At the end of the allotted time, have students work together in pairs to check their answers. When they do not agree on an answer, have the pairs highlight key words or grammatical structures that bring them closer to the correct answer. In this way, students help each other to clarify confusing points about vocabulary and grammar. Check the answers as a whole to make sure everyone has the correct answer for
If time allows, focus students on the word form exercise “B.” After determining the correct form of the word to fill in the blank, ask students to brainstorm original sentences using the other word forms. For example, in Unit 1 of Reading Discovery 1, students read the sentence, “The scorpion has a lot of _____ on its legs.” The correct answer choice is “hair.” The other answer choices for this question are “hairy,” “hairless,” and
“haired.” From these words, students might come up with sentences like, “My dog is very hairy.” or
“A Manx cat is a hairless species of cat.”
General Teaching Strategies
Building Reading Fluency
The Reading Discovery series aims to increase students’ reading fluency while building on their accuracy in reading comprehension. Fluent readers may be defined as those with adequate comprehension (at least 70% accuracy) at an adequate reading rate (200+ words per minute). Having well-developed reading fluency is essential for good performance on reading-based exams as well as for enjoyable outside reading. Below are some suggested activities for developing reading fluency:
Have students read the passage silently all at the same time. Using a watch or clock, keep track of the time elapsed by writing it on the whiteboard or by using time cards. Teachers may want to keep track of the elapsed time in 5-10 second intervals.
When the students finish their reading, they look at the board or time card and record their personal reading time next to the passage. Teachers can use the reading time of earlier readings to rate progress through the duration of the reading course.
Reading fluency can also be developed by repeated reading of the same text.
Teachers may want to have the students re-read the previous day’s reading as both a review of the vocabulary presented and a further practice of their reading skills. A timed reading of this previously covered reading is also recommended.
Alternatively, setting a time limit (e.g. 4-5 minutes at first) on the reading is also possible. By having the students mark the place in the text that they reach in the given time, the students themselves can be made aware of their reading rate. Setting a time limit works particularly well when students are assigned texts to re-read multiple times (3-4 times for the same reading). In this way, they can see the improvement that they make with each reading.
As a component of re-reading passages, students can focus on developing their fluency with two versions of assisted reading. After the text has been listened to, a more proficient student is paired with a less fluent reader in a paired reading activity.
An overall time (usually 10-15 minutes) is allotted for the activity. Each student reads for a limited time, while the other listens. If a student reaches a difficult passage, the other student can take over reading. Students can also assist each other if they have difficulty with pronouncing words.
Choral readings provide an opportunity for students to read aloud in a non-stressful setting. A limited section of a reading text (usually a short paragraph) is used for students to practice stress and intonation of a previously read passage. With limited use, students can progress from recognizing words in short phrases, to increasing their awareness of the relationships of these words in a complete reading.
Look at the pictures and answer the questions.
1. When do you use the things in the pictures?
2. Which of them makes you feel good?
3. Which of them do you think makes a cow feel good?
Match each word with the correct meaning or picture.
1. After studying, I relax by listening to music. • • a.
2. I exercise more these days, so I am healthier. • • b. all the time; without
3. The chair is so comfortable, I can sleep in it. • • c. difficult; needing a lot of time, energy, or attention 4. When you boil milk, you have to constantly • • d. in better shape
5. If there are too many options, it is hard to • • e. nice for the body; giving
make a choice. a good feeling
6. Working with animals is a demanding job. • • f. possible things to choose
Milk. Not only do we drink it or take it in our coffee, but we also make many different things from it: ice cream, butter, and cheese, to name but a few.
And it seems that people are drinking more milk than ever these days.
Around the world, studies show that people are drinking 20 percent more milk than a few years ago. As you might imagine, this is quite demanding on milk cows. Farmers are constantly trying to find ways to improve the yield of milk from their cows, and they have found that happy cows produce more milk.
If you are like most people, listening to your favorite music and sitting in a comfortable chair relaxes you. Actually, what is true for most people is also true for cows! Milk cows need to lie down twelve to fourteen hours a day. Cows that do this are healthier and produce more milk. Unfortunately, most cows have to lie on the cold, hard dirt or concrete floor of their stalls. However, thanks to scientists in Europe, some cows now have another option—the cow water bed! These water-filled mattresses can be put on the ground of cow stalls, providing a soft place for cows to lie on. Cows seem to love this added comfort. One farmer found that within two weeks of putting in the water beds, his milk production went up by 20 percent!
Giving cows a comfortable place to lie down is not the only way to make them more comfortable. Psychologists in England have been studying the effect of music on milk production. By playing slow and fast music to cows while they were being milked, psychologists found that the yield of cows listening to slow music was higher.
“It relaxes the cows in much the same way as it relaxes humans,” said Dr. Adrian North, who carried out the study. What was at the top of the cows’ playlist? Beethoven’s pastoral symphony.
