Economic Growth and  Development

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Dr. Charles Kwong

School of Arts and Social Sciences The Open University of Hong Kong

Macroeconomics Series (3): 

Economic Growth and  Development

y Define  clearly  the  concept  of  economic  growth  and  development  (Economic  growth  can  simply  be  defined  as  a  rise  in  GDP  or  GDP  per  capital.  Economic  development  is  a  broad  concept  encompassing  economic  growth  and  other  developmental  dimensions.  It  can  be  defined  as  “a  multidimensional  process  involving  major  changes  in  social  structure, popular attitudes, and national institutions, as well as  the  acceleration  of  economic  growth,  the  reduction  of 

Teaching Tips:

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z Tell  student  why  we  concern  economic  growth  and  development (about 3 billion of population is in a state of  underdevelopment.  The  world  population  is  about  6.8  billion in 2009).

z Use empirical data and cases as far as possible to illustrate  your discussion.

Teaching Tips:

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z Change in real GDP

z Change in real GDP per capita 

„ Real GDP per capita: A measure of living standard

„ Real GDP per worker: A measure of productivity

z Human Development Index: A comprehensive measure  of socioeconomic development

‹ Human Development Index (HDI) is developed by the United  Nations  Development  Program  (UNDP)  to  analyze  systematically  and  comprehensively  the  comparative  status  of socioeconomic development in different countries. 

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‹ The HDI attempts to rank all countries on a scale of 0 (lowest  human development) to 1 (highest human development) based  on three goals or end products of development: 

1. longevity as measured by life expectancy at birth;

2. knowledge as measured by a weighted average of adult literacy (two‐

thirds) and mean years of schooling (one‐third), and

3. standard  of  living as  measured  by  real  per  capita  gross  domestic  product  adjusted  for  the  differing  purchasing  power  parity  (PPP) of  each  country’s  currency  to  reflect  cost  of  living  and  for  the  assumption  of  diminishing  marginal  utility  of  income  (well‐‐being  increases with income but at a decreasing rate). 

‹

Using  these  three  measures  of  development  and 

applying  a  formula  to  data  for  177  countries,  the  HDI 

ranks  countries  into  three  groups:  low  human 

de‐velopment  (0.0  to  0.499),  medium  human 

development  (0.50  to  0.799),  and  high  human 

development (0.80 to 1.0).

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Income Index

‹ adjusted  income  is  found  by  simply  taking  the  natural  log  of  current income. Then, to find the  income  index,  one  subtracts  the natural log  of  100  from  the  natural  log  of  current  income. 

Real per capita income could not possibly have been less than 

$100  PPP.  The  difference  gives  the  amount  by  which  the  country has exceeded this “lower goalpost.”

Income Index

‹ To put this achievement in perspective, consider it in relation to  the  maximum  that  a  country  could  reasonably  aspire  to  over  the coming generation. The UNDP takes this at $40,000 PPP. So  we  then  divide  by  the  difference  between  the  log  of  $40,000  and  the  log  of  $100  to  find  the  country’s  relative  income  achievement.  This  gives  each  country  an  index  number  that  ranges  between  0  and  1.  For  example,  for  the  case  of  Bangladesh,  whose  2004  PPP  GDP  per  capita  was  $1,870,  the  income index is calculated as follows:

Income index = [log (1,870) ‐log(100)]

= 0.49

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Income Index

‹ With  a  value  of  the  income  index  about  midway  through  the  maximum  and  minimum  points  (0.49  is  close  to  0.5),  for  the  case of Bangladesh, it indicates that income of $1,870, which is already enough to reach nearly halfway to the maximum value  that the index can take.

Life expectancy Index

‹ To  find  the  life  expectancy  (health  proxy)  index,  the  UNDP  starts  with  a  country’s  current  life  expectancy  at  birth  and  subtracts 25 years. The latter is the lower goalpost, the lowest that  life  expectancy  could  have  been  in  any  country  over  the  last generation.

