Hudman’s Motivators of Travel

In document Manual on Module I Introduction to Tourism (Page 63-71)

Extended Activity

2) Hudman’s Motivators of Travel


People travel for improving their health. They would go for leisure and medical treatment to relax and entertain themselves. Natural landscapes, historical sites, coastline, spa and resort are the destinations of these travellers.


People travel because of curiosity, inquisitiveness and adventure. Politics, culture, public figures, physical features and disaster would attract these travellers.


People travel for sports to release their pressure and fantasize about being an athlete. Being a spectator could experience the atmosphere of the competition, and have social contributions such as connecting with other audience and meet new friends.


Vocation relates to pleasure because it could give routine life a break. People would try new things and participate in activities that would make them feel happy, such as visiting art museums, watching operas and gambling etc.

Religious and spiritual appreciation

People travel for spiritual needs. They visit religious headquarters usually because of religious reasons. In this way they could have stronger believe in their religion. On the other hand, many travellers gain satisfaction by appreciation of natural landscapes, art performances, and visiting museums and historical sites.

Professional and business

People travel for business such as scientific expeditions, business meetings, conventions and education.

Friends and relatives

People travel because they want to visit their friends and relatives; it shows their care of family and friends.

Roots syndrome

People travel to trace the root of their family or the culture of their homeland. Pedigree research


Many people travel for gaining respect from others and a satisfying social status because one with plenty of travel experience and knowledge of different countries is usually admired by others.

Table 3.2 – Hudman’s Motivators of Travel

3) The Push-and Pull Theory

In 1977, Dann, a U.S. academic, put forward the push-pull theory of travel motivations. He considered that travel behaviour was influenced by both push factors and pull factors.

People travel because they are “pushed” into making travel decisions by internal, psychological forces, and “pulled” by the external forces of the destination attributes.

Push factors

These are internal or intangible factors that lead to the formation of travel desires among potential tourists. Anything that can relieve and fulfill tourists’ desires can thus become a focus or target. In short, these are socio-psychological factors that motivate or create a desire to satisfy a need to travel. Therefore, under the influence of push factors, tourists who go travelling do not necessarily have specific, clear choices.

For example, tourists who hope to improve their relationships with family members don’t really care where they go, the key is to spend quality time together with family.

Pull factors

These are factors that influence where tourists go travelling. Pull factors are the attractiveness or

“drawing power” of the destination as perceived by the traveler, and they are likely help traveler to make an actual destination choice. Tourists form pull-type travel motivations on the basis of their perception, expectation and knowledge of destinations. Because of this, tourists who go travelling under the influence of pull factors always have a clear destination.

For example, a newly married couple may go to the sunshine and beaches of the Maldives to testify to their love, and will not choose other travel destinations.

Two comprehensive lists of push and pull factors as suggested by different scholars are provided in Table 3.3 and Table 3.4 as below:

Push and Pull Model of Tourism Motivation

Push factors Pull factors

Psychological Factors

(psychological motivations)

· Escape

· Rest and relaxation

· Prestige

· Health and fitness

· Adventure

· Social interaction

· Benefits

· Interests

· Self-esteem

Destinations Attributes and Type of Facilities


· Climate

· Historical sights

· Scenic beauty

· Sunshine

· Beaches

· Snow

· Cultural events

· Recreational opportunities

· Benefit expectations Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors

· Age, gender, income, education, family life-cycle and size, race/ethnic group, occupation, second home ownership

Market knowledge

Accessibility and Marketed Image

(perceptions and expectations)

· Formed negative or positive destination image

· Quality of services

· Quality of facilities

Table 3.3 – Push and Pull Model of Tourism Motivations

Source: Mahmood Khan, Michael Olsen and Turgut Var (1993) “VNR’s Encyclopedia of Hospitality and Tourism – “ Push and Pull model of tourism motivations” Motivation of Pleasure Travel and Tourism, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp798-810.

Interpretation of Push and Pull Factors Often Used in Travel Motivation Research

Push factors Pull factors

1. To see culture and history, admire beautiful 1. Tourism products, tourism charges 2. Increase knowledge 2. Distinctive lifestyles at one’s destination 3. Experience different lifestyles 3. Interesting nightlife

4. Fulfill one’s travel dreams 4. All kinds of good food 5. Visit family and friends 5. Convenient transport

6. Be together with family members or friends 6. Accommodation, sports facilities, and information 7. Establish friendships, develop relationships 7. Quality of service

8. Escape day-to-day life 8. Abundant historical and cultural resources, 9. Rest and relax body and mind 9. Safety

10. Relieve work pressure 10. International metropolises 11. Seek stimulation and excitement 11. Peace, hygiene, comfort 12. Physical challenges 12. Familiarity

13. Get close to and understand nature 14. See different things

13. It’s a good place to understand nature

Table 3.4 - Push and Pull Factors Often Used

Source: Extract from Wu Qing Jin, “A Study of Tourist Consumer Behaviour,” Tourism Education Publishing

- Push and Pull Theory in One’s Travel Experience

Figure 3.4 – The Roles of Push and Pull Factors in One’s Travel Experience

Source: Adapted from Du Jing Chuan and Zeng Ping’s translation of “Travel Relaxation”, Yunnan University Publishing House, p. 14, Figure 1.4

- Exercise:

Michel decides to spend HK$15,000 to travel to Bali, Indonesia in the summer holidays. But after discussing with her family and friends, she decides to give up on her Bali travel plans. What reasons spurred Michel to change her original decision?

Prior experience


Choice of destination

Go to destination Plan Other people’s

experience Media hype

Sightseeing Shopping Activities



Return home First-hand experience of the destination

Discussions Memories

Photographs &


Souvenirs Recollections

and memories

Expectations for and anticipation of the next trip

Budget Push factors:

Social interaction/ esteem/

prestige/ escape/ rest/

health/ personal basic needs…

Pull factors:

Weather/ safety/

politics/ economic conditions/ trend/

service quality…

Fulfill social needs/ esteem/


Activity 3.1

--- Questions for discussion

Recall your most recent travel experience, and write down in the table below the factors you took into account when you went travelling and when you decided on your travel destination.

Factors that influenced my decision to go travelling

Factors in my choice of travel destination

Finally, we will look at why people travel with respect to the concept of tourist flows.

The push and pull theory (as mentioned in the earlier section) can be used in explaining travel patterns, and travel patterns could be considered as tourist flows.

‘Tourist flows’ refers to the statistical measure of the volume and direction of movement of tourists into or out of a destination for a given period of time or as a trend.

It is a form of spatial interaction between two areas with the destination area containing a surplus of a commodity such as tourist attractions (pull factors) and the generating area having a deficit, or demand for that commodity (push factors).

Figure 3.5 – Model of Tourist Flows

Source: Leiper, 1990 (adopted from Cooper Chris, Fletcher John, Gilbert David, Wanhill Stephen, Tourism Principles and Practice, 2nd ed., Longman, 1998, p.5)

3.4. The Concept of Tourist Flows


region Tourist Destination

Region Departing Travellers

Returning Travellers Transit Route


- The Transit Route Region represents the time of travel to reach the destination and the intermediate places which may be visited along the way.

3.4.1. Factors Influencing Patterns of Tourist Flows

1) Macro Factors Influencing Patterns of Tourist Flows

In document Manual on Module I Introduction to Tourism (Page 63-71)