12 concrete a mixture of cement, sand, and gravel
12 stall a small space or room where an animal is kept
13 mattress a thick cushion; the part of a bed that is comfortable to lie on
18 psychologist a person who studies the human mind and how different situations affect emotions and behavior
23 pastoral describing a peaceful life in the country
23 symphony a long piece of music for an orchestra
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 327 words
Choose the best answers.
1. What is the main idea of this reading?
a. Cows are very much like people. b. Happy cows make more milk.
c. One cow has a very comfortable life. d. Scientists are studying how cows relax.
2. Which of the following is true according to the reading?
a. Beds for cows should be made of dirt. b. Cows can sleep in water.
c. Cows sleep while standing. d. Many cow stalls have concrete floors.
3. What does the word “yield” in line 6 of the reading refer to?
a. Allow b. Amount c. Be careful d. Surrendering 4. What kind of music do cows seem to enjoy?
a. Classical music b. Fast country music c. Piano music d. Rock music
A. Circle the correct expressions. Then, go back and underline the expressions in the reading passage.
1. Getting a haircut is at (the top of / carry out) my list of things to do today.
2. The company did not have enough money to (carry out / name but a few) the project.
3. Great composers include Beethoven, Mozart, and Chopin, to (the top of / name but a few).
B. Fill in the blanks with the correct phrases.
1. _______________ true for people _______________ true for animals.
2. _______________ are cow water beds softer, _______________ they are warmer for cows in winter.
3. _______________ do cows enjoy the music, _______________ other farm animals seem to like it.
4. _______________ important for some students to learn _______________ important for all students in the class to learn.
Not only . . . but also What is . . . is also
a. Were studied by Dr. North
b. Always sleep in warm, quiet stalls
c. Were not the first animals that farmers played music to d. Are more comfortable on water beds
e. Eat better when listening to music
f. Produce more when listening to slow music
g. Were the first animals that farmers played music to
Based on the previous reading passage and listening section, complete the chart.
One sentence is NOT true.
A. Listen and choose the correct answer.
How does the woman feel about using this method for chickens?
a. She likes organic food. b. She doesn’t really like it.
c. She thinks it’s great. d. She doesn’t believe in it.
B. Listen again and answer the questions. Answers do not need to be in complete sentences.
1. What were the first animals that farmers _______________________________
played music to?
2. Where did they develop this method? _______________________________
3. What does the music make the animals do? _______________________________
4. What is the result of this? _______________________________
5. What is the benefit of using this method? _______________________________
TOPIC Techniques for Concentration
B. Talk about how you concentrate with a partner.
1. Do you ever do homework while listening to music? Does it help you concentrate?
2. What are things that help you concentrate or be more productive?
3. What are things that break your concentration or make you unproductive?
A. Listen to two people talk about how they concentrate. Match the three pictures that go together.
1. What do you do when you have a lot of homework to do in a short amount of time? 2. Why do you do this? 3. What helps you to concentrate? 4. What do you do when you start to get tired from studying?
When I have a lot of homework to do in a short amount of time, I go to the library. I go there because I feel like other people there are studying, too. It helps motivate me. It is easy to concentrate in the library because it is quiet. If I start to get tired from studying, I go outside and walk around the library a few times. The fresh air helps wake me up.
C. Write your own short paragraph by answering the questions. Use complete sentences.
A quiet room Listen to music
Work at home
Make a list Free to walk around
that go together.Track 3
Speaker #1: _____ _____ _____ Speaker #2: _____ _____ _____
A. Choose the best words or phrases to fill in the blanks.
1. Twenty-five ____________ equals ¼.
a. yield b. percent c. symphony d. produce
2. In order to ____________, you need to close your eyes and take deep breaths.
a. relax b. imagine c. improve d. option
3. Firefighters have physically ____________ jobs.
a. comfortable b. unfortunate c. demanding d. pastoral
4. ____________ have special ____________.
a. Water beds/mattresses b. Floors/dirt c. Concrete/stalls d. Farmers/cows
5. I’m not sure, but you ____________ want to go home early because of the snowstorm.
a. constantly b. might c. should d. seem
6. Caroline just saw a movie about a girl with five horses. Now, she wants to go horseback riding ____________.
a. more than ever b. the only way c. an added comfort d. around the world
7. We ____________ our flowers grow better if we water them around the same time every day.
a. take it in b. to name but a few c. have found that d. carry out
B. Choose the correct word forms.
1. Some people say drinking too much milk is bad for your ____________.
a. health b. healthy c. healthier d. unhealthy
2. I need to stand up from time to time because my chair is ____________.
a. comfort b. comforting c. comfortable d. uncomfortable 3. Cheese, yogurt, and butter are all ____________ that are made from milk.
a. produce b. production c. products d. producer