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Life expectancy Index

‹ Then the UNDP divides the result by 85 years minus 25 years, or  60  years,  which  represents  the  range  of  life  expectancies  expected  over  the  previous  and  next  generations.  That  is,  it  is  anticipated  that  85  years  is  a  maximum  reasonable  life  expectancy  for  a  country  to  try  to  achieve  over  the  coming  gener‐ation.  For  example,  for  the  case  of  Bangladesh,  whose  population  life  expectancy  in  2004  was  63.3  years,  the  life  expectancy index is calculated as, follows:

Life expectancy Index = 63.3 ‐ 25

= 0.64 85 ‐ 25

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Adult Literacy Index

‹ The  education  index is  made  up  of  two  parts,  with  two‐thirds  weight  on  literacy  and  one‐third  weight  on  school  enrollment. 

Because gross school enrollments can exceed 100% (because of  older students going back to school), this index is also capped at  100%.  For  the  case  of  Bangladesh,  adult  lit‐eracy  is  estimated  (rather uncertainly) at 41 %, so

Adult Literacy Index = 41.0 ‐ 0

= 0.41 100 ‐ 0

(4.3)

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Adult Literacy Index

‹ For the gross enrollment index, Bangladesh estimates that 57% 

of  its  primary,  secondary,  and  tertiary  age  population  are  enrolled in school, so the country receives the following value:

Gross enrollment index = 57 ‐ 0 = 0.57 100 ‐ 0

(4.4)

Adult Literacy Index

‹ Then, to get the overall education index, the adult literacy index  is  multiplied  by  two‐thirds  and  the  gross  enrollment  index  is  multiplied  by  one‐third.  This  choice  reflects  the  view  that  literacy  is  the  fundamental  characteristic  of  an  educated  per‐son. In the case of Bangladesh, this gives us

(4.5) Education 

index = 2 (adult literacy index) + 1 (gross enrollment  index)

3 3

= 2 (0.41) + 1 (0.57) = 0.46

3 3

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Final Index

In the final index, each of the three components receives equal, or  one‐third, weight. Thus

HDI = 1 (income  index) +

1 (life expectancy  index) +  

1 (education  index) 

3 3 3

HDI = 1

(0.49) + 1

(0.64) + 1

(0.46)  = 0.53 

3 3 3

For the case of Bangladesh,

(4.6)

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Advantages of HDI

‹ One major advantage of the HDI is that it does reveal that a country  can do much better than might be expected at a low level of income  and that substantial income gains can still accomplish relatively little  in human development.

‹ Further,  the  HDI  points  out  clearly  that  disparities  in  income  are  greater  than  disparities  in  other  indicators  of  development,  at  least  health  and  education  measures.  Moreover,  the  HDI  reminds  us  that by development we clearly mean broad human development, not just  higher income. Many countries, such as some of the higher‐income oil  producers,  have  been  said  to  have  experienced  “growth  without  development.”

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Advantages of HDI

‹ Health and education are inputs into the national production function  in  their  role  as  components  of  human  capital,  meaning  productive  investments  embodied  in  persons.  Improvements  in  health  and  education  are  also  important  development  goals  in  their  own  right.  

We cannot easily argue that a nation of high‐income individuals who  are  not  well  educated  and  suffer  from  significant  health  problems  that  lead  to  their  living  much  shorter  lives  than  others  around  the  globe has achieved a higher level of development than a low‐income  country  with  high  life  expectancy  and  wide‐spread  literacy.  A  better  indicator of development disparities and rankings might be found by  including  health  and  education  variables  in  a  weighted  welfare  measure rather than by simply looking at income levels, and the HDI  offers one very useful way to get at this.

Criticisms of the HDI

‹ One  is  that  gross  enrollment  in  many  cases  overstates  the  amount of schooling because in many countries a student who  begins  primary  school  is  counted  as  enrolled  without  considering whether the student drops out at some stage.

‹ Equal  (one‐third)  weight  is  given  to  each  of  the  three  components, which clearly has some value judgment behind it,  but  it  is  difficult  to  determine  what  this  is.  Note  that  because the variables are measured in very different types of units, it is  difficult even to say precisely what equal weights mean.

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Criticisms of the HDI

‹ Finally, there is no attention to the role of quality. For example,  there  is  a  big  difference  between  an  extra  year  of  life  as  a  healthy,  well‐functioning  individual  and  an  extra  year  with  a  sharply limited range of capabilities (such as being confined to bed).  Moreover,  the  quality  of  schooling  counts,  not  just  the  number of years of enrollment. Finally, it should be noted that  while  one  could  imagine  better  proxies  for  health  and  education, measures for these variables were chosen partly on  the criterion that sufficient data must be available to include as  many countries as possible.

Some further remarks

‹ Table  2.4  shows  the  Human  Development  Index  2004  data  for  a  sample  of  25  developed  and  developing  nations  ranked  from  low  to high human development (column 3) along with their respective real  GDP per capita (column 4) and a measure of the differential between  the GDP per capita rank and the HDI rank (column 5). 

‹ Clearly, this is one of the critical issues for the HDI. If country rankings  did not vary much when the HDI is used instead of GDP per capita, the  latter would serve as a reliable proxy for socioeconomic development,  and there would be no need to worry about such things as health and  education indicators.

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Some further remarks

‹ We see from Table 2.4 that the country with the lowest HDI (0.311)  in  2004  was  Niger,  and  the  one  with  the  highest  (0.965)  was  Norway.

‹ It should be stressed that in the big picture, the HDI has a strong  tendency to rise with per capita income,as wealthier countries can  invest more in health and education, and this added human capital  raises  productivity.  But  what  is  so  striking  is  that  despite  this  expected  pattern,  there  is  still  such  great  variation  between  income and broader measures of well‐being. For example, Guinea  and Nigeria have essentially the same average HDI despite the fact  that real income is 89% higher in Guinea. 

Some further remarks

‹ Many  countries  have  an  HDI  significantly  different  from  that  predicted by their income. South Africa is a dramatic case: with an HDI of 0.653, it ranks just number 121. The GDP ranking of  South Africa is 55 (i.e. 55‐121 = ‐66). Despite a somewhat lower  income than South Africa, Chile ranks number 38 with an HDI of  0.859,  well  above  that  predicted  on  the  basis  of  its  income. 

Chile’s GDP ranking is 56 (i.e. 56‐38 = 18).

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Some further remarks

South Africa 121 0.653 11,192 -66

Chile 38 0.859 10,874 +18

Human Development Index for 23 Selected Countries (2004 Data)

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2.1 Productivity: Its Role and Determinants

A. Why Productivity Is So Important 1. Example: Robinson Crusoe 

a. Because he is stranded alone, he must catch his own fish, grow  his own vegetables, and make his own clothes.

b. His standard of living depends on his ability to produce goods  and services.

2. Definition  of  productivity:  the  amount  of  goods  and  services produced for each hour of a worker’s time.

3. A  country’s  standard  of  living  depends  on  its  ability  to  produce goods and services.

2.1 Productivity: Its Role and Determinants

B. How Productivity Is Determined 1. Physical Capital

a. Definition  of  physical  capital:  the  stock  of  equipment  and  structures that are used to produce goods and services.

b. Example:  Crusoe  will  catch  more  fish  if  he  has  more  fishing  poles.

2. Human Capital

a. Definition  of  human  capital:  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  workers acquire through education, training, and experience.

b. Example: Crusoe will catch more fish if he has been trained in 

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2.1 Productivity: Its Role and Determinants

B. How Productivity Is Determined 3. Natural Resources

a. Definition  of  natural  resources:  the  inputs  into  the  production  of  goods  and  services  that  are  provided  by  nature, such as land, rivers, and mineral deposits.

b. Example:  Crusoe  will  have  better  luck  catching  fish  if  there is a plentiful supply around his island.

c. Are  Natural  Resources  a  Limit  to  Growth? Empirical  evidence points out that as the population has grown over  time, we have discovered ways to lower our use of natural  resources.    Thus,  some  economists  are  not  so  worried  about shortages of natural resources.

2.1 Productivity: Its Role and Determinants

B. How Productivity Is Determined 4. Technological Knowledge

a. Definition of technological knowledge: society’s  understanding of the best ways to produce goods and  services.

b. Example: Crusoe will catch more fish if he has invented a  better fishing lure.

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2.1 Productivity: Its Role and Determinants

C. For Teachers Only:  The Production Function 1. A production function describes the relationship 

between the quantity of inputs used in production and  the quantity of output from production.

2. The production function generally is written like this:

where Y  output, L   quantity of labor, K  quantity  of physical capital, H  quantity of human capital, N   quantity of natural resources, Areflects the available  production technology, and F  is a function that  shows how inputs are combined to produce output.

Y = A F(L, K, H, N)

2.1 Productivity: Its Role and Determinants

C. For Teachers Only:  The Production Function 3. Many production functions have a property called 

constant returns to scale.

a. This property implies that as all inputs are doubled, output  exactly double.

b. This implies twill hat the following must be true:

where x 2 if inputs are doubled.

xY = A F(xL, xK, xH, xN)

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2.1 Productivity: Its Role and Determinants

C. For Teachers Only:  The Production Function

c. This also means that if we want to examine output per  worker we could set x  1/L and we would get the  following:

This shows that output per worker depends on the  amount of physical capital per worker  K/L , the amount  of human capital per worker  H/L , and the amount of  natural resources per worker  N/L .

Y/L = A F(1, K/L, H/L, N/L)

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

A. The Importance of Saving and Investment

1. Because capital is a produced factor of production, a society  can change the amount of capital that it has.

2. However, there is an opportunity cost of doing so; if  resources are used to produce capital goods, fewer goods  and services are produced for current consumption.

Figure 1

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

A. The Importance of Saving and Investment 3. Figure 1 shows economic growth rates and 

investment amounts of 15 countries for 1960 to  1991.

a. Countries that devote a large share of GDP to investment  tend to have high growth rates.

b. However, from the data given it is difficult to determine  cause and effect.

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

B. Diminishing Returns and the Catch‐Up Effect

1. Definition of diminishing returns: the property whereby  the benefit from an extra unit of an input declines as the  quantity of the input increases.

a. As the capital stock rises, the extra output produced from an  additional unit of capital will fall.

b. Thus, if workers already have a large amount of capital to  work with, giving them an additional unit of capital will not  increase their productivity by much.

c. In the long run, a higher saving rate leads to a higher level of productivity and income, but not to higher growth rates in 

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

B. Diminishing Returns and the Catch‐Up Effect

2. An important implication of diminishing returns is the  Catch‐Up Effect.

a. Definition of catch‐up effect: the property whereby countries  that start off poor tend to grow more rapidly than countries  that start off rich.

b. When workers have very little capital to begin with, an  additional unit of capital will increase their productivity by  a great deal.

c. This helps explain why  referring to Figure 1  South Korea  had a growth rate more than three times larger than the  United States even though both countries devoted a similar  share of GDP to investment.

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

C. Investment from Abroad

1. Saving by domestic residents is not the only way for a  country to invest in new capital.

2. Investment in the country by foreigners can also  occur  e.g. China .

a. Foreign direct investment occurs when a capital  investment is owned and operated by a foreign entity.

b. Foreign portfolio investment occurs when a capital 

investment is financed with foreign money but operated by  domestic residents.

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

C. Investment from Abroad

3. Some of the benefits of foreign investment flow back  to foreign owners.  But the economy still experiences  an increase in the capital stock, which leads to higher  productivity and higher wages.

4. The World Bank is an organization that tries to  encourage the flow of investment to poor countries.

a. The World Bank obtains funds from developed countries  such as the United States and makes loans to less‐developed  countries so that they can invest in roads, sewer systems,  schools, and other types of capital.

b. The World Bank also offers these countries advice on how  best to use these funds.

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

D. Education

1. Investment in human capital also has an opportunity  cost.

a. When students are in class, they cannot be producing goods  and services for consumption.

b. In less‐developed countries, this opportunity cost is  considered to be high; as a result, children often drop out of  school at a young age.

2. Because there are positive externalities in education,  the effect of lower education on the economic growth  rate of a country can be large.

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

D. Education

4. In the News: Promoting Human Capital

a.Many young children in less‐developed countries work  because their families need the income.

b.Gary Becker has proposed that the governments of these  countries pay families to send their children to school rather  than to work. The government should provide financial  support to the parents who allow their children to attend  school regularly.

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

E.      Property Rights and Political Stability

1. Protection of property rights and promotion of  political stability are two other important ways that  policymakers can improve economic growth.

2. There is little incentive to produce products if there is  no guarantee that they cannot be taken.  Contracts  must also be enforced.

3. Countries with questionable enforcement of property  rights or an unstable political climate will also have  difficulty in attracting foreign  or even domestic  

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

F.      Free Trade

1. Some countries have tried to achieve faster economic  growth by avoiding transacting with the rest of the  world.

2. However, we know that trade allows a country to  specialize in what it does best and thus consume beyond  its production possibilities.

3. When a country trades wheat for steel, it is as well off as  it would be if it had developed a new technology for  turning wheat into steel.

4. The amount a nation trades is determined not only by  government policy but also by geography.

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

G.      Research and Development 

1. The primary reason why living standards have improved  over time has been due to large increases in 

technological knowledge.

2. Knowledge can be considered to be a public good.

3. Most governments in developed countries promotes the  creation of new technological information by providing  research grants and providing tax incentives for firms  engaged in research.

4. The patent system also encourages research by granting 

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

G.      Research and Development

5. Case Study: The Productivity Slowdown and Speedup a. From 1959 to 1973, output per hour worked grew at a rate of 

3.2 percent per year.  From 1973 to 1995, productivity grew by  only 1.5 percent per year.  Productivity accelerated again in  1995, growing by 2.6 percent per year over the next six years.

b. The causes of the changes in productivity growth are elusive.

c. It does not appear that this slowdown can be blamed on  decreases in physical capital or human capital.

d. Many economists believe that these changes have occurred as a  result of changes in the amount of technological innovation.

e. Figure 2 shows the average growth of real GDP per person in  the developed world since 1870.

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

G.      Research and Development

Figure 2

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

H.      Population Growth 

1. Stretching Natural Resources

a.Thomas Malthus  an English minister and early economic  thinker  argued that an ever‐increasing population meant that the  world was doomed to live in poverty forever.

b.However, he failed to understand that new ideas would be  developed to increase the production of food and other goods,  including pesticides, fertilizers, mechanized equipment, and new crop varieties.

2. Diluting the Capital Stock

a.High population growth reduces GDP per worker because rapid  growth in the number of workers forces the capital stock to be  spread more thinly.

b.Countries with a high population growth have large numbers of  school‐age children, placing a burden on the education system.

2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

H.     Population Growth 

3. Some countries have already instituted measures to  reduce population growth rates.

4. Policies that foster equal treatment for women  should raise economic opportunities for women  leading to lower rates of population.

5. Promoting Technological Progress

a. Some economists have suggested that population growth  has driven technological progress and economic 

prosperity.

b. In a 1993 journal article, economist Michael Kremer 

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2.2  Economic Growth and Public Policy

I. The Sachs Solution to the African Problem

1. This is an article that economist Jeffrey Sachs wrote  for The Economist  29 June 1996 .

2. Sachs points out that four factors can account for  Africa’s low growth rates:

a. Trade barriers b. Excessive tax rates c. Low savings rates

d. Adverse geographic and resource structural conditions  especially the high incidence of inaccessibility to the sea

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3.1 Trade-off between current and future consumption 3.2 Income distribution

• Consider two cases: Country A has 100 people and each of them earns annual incomes of $50,000 and the GDP of Country A is $5 million.

Country B also has 100 people and 10 of them earn annual income of

$500,000 and 90 suffer from possessing nothing. Which country have is better off?

• A choice between equity and efficiency

3.3 Resources exhaustion, pollution and sustainable development

• Sustainability refers to the balance economic growth and environment preservation. In economic terms, it is a balance between current and future economic growth.

• Sustainability emphasizes the importance of fulfilling the needs of current generation without compromising the needs of future generation.

• Another embedded meaning of sustainability is that the stock of overall assets should remain constant or rises over time.

3.4 GDP and economic well-being: shortcomings of the GDP?

• GDP measures both an economy’s total income and its total expenditure on goods and services.

• GDP per person tells us the income and expenditure level of the average person in the economy.

• GDP, however, may not be a very good measure of the economic well-being of an individual.

1. GDP omits important factors in the quality of life including leisure, the quality of the environment, and the value of goods produced but not sold in formal markets.

2. GDP also says nothing about the distribution of income.

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3.5 Case Study: International differences in GDP and the quality of life

1. Table 3 shows real GDP per person, life expectancy, adult literacy rates, and Internet usage for 12 countries.

2. In rich countries, life expectancy is higher and adult literacy and Internet usage rates are also high.

3. In poor countries, people typically live only into their 50s, only about half of the adult population is literate, and Internet usage is very rare.

GDP and the Quality of Life

The table shows GDP per person and three other measures of the quality of life for twelve major countries

Source: Human Development Report 2004, United Nations

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4.1 Catching up or not?

z Some newly industrializing countries (NICs), such as Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, recorded spectacular growth.

z The following table records the growth from 1973 to 1996, the year preceding the Asian financial crisis that started in 1997. In this table, you can see the average annual growth rate of the East Asian NICs was much higher than that of the industrialized countries in the West. Let me list the figures of some selected countries to illustrate the point.

4.1 Catching up or not?

Table 4.1 Annual growth rates for selected countries

Economy Annual growth (average) (percent)

Singapore 6.1

Hong Kong 5.1

China 5.4

S Korea 6.8

Indonesia 3.6

Thailand 5.6

Malaysia 4.0

Japan 2.5

USA 1.6

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4.1 Catching up or not?

z In the above table, Taiwan was not listed. From 1980 to 1990, the average annual GDP growth rate of Taiwan was 7.9%, so Taiwan’s growth rate was at least on a par with, if not greater than, the other East Asian NICs. You should note that the growth rate used for Taiwan was in GDP, not GNP. Although these measures are slightly different, we’ll treat them as roughly equivalent for our purposes here. Also, the period used for Taiwan was from 1980 to 1990, not 1973 to 1996, but it is still indicative of Taiwan’s overall economic growth.

Japan’s lower growth rate was due to its economic problems that started in 1990 and in fact still continue.

4.1 Catching up or not?

z South Korea and Singapore had about the same real GDP per capita as Sri Lanka and Bangladesh in 1960, but South Korea and Singapore surged ahead with higher growth rate over the next 30 years and Sri Lanka and Bangladesh lag far behind.

z However, for most of the developing countries, no clear evidence shows that low-income countries fall in the tendency of catching up.

z Then, why do some countries can achieve more rapid growth?

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¾ The figure plots real GDP per capita in 1960 against growth in real GDP  from 1960 to 2000 for several advanced countries.

¾ It is noted that richer countries, such as the US, grew slower than less rich  countries such as Japan, Ireland, and Spain.

• 4.1 Catching up or not?

• Catch up in more advanced countries

59

• 4.1 Catching up or not?

• Catch up in more advanced countries

Evidence of Catch-up in More Advanced Countries, 1960-2000

For the advanced countries shown in the diagram, GDP per capita growth has been more rapid for those that started from a lower level of GDP per capita. Thus, there has been catching up, as shown by the catch-up line drawn through the points.

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• 4.1 Catching up or not?

61

Catch‐up in the Whole World

¾ Figure 4 includes both DCs and LCDs.

¾ Very low income countries, such as Bangladesh and Ethiopia,  demonstrate very slow growth rate. Some high income  region/countries such as Hong Kong and South Korea are also  countries of high growth rates.

• 4.1 Catching up or not?

Catch‐up in the Whole World

Lack of Catch-up for Developing Countires, 1960-2000

Unlike the states in the United States or the advanced countries, there has been little tendency for poor countries to grow more rapidly than rich countries. The gap between rich and poor has not closed.

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4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs

1.Import-substituting industrialization (ISI)

The theoretical foundation of import substitution as a measure of industrialization may have first come from the ‘development economists’ in the 1940s and 1950s. Raul Prebisch of the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) under the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations is one of its representatives. These development economists felt that the LDCs were lagging far behind and there was no way for them to compete with the developed countries in trade unless international organizations and major industrial countries took extraordinary measures to help them. The only other way for developing countries was to hide behind a protective tariff and develop their own industry (Gilpin 2001, 308).

4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs 2.Export-oriented industrialization

The adoption of export-oriented industrial policy by the East Asian countries in the 1960s coincided with an explosion of world trade at that time. The GATT, which was established in 1948 to promote free trade, began bearing fruit. So the timing of the shift to EOI by these countries was just right. There are other reasons for these countries adopting the EOI policy. With the exception of South Korea, the other East Asian Dragons, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore, do not have large domestic markets. They have to export. Furthermore, there was great influence from the

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4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs 3. Foreign exchange rates

The manipulation of foreign exchange rates alluded to above is also an important policy some governments use to promote economic development. Developing countries are typically short of foreign currencies earned via exchange. They have to use it prudently. It is not uncommon for such countries to have two rates for foreign exchange. One is the official rate set by the government. The other is largely determined by market forces. The Central Bank of Taiwan, to take an example, introduced above, set two rates: one for imports and another for exports. For imports (usually raw materials, equipment, machines needed for productive enterprises), the rate was set higher, so that less foreign exchange would be spent. For exports, it was set lower. This was intended to make Taiwanese products more competitive in the world market.

4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs

4. Foreign direct investment (FDI) and technology transfers Developing countries lack both capital and technology, and

developed countries can provide both.

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4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs 5. Export processing zones

In this approach, a government identifies — after considering geography, marketing, transportation, power supply, labour supply and a host of other factors — and constructs export processing zones. All three words in the term ‘export processing zone’ are significant. First, it indicates an identifiable zone with definite boundaries. This zone is not considered to fall within the tariff territory of the national jurisdiction. What the industries do in the zone is to process either raw materials or components into finished or semi-finished products. After this processing is done, the manufacturers must export these products, i.e., not sell them within the tariff territory of the host country.

4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs

6. Research and development (R & D)

The R & D capability of enterprises is extremely important for the quality of their products and for future product development.

7. Industrial parks

Since R & D is so important, the NICs have emulated the developed countries in setting up industrial parks. As with export

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4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs 8. Developmental State Theory

1 prioritizes economic growth and production, as opposed to consumption and distribution, as the fundamental goals of state action

2 recruits a highly talented, cohesive, and disciplined economic bureaucracy on the basis of merit

3 concentrates bureaucratic talent in a guiding agency (for example Japan’s MITI) charged with the task of industrial transformation

4.2 The East Asia Miracle

Development Strategy of NICs 8. Developmental State

4 institutionalizes close links between bureaucratic and business elites in order to exchange information and promote cooperation on key decisions as a basis for effective policy- making (for example, targeting industrial growth areas)

5 insulates policy networks from day-to-day special interest pressures and growth-compromising demands

6 implements developmental policies by virtue of a mixture of institutionalized government-industry networks and public

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Gilpin, R. (2001) Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order,  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Human Development Index: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index

United Nations Development Program ‐ Human Development Report: 

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Mankiw, N G (2006), Principles of Economics, 4thedition, Thomson, South‐Western. Chapter 23,  25

Schiller, Bradley R. (2002), Essentials of Economics, 4thedition, McGraw Hill. Chapter 15 Stiglitz, Joseph E (1997), Principles of Microeconomics, 2ndedition, Norton. Chapter 21 Stiglitz, J. E. and Yusuf, S. (eds) (2001) Rethinking the East Asian Miracle, Oxford: Oxford  University Press and the World Bank

Taylor, John B (2004), Principles of Macroeconomics, 4thedition, Houghton Mifflin. Chapter 5, 7,  12, 16

Taylor, J. B. and Weerapana, A. (2010) Principles of Economics: Global Financial Crisis Edition,  Cengage Learning, pp. 770‐787.

Todaro, M. P. and Smith, S.C. (2009) Economic Development, Harlow: Addison Wesley, pp. 49‐56  and 485‐6.

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